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THE SURVEY 



Vol. XL 
April, 191 8 — September, 19 18 



WITH INDEX 



<y 



ft j a//f 



New York 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc 

112 East 19 street 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, I 



NC. 



NATIONAL COUNCIL 

ROBERT W. DE FOREST, Chairman 



JANE ADDAMS Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL.... Washington 

RICHARD C. CABOT Boston 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE New York 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK Boston 

LTVINGSTON FARRAND Boulder 

SAMUEL S. FELS Philadelphia 

LEE K. FRANKEL New York 

JOHN M. GLENN New York 

C. M. GOETHE Sacramento 

WILLIAM E. HARMON New York 

WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego 
CHAS. D. NORTON, Treas. . . .New York 



MORRIS KNOWLES Pittsburgh 

ALBERT D. LASKER Chicago 

JOSEPH LEE Boston 

JULIAN W. MACK Chicago 

V. EVERIT MACY New York 

SIMON N. PATTEN Philadelphia 

HELEN S. PRATT New York 

JULIUS ROSENWALD Chicago 

A. G. SCATTERGOOD.. ...Philadelphia 

GRAHAM TAYLOR Chicago 

ELIOT WADSWORTH Washington 

LILLIAN D. WALD New York 

ALFRED T. WHITE Brooklyn 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Sec. .New York 



THE STAFF 

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

EDWARD T. DEVINE GRAHAM TAYLOR 

JANE ADDAMS 



I 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

PHILIP P. JACOBS 

ALEXANDER JOHNSON 

FLORENCE KELLEY 

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY 

JOHN IHLDER 

PORTER R. LEE 

ALICE HAMILTON 

KATE HOLLADAY CLAGHORN 

I. M. RUBINOW 



HEADQUARTERS STAFF 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG 
GRAHAM R. TAYLOR* 

JOHN A. FITCH 

WINTHROP D. LANE 

MARY CHAMBERLAIN 

BRUNO LASKER 
HERBERT K. CARTER 



♦On leave of absence attached to the American Embassy, Petrograd 



A JOURNAL of SOCIAL EXPLORATION 



Index 



volume xl 
April, 1918 — September, 1918 






The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a 
few cases under titles, except poems and book reviews, which are listed only 
under those headings. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under 
their subjects. The precise wording of titles has not been retained where ab- 
breviation or paraphrase has seemed more desirable. 



A 

Aboriginals, Australian, 17. 
Accidents, causes of industrial, 374. 
Adams, Bristow. Review of The Foundations 
of National Prosperity (by Ely and 
others), 70. 
Adams, Helen, 236. 
Addams, Jane, 251, 294. 
Adler, Felix, 457. . 

Portrait, 457. 
Africa, French North, 585. 
After Care of Infantile Paralysis, 306. 
Age, 460. 

Agriculture, army for restoration, 671. 
Alaska, education, 43. 
Alcohol. 

Dry Mondays (letter), 201. 

John Barleycorn near the end of his trail? 
(cartoons), 61. 

Liberty and (letter), 523. 

"Missed him" (cartoon), 18. 

Shipbuilding efficiency, 379. 

Wood alcohol, 609. 

See also Prohibition. 
Alien enemies, women, 548. 

Interned, 408. 

See also Foreign born ; Immigrants. 
Allen, W. H. Review of Flowers's What Every 

American Should Know About the War, 718 
Allies, at common table, 516 
Allinson, May. Review of Robinson's Voca- 
tional Education, 25. 
Almy, Frederic. Another dry state (letter), 
572. 

District committees (letter), 50. 

Poverty : evolutionists and revolutionists 
(letter), 299. 

Review of Bailey's Universal Service, 200. 
Alsatian girl (drawing), 421. 
Alsatian girl in Bastille Day parade (drawing), 

[441]. 
Alschuler, Samuel. Packing industries decision, 

35. 
Ambitions, the two (sculpture), [489]. 
American Academy of Political and Social 

Science, annual meeting, 162. 
American Association for Community Organiza- 
tion, 147. 
American Association for Labor Legislation, 162. 
American Association for Organizing Charity, 

712. 
American Button Co., 721. 
American City Planning Institute, convention 

resolutions, 408. 
American Convalescent Home Association, 236. 
American Federation of Labor, 287. 

Convention at St. Paul, 348. 

Report of St. Paul convention (Fitch), 363. 
American health movement for soldier and 

civilian, 89. 
American League to Aid Russia, 164, 372. 
American Medical Association, Chicago session, 

353. 
American Nurses' Association, 194. 
American Public Health Association, program 

for October meeting in Chicago, 676. 
Americanization, 394. 

Carnegie Corporation, 96. 

Court scenes, 393. 

Foreign-born women, program, 213. 

Further plans for study, 431. 

Massachusetts work, 309. 

San Francisco immigrants' program, 596. 

Training course at Cincinnati, 350. 
America's Army of Relief, 235. 
Amiens, 331. 

Amster, J. L., 63, 129, 196, 455. 
Anderson, Mary, 452. 
Andrews, J. B., 350. 
Anesakl, Masabasu, 139. 
Animals and soldiers, 131. 
Anophells, 296. 

Antl-loaflng law, 452, 453, 454. 
Anti-Saloon League, 59, 60, 61. 
"Anti-suffrage notes," 235. 
Antlers, Okla., 709. 
Appeals from young solicitors, 285. 
Arbitration, 270. 
Arbitrator (periodical), 647. 
Arbitrators, trial awards as aids, 208. 
Arizona, Loyalty Leaguers indicted, 226. 
Armenia and Turkey, 435. 
Armenian and Syrian Relief, 435. 
Army, U. S. Discipline, 568. 

Negro troops, 537. 

Nutrition problems, 294. 

Rationing in Europe, 573. 

Training camp theaters, 461. 
Army Medical Department, 277. 
Arnett, C. W., 320. 
Artman, C. E. Camp Liberty, 149. 
Athenaeum (London), 409. 
Atlantic City, 418. 



Australia. 

Aboriginals, care, 17. 

Land settlement systems for returning sol- 
diers, 313. 
Australia, South, 314. 
Austria, 261. 
Awards, trial, 268. 
Ayusawa, I. F. Review of Gulick's American 

Democracy and Asiatic Citizenship, 104. 



B 

Babies. 

Automobile in Cleveland for saving, 229. 

France, saving, 406. 

Philippines, 235. 

State quotas of lives to be saved, 18. 

Weighing, 405. 
Babson, R. W., 147. 
Bache-Denman case, 289. 
Bagdad on the Subicay. 673. 
Bairnsfather, Bruce, 340. 

Balch, Emily G. Review of Bassett's The Lost 
Fruits of Waterloo. 430. 

Review of books on world peace, 456. 

Review of Einstein's Inside Constantinople, 
430. 

Review of Lodge's The War and After, 377. 

Review of Magnus's Pros and Cons in the 
Great War, 543. 

Review of Schreiner's The Iron Ration, 543. 

Review of Smith's Militarism and Statecraft, 
355. 

Review of Thomas and Znanieckl's The Polish 
Peasant in Europe and America, 166. 

Review of two books on the meaning of the 
war. 670. 

Review of Von Freytag-Loringhoven's Deduc- 
tions from the World War, 477. 
Baldwin, F. S., 74. 
Baltimore, wages of women, 351. 
Banner Garment Co.. 118, 119. 
Barleycorn, John, 379. 
Barmaids, 295. 
Barnes, C. B., 350, 454. 
Barnes, G. N., 469. 

Barnes, H. E. Review of Schley's Modern Euro- 
pean Civilization, 297. 
Barr, W. H., 293. 
Baruch, B. M., 698. 
Baruch, Simon, 321. 
Basketmakers, 611. 
Bastille Day. 

Alsatian girl In parade (drawing), [441]. 

Celebration in New York, 447. 
Bathing, 320, 677. 
Bayonne, N. J., Rockefeller Plan, 46. 
Beard, C. A. J. P. Mitchel (obit.), 422, 436. 
Beauvals, 331. 

Beer. See Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Belgium, 337. 

Commission studying American methods, 461. 
Beloit. Wis., 227. 
Benjamin, P. L., 432. 

Tuberculosis statistics (letter), 571. 
Berger, Jane C. Night work for boys (letter), 

676. 
Berkeley, Cal., 139. 

Berwick, Edward. An unnoted centenary (let- 
ter), 173. 
Besom, Nancy V., 194. 
Bethlehem Steel Company, 545. 
Bevan, A. D., 353. 
Bewley bill, 73. 
Bezanson, Anna, 297. 
Bicknell, E. P., 344. 
Biebuyck Albert, 337. 
Big Brother movement, 555. 
Billings, Frank, 353-354. 
Bills, paying, 647. 

Bing, A. M. The nerve center of war produc- 
tion, 345. 
Birmingham, Ala., 163. 
Birth Control League, 418. 
Birth Control Review, 676. 
Bisbee. See Arizona. 
Blandy, G. F., 484. 

The nation's danger (letters). 407, 620. 
Blankenburg, Rudolph, death, 139. 
Blind, public attitude toward the, 617. 
Blinders, 374. 
Bloodgood, Joseph, 354. 
Blossom, F. A., 418. 
Blue, Rupert, 129. 
Bogart, E. L., 665. 
Bohemia, 261. 
Bohemians, 292, 375. 
Bolduan, Dr., 455. 
Boiling, R. C, obituary, 76. 
Bolsheviki, 159. 
Bombay, social work, 72. 
Bondfleld, Margaret, 409. 
Bonser, F. G. 

Educational reconstruction (letter), 202. 



Review of Brewer's Vocational Guidance 

Movement, 167. 
Bonuses, 87. 
Book reviews. 

A, B, C of Voting, The (Cothren), 428. 
Aims of Labor, The (Henderson), 107. 
Albert, Fourth Earl Grey ; a Last Word 

(Begble), 592. 
Alcohol : Its Action on the Human Organism, 

570. 
Allotments for All (Butcher), 618. 
American City Progress and the Law (Mc- 

Bain), 104. 
American Democracy and Asiatic Citizenship 

(Gulick), 104. 
American in the Making, An (Ravage), 70. 
American Labor Year Book, The (Trachten- 

berg), 69. 
American Negro Slaverv (Phillips), 718. 
American Spirit, The (Lane), 356. 
Americanism and Social Democracy (Spargo), 

Americanization Through Education (Minck- 

ley), 699. 
Anthropology Up-to-date (Mitchell), 619. 
Appeal to Conscience, An (Miller), 699. 
Armenia : A Martyr Nation (Gabriellan), 592. 
Backgrounds for Social Workers (Menge), 

569. 
Balkan Home Life (Garnett), 199. 
Belgian books on reconstruction (in French), 

542. 
Blocking New Wars (Houston), 456. 
Case for Compulsory Military Service, The 

(Coulton), 425. 
Catholic Social Year Book for 1918, 458. 
Child Behavior (Mateer), 356. 
Children Well and Happy (Dickinson), 070. 
Child's Food Garden, The (Kilpatrick), 298. 
Christian Social Crusade, A, 458. 
Church and the Crowd. The (Hogue), 197. 
Church in the Commonwealth, The (Roberts), 

668. 
City Manager Plan of Government (Mabie), 

Civilized Commercialism (Stevens), 459. 
Clara Barton, Humanitarian ( Bacon-Foster), 

699. 
Collapse of Capitalism, The (Cahn), 544. 
Coming Democracy, The (Fernau). 231. 
Community Center, A (Jackson), 430. 
Control of the Drink Trade, The (Carter), 

457. 
Cooperation the Hope of the Consumer 

(Harris), 317. 
Creating Capital (Llpman), 105. 
Criminology (Parmelee). 670. 
Deductions from the World War (Freytag- 

Loringhoven), 477. 
Democracy Made Safe (Drake), 571. 
Development of Japan, The (Latourette), 

456. 
Devil in Mexico, The (Morrill), 592. 
Diary of the Russian Revolution, A (Hough- 

teling), 231. 
Drink (Thompson), 233. 
Economic Basis, The, of an Enduring Peace 

(Macfarlane). 456. 
Economic Effects of the War Upon Women 

and Children in Great Britain (Andrews), 

197. 
Economy Cook Book (Gillmore), 234. 
Education for Life : The Story of Hampton 

Institute (Peabodv), 543. 
Education of the South African Native. The 

(Loram), 376. 
Enclosures in England, The (Bradley), 618. 
End of the War, The (Weyl), 456. 
Ethical Philosophy of Life. An (Adler), 457. 
Everyday Foods in War Time (Rose). 199. 
Expenditure and Waste : A Study in Wartime 

(Vesselitsky), 478. 
Fear God in Your Own Village (Morse), 26. 
Fighting Starvation in Belgium (Kellogg), 

544. 
First Lessons in Spoken French for Doctors 

and Nurses (Wilkins and others), 476. 
Food in War Time (Lusk), 199. 
Food Problems (Farmer and Huntington), 

317. 
For the Right, 670. 
Foundations of National Prosperity, The 

(Ely and others), 70. 
French books on reconstruction, list, 517. 
French in a Nutshell (Leeman), 476. 
Frontiers of Freedom (Baker), 356. 
Future, The, of the Southern Slavs (Taylor), 

22. 
God of Vengeance, The (Ash), 570. 
Handbook for School Nurses, A (Kelly and 

Bradshaw), 232. 
Handling Men, 200. 
Health and the State (Brand), 669. 



IV 



Index 



Health for the Soldier and Sailor (Fisher 
and Fisk), 298. 

Higher Education and Business Standards 
(Hotehkiss), 105. 

Hiring the Worker (Kelly), 230. 

History of Economic Legislation in Iowa 
(Pollock), 570. 

History of the Pacific Northwest, A (Schafer), 
172. 

Household Management (Nesbitt), 199. 

Household of a Tudor Nobleman, The (Jones), 
669. 

Housing Problem, The, in War and in Peace 
(Whitaker and others), 233. 

How to Keep Fit in Camp and Trench (Lynch 
and Cumming), 428. 

How to Meet Hard Times, 717. 

Human Nature and Its Remaking (Hocking), 
670. 

Ice-Breakers (Geister), 429. 

Imperial Obligation, An (Mawson), 542. 

In the Fourth Year (Wells), 456. 

India and the Future (Archer), 430. 

Inside Constantinople (Einstein), 430. 

Introduction, An, to Statistical Methods 
(Secrist), 429. 

Introduction to the Scientific Study of Edu- 
cation (Judd), 618. 

Iron Ration, The (Schreiner), 543. 

Japan at the Cross Roads (Pooley), 69. 

Jewish Child, The (Feldman), 669. 

Jewish Communal Register of New York City, 
The, 458. 

Keeping Our Fighters Fit (Allen), 459. 

Land of Revolution, The (Outhwaite), 317. 

Last of the Romanoffs. The (Rivet), 645. 

League of Nations, A (Brailsford), 456. 

Library Ideals (Legler), 230. 

Limits of Pure Democracy, The (Mallock), 
543 

Lost Fruits of Waterloo, The (Bassett), 430. 

Mediaeval Town Planning (Tout), 298. 

Medicine as a Profession (Weaver), 105. 

Men in War (Latzko), 168. 

Mental Survey, The (Pintner), 592. 

Mexico's Dilemma (Ackerman), 316. 

Militarism and Statecraft (Smith), 355. 

Mobilizing Woman-Power (Blateh), 543. 

Modern Civic Art (Robinson), 200. 

Modern European Civilization (Ashley), 297. 

Municipal Housecleaning (Capes and Carpen- 
ter), 719. 

Municipal Ownership (Johnsen), 591. 

My Life with Young Men (Morse), 231. 

Narcotic Drug Addiction (Hinckley), 668. 

Nation at Bay, A (Farnam), 544. 

National Progress (Ogg), 199. 

Negro Folk-Songs (Burlin), 569. 

Negro in Literature and Art, The (Brawley), 
70. 

New Horizon. The, of State and Church 
(Faunce), 458. 

New Towns After the War, 669. 

New Voter. The (Thompson), 428. 

Opportunities for Women in the Municipal 
Civil Service of the City of New York 
(Witherspoon and Crocker), 476. 

Our Debt to the Red Man (Houghton). 591. 

Our Democracy : Its Origins and Its Tasks 
(Tufts), 476. 

Our Schools in War-Time and After (Dean), 
542. 

Parent's Job, A (Millard). 103. 

Personality and Conduct (Parmelee), 570. 

Pictures of War Work in America (Peunell), 
22. 

Polish Peasant, The, in Europe and America 
(Thomas and Znaniecki), 166. 

Political Conditions of Allied Success, The 
(Angell), 668. 

Principles of Mental Hygiene (White), 318. 

Problem of the Soul The (Holmes). 477. 

Profession of Journalism. The (Bleyer). 376. 

Profit Sharing: Its Principles and Practice 
(Burritt and others), 318. 

Pros and Cons in the Great War (Magnus), 
543. 

Prussian Elementary Schools, The (Alexan 
der). 16<>. 

Real Stories from Baltimore County History 
(Davidson), 70. 

Rekindled Fires (Anthony), 458. 

Religious Education and American Democ- 
racy (Athearn), 105. 

Religious Education and Democracy (Win- 
chester). 105. 

Religious Education in the Church (Cope), 
478. 

Report on a Survey of the City of Indianap- 
olis, Ind., 377. 

Rising Japan (Sunderland). 69. 

Rural Education and the Consolidated School 
(Arp), 718. 

Rural Reconstruction in Ireland (Smith-Gor- 
don and Staples), 429. 

Russian Revolution, The. and the Jugo-Slav 
Movement (Petrunkevitch and others), 231. 

Russia's Agonv (Wilton). 645. 

School as a Social Institution, The (Rob- 
bins), 233. 

Science of Power, The (Kidd), 234. 

Serbia Crucified (Krunich). 22. 

Social Democracy Explained (Spargo), 544. 

Social History, A. of the American Family, 
Vol. II. (Calhoun), 298. 

Social Life in Britain (Coulton), 570. 

Social Theory, A, of Religious Education 
(CoeL 105. 

Social Work with Families (Watson), 569. 



soul of Democracy, The (Griggs), 476. 
Soul of the Russian Revolution, The (Olgin), 

231. 
South-Eastern Europe (Savig), 22. 
Speech Defects in Children and How to Treat 

Them (Swift). 169. 
Stakes of the War (Stoddard and Frank), 

719. 
Standard of Living in Japan, The (Morimoto), 

69. 
State Socialism, Pro and Con (Walling and 

Laidler), 544. 
Statistics (Bailey and Cummings), 377. 
Surgeon Grow (Grow), 645. 
Survey, A, of a Public School System 

(Smith), 29. 
Syphilis and Public Health (Vedder), 569. 
Teaching of Hygiene, The, in the Grades 

(Andress), 458. 
Theories of Social Progress (Todd), 198. 
Third and Fourth Generation, The — An In- 
troduction to Heredity (Downing), 26. 
Third Great Plague The [Syphilis], (Stokes), 

316. 
This Side the Trenches, 460. 
Three Acres and Liberty (Hall), 298. 
Training and Rewards of the Physician 

(Cabot), 108. 
Two War Years in Constantinople (Stuer- 

mer), 102. 
Universal Service (Bailey), 200. 
Universal Training for Citizenship and Pub- 
lic Service (Allen), 316. 
Use Your Government (Franc), 318. 
Village in Picardy, A (Gaines), 619. 
Vocational Education (Robinson), 25. 
Vocational Guidance Movement (Brewer), 

167. 
War, The, and the Coming Peace (Jastrow), 

456. 
War Addresses of Woodrow Wilson, 356. 
War and After, The (Lodge), 377. 
War Fact Tests for Graduation and Promo- 
tion (Allen), 356. 
War-Time Control of Industry (Gray), 646. 
Welfare and Housing (Hutton), 476. 
What Every American Should Know About 

the War (Flowers), 718. 
Wheatless and Meatless Days (Partridge and 

Conklin), 234. 
Who's Who of the Chinese in New York (Van 

Norden), 478. 
Why Prohibition? (Stelzle), 591. 
Woman Voter's Manual, The (Forman and 

Shuler). 428. 
Women and the Franchise (Shain), 428. 
Women and War Work (Fraser), 69. 
Women as Munition Makers (Hewes and 

Walter), 70. 
Women in the Engineering Trade (Drake), 

668. 
Women Who Wait, The ( Marlowe), 477. 
World of States, The (Burns), 456. 
World Peril, The, 670. 
World Significance, The, of a Jewish State 

(Berle), 298. 
World War, The, and the Road to Peace 

(McLeod), 569. 
Your Negro Neighbor (Brawlev). 699. 
Your Vote and How to Use It (Brown), 428. 
Hoot and shoe industry. 374. 
Borg. Madeline. Institutional libraries (letter), 

676. 
Borst. H. W., 643. 

War cripples (letter), 675. 
Boston, dietetic bureau, 481. 
Boston Dispensary. 334. 
Boston Legal Aid Society, 263. 
Boston Psychopathic Hospital, 297. 
Bowen, Mrs. J. T., 556. 

Bowling Green Neighborhood Association, 460- 
461. 

Boys. 

Chicago, crime and community morale, 479. 

l"a rin labor camp for citv boys, 149. 

Night work (letter I. 676. 

Paying their way in school, 217. 
Hoys' Clubs. 

Federation, 306. 

Self government, 306. 
Brackenrldge, G w„ 59.3. 
Bradshaw, Emerson. 479. 
Brandegee, E. D., 47. 
Brantlng, Hjalman. 471-472. 
Brawley, Benjamin. The battleground (verse), 

608. 
Brazier, the woman with the, 508. 
Brazil, malaria. 621. 
Bremer. Edith T., 253. 
Breweries, closing. 675. 

Brewster, J. II. The casualty list (verse), 561. 
Bridgeport. 454, 697. 

British Health of Munition Workers' Commit- 
tee. 374. 
British Labor, See Labor ; Inter-Allied Labor, 

etc. 
British Labour Party, 288, 295, 299, 348-349. 

Breaking the truce. 467. 

Out of it (A. F. L. Convention), 363. 

Reconstruction issues — platform and reso- 
lutions. 496, 500. 

"Split", 535. 
Bronson, Minnie, 235, 

Brooklyn, merger of civic organizations, 408. 
Brooklyn Hospital. 334. 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 369. 
Brotherhood. 566. 
Brown, John, and International citizenship. 

687. 
Brown, L. V., 448, 455. 



Browne, Helen. Review of Gahriellan's Ar- 
menia : A Martyr Nation, 592. 

Bruere. Henry. Social service and J. P. 
Mitchel, 505. 

Brussels, 461. 

Bryan, W. J. Review of Carter's The Control 
of the Drink Trade, 457. 

Bryant, M. E., 351. 

Bryn Mawr, 297. 

Burchard, E. L„ 294. 

Bureau of Educational Experiments, 149 257. 

Bureau of Food and Drugs, 448, 455. 

Bureau of War Risk Insurance, 147, 180. 235 
372, 701. 

Burgess, J. S, The Christian movement and 
social welfare in China, 633. 

Burleson, Postmaster-General, 379. 

Burns, A. T., 256, 431. 

Burns, Jessica W.. 352. 

Burritt, B. B.. 321. 

Bushnell, G. E., 48, 323. 

Butler, A. W., 644. 

Butler, F. C, 347. 

Byington, Margaret F., 164. 



Cady, % . M. A western experiment in land 

settlement, 684. 
California. 

Health measures in war-time, 157. 

Minimum wage, 381. 

State Land Settlement Board, 684. 
California, University of, 139. 
California, University of Southern, 262. 
Camp Liberty, 149. 
Camp Shelby, 296. 
Camp Sherman, 307. 
Campbell, Helen S., obituary, 545. 
Camps. 

Army training camp theaters. 461. 

City hoys at farm labor. 149. 

Foreign element in our army, 307. 

Malaria, 296. 

Negroes : social hygiene, 306. 
Canada. 

Child welfare work, 171. 

Reconstruction groups, 272. 

War effects, 665. 
Canning, co-operative (letter), 324. 
Capus. Alfred, 62. 
Carlton, Newcomb. 292. 
Carnegie Corporation. 

Further plans for study of Americanization. 
431. 

Immigrant study, 96. 
Carnegie Foundation, 377. 
Carter. E. C, 388. 
Cass, E. R., 523. 

Casualty insurance. Sec Insurance. 
Casualty list (verse). 561. 
Catholic Church, social work, 290. 
Cattell, J. M. Pensions for teachers (letter). 

377. 
Censorship, 163. 
Centenary, an unnoted, 173. 
Chadwick. E M. 

Review of Farnam's A Nation at Bay, 544. 

Review of Slavic books, 22. 
Chamberlain, Beulah. Contrast (verse), 581. 
Chamberlain. Senator, 403. 
Champaign and Urbana. III., 435. 
Chandevarkar. N. C. 72. 
Chang. Gen. L, 637, 638. 
Chang Po Ling. 635. 
Chanty singing, 677. 
Chaplain, city, 230. 
Charities. 

Champaign and Urbana float In parade, 435. 

Mltchel's administration. 506. 

Now Jersey State Board, 434. 

War, supervision, 196. 

War. unnecessary. 236. 

See also Relief :War relief funds. 
Charity for disabled soldiers i cartoon), 567. 
Charity organization policy, discussion, 712. 
Charleston. S. C, old mansions to ease house 

famine. 264. 
Chenery, W. L. Packington steps forward, 35. 
Cheney. C. H.. 514. 
Chester. Pa. Further result of survey, 548. 

Results of survey. 482. 

War effect, housing, etc., 243. 
Chesterton, G. K., 388. 
Chicago. 

Boys and crime. 479. 

City plan. 133. 

Community council, 710. 

Packing industries. 35, 38. 

Settlements convention. 293. 

Settlements convention, summarv of outlook. 
816. 

Ukrainians, 292. 

United charities. 186. 
Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, 

147. 
Child care In New York State (letter). 200. 
Child Health Organization, 321. 
Child labor. 

Federal law In Supreme Court. 108, 

Federal law. Supreme Court decision. 2S3. 

New bill to deny use of malls introduced. 375 

New federal bill. 842, 

New Hampshire law. 52 

Patriotic campaigns for funds. 694. 7L'2. 

Planning a new law and asking a rehearing. 
323. 

See also National Child I*bor Committee. 



Index 



Child welfare. 

Canada, 171. 

Germany, 39. 

Massachusetts plan, 104. 

National Conference of Social Work on, 256. 

New data (Mackenzie's report on Scotland), 
615. 

Ohio State Bureau of Juvenile Research, 671. 

Red Cross Exhibit in Lyons, 449. 

Second Pan-American Congress, date, 147. 
Children. 

Cincinnati, backward, 134. 

Cleveland baby 'bus, 229. 

Delaware care a 135. 

Duty to, 398. 

Health organization, new committee, 321. 

Mayor of New York city's proclamation in 
regard to plav, 643. 

Patriotic solicitation, 694, 722. 

Verse on Children's Year (Sprague), 333. 

See also Delinquency. 
Children's Bureau. 

Examination for positions, 381. 

Juvenile court inquiry, 147. 

Poster. 547. 
Children s courts. 

Inquiry proposed, 147. 

Woman judge, 433. 
Children's Year. 

Baby-weighing, 405. 

Recreation week, 512. 
Childs, R. S., 381. 
Chillicothe, Ohio, 65. 
Chin Pang Ping, 634. 
China. 

Christian movement and social welfare, 633. 

Relief for flood sufferers in northern, 423. 
Chinese, 419. 

Drawing of a head, 420. 
Cholera, 720. 

Christian Stockholm, 451, 548. 
Christian unity in London, 139. 
Christiania, 451, 548. 
Christmas. 

Early shopping, 677. 

Red Cross seal design, 375. 

Red Cross seals, 723. 
Christmas Roll Call, 723. 
Chuan, S. H., 636. 
Churches. 

International conference Idea, 451, 548. 

Message to the President on war prohibition, 
228 

Unity' in London, 139. 

War, clergy, arid, 100. 

War and social service, 229. 

War service; clergymen's summer institutes, 
306. 
Cincinnati. 

Backward children, 134. 

Training course in Americanization, 350. 
Cities. 

Community councils In the great, 709. 

In evolution (letter), 676. 

Noises, 648. 
Citizenship. 

International, 687. 

Measuring, 711. 
City chaplain, 230. 
City planning. 

Befolt, Wis., 227. 

Chicago, 133. 

St. Louis, 480. 

St. Paul, Minn., 204. 

See also American City Planning Institute. 
CHi/State-Nation (periodical), 236. 
Civic Secretaries' Conference, 322. 
Civil service appointees, 448, 455. 
Civil Service Commission, Children's Bureau 

positions, 381. 
Claghorn, Kate H. Review of Anthony's Re- 
kindled Fires, 458. 
Clapper, Raymond. Review of Bleyer's The 

Profession of Journalism, 376. 
Clark, Mary V., 71. 

Mental hygiene for laymen (letter), 378. 
Clark, Justice Walter, 722. 
Clark, Warren, 479. 
Clarkson, G. B., 573. 
Cleaners, minimum wage for, 594. 
Clearing House for War Work Volunteers, 565. 
Clergy. See Churches. 
Cleveland, 333. 

Baby 'bus, 229. 

Health insurance representatives, 349. 

Rumanians, 292. 

Women conductors, 725. 
Cloth Craft Shops, 88. 
Club Worker (periodical), 306. 
Clubs. 

Girls', 402. 

Meetings in gardens, 593. 
Clynes, J. R., 467, 468, 469, 497, 409, 535, 536. 
Coal. 

Conservation (letter from H. A. Garfield), 
571. 

Fagots and furnaces, 368. 

Social worker and, 659. 

See also Smoke. 
Coffin, C. A., 193. 
Colby, Bainbrldge, 379. 
Colcord, Lincoln, 163. 
Coler. B. S., 196. 
Colleges. 

Food diplomas for girls, 410. 

New establishment for teaching economics 
and political science, 194. 

Truth-seeking (letter), 572. 



War depletion, 301. 

Women graduates and nursing, 94. 

See also Education. 
Collier, John. 

Community councils, 604, 689, 700. 

Review of Jackson's A Community Center, 
430. 
Collinsville, 111., 101, 225. 
Colorado, University of, nurses' training 

courses, 357. 
Columbus, Ohio, war chest, 97. 
Commercial Telegraphers' Union, 409, 418. 
Commission government, 548. 
Communal kitchens, 648. 
Community, 396. 

Community councils, 203, 604, 689, 709. 
Community Health Station, Framingham, Mass., 

272. 
Community morale, 479. 
Community organization, 481. 
Community Organization, American Association 

for, 147. 
Community welfare, new venture, 481. 
Community workers, course for, 701. 
Compensation. See Workmen's compensation. 
Condon, R. J., 350. 

Conductoring for women, 17, 295-296, 369, 725. 
Confessional for social workers (letter), 459. 
Conscientious objectors. 

Punishment in military prisons, 699. 

Report on, 404. 

Suicide, 109. 
Consumers' League, 295. 

Wage studies. 351. 
Cooperation companies in Philadelphia, 235- 

236. 
Cooperative medicine, 334, 349. 
Cooperative societies, French and other, 525. 
Cooperative town in England, 546. 
Copeland, R. S., 129, 455. 
Cornet, G. A. War Camp Community Service 

(letter), 647. 
Correction, Mitchel and department of, 506. 
Cost of living. 

Spring offensive (cartoon), 13. 

Wages and, 122. 
Council of National Defense. 

Christmas shopping, 677. 

Community councils, 604, 689, 709. 

Reconstruction studies, 573. 

School district councils, 203. 
Country, Home Service difficulties, 370. 
Courtney, Baron, death, 203. 
Courts. 

Naturalization, 393. 

Pittsburgh, new morals court, 639. 

Unionism and, 287. 

Woman judge, 433. 
Credit, 647. 
Creel, George, 163. 
Crime, juvenile, 479. 
Criminal slang, 20-21. 
Cripples. 

How they may be made assets, 179. 

Industrial rehabilitation for soldiers and 
civilians, 162. 

Soldiers as teachers (letter), 378. 

War (letter), 675. 
Crowder, Gen. E. B., 89, 452. 
Crowell, F. Elisabeth, 321. 
Cry of misery (ill.), 712. 
Curfew laws, 621. 
Cutting, R. B., obituary, 76. 
Cutting, R. F., 322. 
Czecho-Slovaks, 261, 376. 

Drawing of an individual bead, 419. 
Czechs, 307. 

D 

Daly, M. A., 19, 75. 

Daniels, John, 147. 

Daniels, Josephus, 379. 

Danny the drunk, 584. 

Darlington, T. N., 677. 

Date seeds, playing with, 585. 

Davenport, C. B. Review of Downing's The 
Third and Fourth Generation — An Introduc- 
tion to Heredity, 26. 

Davis, A. J., 61. 

Davis, jeff, 525. 

"Davis, Jessie." My vacation in a woolen mill, 
538. 

Davis, Katharine B. Indeterminate sentence 
and J. P. Mitchel, 505. 

Davis, M. M., and A. R. Warner. Pay clinics, 
334. 

Davis, W. J., 535, 536. 

Davis, W. S. American and British labor 
(letter), 299. 

Davison, H. P., 74. 

Day, Justice, 283. 

Day, J. P., 368. 

Deacon, J. B. Home Service : Stranded rela- 
tives of soldiers, 215. 

Deaf. 

Soldiers, 627. 
Soldiers (letter), 700. 

Debs, E. V., trial and sentence, 695. 

Defensa, La (periodical), 268. 

De Forest, C. M. Red Cross seals (letter), 647. 

Delany, E. C. School boys who pay, 217. 

Delaware. 

Care of children, 135. 
Service Citizens, 567. 

Delinquency and war, 131. 

Demobilization, 16. 

Democracy. 



Armenia, a new ally, 435. 

Demo-u-cracy versus, 511. 

Russian Instinct for, 85. 

World safe for (Holson), 364. 

See also Community councils. 
Dennison, H. S. Review of Kelly's Hiring the 

Worker, 230. 
Dental service for soldiers, 546. 
Denver, Colo., city chaplain, 230. 
Dercle, Colonel, 40. 
Dermilt, Miss H. M., 322, 481. 
Derrick, Calvin, 434. 
Detroit. 

Negroes, 116, 118, 119. 

Polish convention, 720. 

Prison management, 595. 

Shipbuilding plant, 379. 
Devine, E. T. Address to the boys in France, 

204. 

On the fringes of the battle, 331. 
DeWitt Clinton High School, 217. 
DeWolf, Tensard, 639. 
Dictionary of criminal slang, 20. 
Dietetic Bureau, Boston, 481. 
Dimmick, J. B., 418. 
Discipline, army, 568. 
Disease. 

Battle mortality and, in American wars, 641. 

See also Health : Public health. 
Dispensaries, pay, 334. 

District committees, F. Almy on (letter), 50. 
District of Columbia, 306. 

Minimum wage hearing, 97. 

Woman judge, 433. 
Dmowski, Roman, 721. 
Dock labor. See Longshoremen. 
Dodd, A. E., 460. 
Dole, C. F. Pacifism and militarism (letter), 

619. 
Dorothy, T., 258. 
Draper, Mrs. W. K., 418. 
Drink problem. See Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Drugs, increased use, 701. 
Dry zones, 675. 
Dublin, 346. 
DuBois, W. E. B. Review of Loram's The 

Education of the South African Native, 376. 
Duffy, T. J., 75. 
Duncan, Charles, 263. 
Dunkirk school under bombardment, 510. 
du Pont, Pierre S., 567. 
Durham, Cal., 684, 686. 

Dutton, S. T. Review of Stuermer's Two War- 
Years in Constantinople, 102. 



E 
Ear-plugs, 374. 
East Side and the spirit of '76 (drawing), 

[417]. 
Easter in Chicago stockyard district, 38. 
Eastland disaster, 485. 
Eastman, Max, 139. 

Economic problems. See Industrial problems. 
Economics, new college of, 194. 
Edison Electric Lighting Co., 217. 
Edmonds, G. W., 406. 
Edsall, D. L., 479. 
Edstrom, David, 496, 712. 
Education. 

Alaska, 43. 

Boys who pay their way, 217. 

British Parliament bill, 325, 485. 

Foreigners, 393, 426. 

Government control, 644. 

Mitchel and the Department of, 507. 

Reconstruction (letter), 202. 

See also Teachers. 
Educational Dramatic League, 306. 
Educational experiments. See Bureau of Edu- 
cational Experiments. 
Eidlitz, Otto M., 45, 346, 409, 435, 460. 
Eight-hour day. 

Packing industries, 35. 

Progress, 722. 
Eisler, George, 350. 
Elliott, J. L., 294. 
Ellison, Grayfree, 271. 
Elhvood, C. A. Social facts and scientific 

social work, 285. 
El Paso, 491. 

Embree, E. R. With the Negro troops, 537. 
Emerson, W. R. P., 258. 
Employes, average age, 460. 
Employment. 

Federal service, 453, 454. 

New York state and federal compulsory laws, 
452, 453, 454. 
Employment management, 433. 
Employment manager, 87. 
Employment managers, conference at Rochester, 

189. 
Employment offices, public, Canada, 410. 
Engelhardt, N. L. Review of Smith's A Survey 

of a Public School System, 29. 
England. 

Communal kitchens, 648. 

Education bill, 325, 485. 

Less work for women, 99. 

Planning for peace, 16. 

To England— August 4 (verse), 510. 

Women helping to win the war (poster), 
[57]. 
English language. 

Compulsory for foreign-born, 426. 

Enforcing, 394. 

Teaching foreign-born, 213. 
Englishman's letter on labor, 299. 



VI 



Index 



Epileptics. Shaker colonies for. 71. 
Episcopal church and Bishop Jones, 100. 
Espionage law, 301, 695. 

Acquittal, 409. 
Essentials.162. 
Ettinger, W. L., 147. 
European culture, 480. 
Evans, W. A., 404. 

Industrial physicians and the returning sol- 
dier, 354. 
Evening schools, 426. 
Evian. 187. 

Exhibits, why have? 473. 
Experts, 322. 



Fagot-Gatherers, 368. 

Falconer, Martha P., 108. 

Far Rockaway, 690. 

Farbstein, Mr., 226. 

Fares, agitation for higher, 443. 

Farm labor camo for city boys, 149. 

Farm labor in France, 320. 

Farm workers. 

Woman's land army of America, 433. 

Y. W. C. A. and, 432, 433. 
Farmers' National Committee on War Finance, 

408. 
Farmers' taxable income, 621. 
Farrand, Livingston, 74, 482. 
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in 
America, 229, 451, 548. 

Labor Sunday message, 613. 
Federal employment service, 453, 454. 
Feeblemindedness, 324. 

Kentucky, 11. 

Minnesota's heritage, 562, 584, 611, 664. 

New York state, 138. 
Fellowship of Reconciliation, 451, 548. 
Felt, D. E., 676. 

Felt, E. W. Survey in India, [145], 172. 
Finance. 

Farmers' Committee, 408. 

Spain, 319. 
Fire in Newark, N. J., 721. 
Firewood, 368. 
Fisher, Boyd, 433. 
Fisher, Helen D., 201. 
Fitch, J. A. 

British labor out of it (report of A. F. L. 
convention), 363. 

Employment managers in conference, 189. 

For value received, 221. 

Labor and politics, 287. 

Making the job worth while, 87. 

Review of Profit Sharing : Its Principles and 
Practice (by Burritt and others), 318. 

War program for industrial peace, 3. 
Flanders. 

Lacemaker, [329]. 

Red Cross relief back of Ypres (Kellogg), 
337. 
Flexner, Hortense. Newswoman (verse), 315. 
Flint, Mich., 548. 

Floods in northern China, relief, 423. 
Foley, Kate, 617. 
Food. 

Army rations, 573. 

College girls, diplomas, 410. 

Conservation ideas of a physician, 18. 

Fighting spirit and, 294. 

Inter-Allied Scientific Commission, 516. 

Mormon farmers, 525. 

Stimulation bill, prohibition amendment, 706. 

Useless feeding of soldiers, 648. 

War gardens, 13. 
Food Administration, 251, 375, 410, 516. 
Ford, Henry, 348. 
Ford Motor Co., 88. 
Forecast (periodical), 408. 
Foreign-born. 

Americanizing, 213. 

Army, camps, etc., 307. 

Compulsory English for, 426. 

Independence Day parade, 419. 

Naturalizing, 393. 

Red Cross Home Service, 508. 

War activities of, 309. 
Foreign-born groups, 292. 

Government action on, 375-376. 
Fort Jay, 699. 

Fourth of July. See Independence Day. 
Framingham, Mass., health and tuberculosis 

demonstration, 272, 323. 
France. 

Agricultural re-education of soldiers, 320. 

American Red Cross Child-Welfare Exhibit 
in Lyons, 449. 

Birthday of liberty, 447. 

Passports for soldiers' relatives, 515. 

Reconstruction, list of books, 517. 

Reconstruction under fire, 127. 

Red Cross demands, 722. 

Red Cross help to refugees, 531. 

Red Cross helper (ill.), [113]. 

Red Cross Home Service, 46. 

Red Cross work, 73. 

Saving babies, 406. 

Second unit of reconstruction aides, 485. 

Trudeau Sanatorium, 187. 

Tuberculosis in army, 48. 

Village reconstruction (poster), 517. 

Women and night work, 228. 

Work on the fringes of the battle (Devine), 
331 v " 

Y. M.'c. A. work, 387. 



See also War. 

Francis, John, 695. 

Francke, Kuno, 480. 

Frankel, L. K., 196. 

Frankford Arsenal uniform, 345. 

Frankfurter, Felix, 202. 

Franklin, Adam, 687. 

Franklin, L. B., 722. 

Franklin, Moses. Wilson and trade equality 
(letter), 49. 

Freedom and foreign-born groups, 292. 

Freeman, A. W., 355. 

French books on reconstruction, 517. 

French North Africa, 585. 

Frey, J. P., 268. 

Friends. See Quakers. 

Friends Ambulance Unit, 331, 337, 344. 

Friends' Reconstruction Unit, 99. 

Fuel, fagots for, 368. 

Fuel Administration, 368. 

Coal and the social worker, 659. 

Fuld, L. F., Review of Witherspoon and Crock- 
er's Opportunities for Women in the Muni- 
cipal Civil Service of the City of New York, 
476. 



Garden City, San Francisco, 514. 
Gardens. 

Meetings in England, 593. 

See also War Gardens. 
Garesche, E. F. 

Sodality social work in Catholic parishes, 
290. 

To a working girl (verse), 392. 
Garfield, H. A., 368. 

Coal conservation (letter), 571. 
Gary, E. H., 48. 
Gary plan, 699. 
Geddes, Patrick, 676. 
Geier, O. P., 354. 
Gellert, Ernest, 109. 
Geneva, N. Y., 149. 
Georgia, lynching report, 511. 
Germanic Museum of Harvard University, 480. 
Germany. 

Poland and (letter), 407. 

Salvation army, 648. 

War orphans and child welfare, 39. 
Germs, fighting, 271. 
Gibbs, Philip, 73, 131, 337, 343. 
Gibbs, W. S., 408. 
Giddings, F. H., 260. 

Gifts, solicitations by the young, 235, 694. 
Gillett, Lucy H., 481. 
Gilmour, J. T., obituary, 682. 
Girls. 

Protective work, 461. 

Soldiers and, 621. 
Girls' clubs, 402. 
Giving, tired of (cartoon), 165. 
Gladden, Washington, obituary, with portrait, 

422, 436. 
Gleason, Arthur 

British labor and the issues of reconstruction 
(platform and resolutions), 496. 

British labor breaks the truce, 467. 

British labor "split", 535. 

Red Triangle in France, the, 387. 

War policy of British labor, 191. 
Glen Lake Sanatorium, 432. 
Glenn, Mary W. 

Spirit and deed of Home Service, 184. 

Woman with the brazier, the, 508. 
Goddard, H. H„ 671. 

Goethe, C. M., Pomegranate Blossom, 584. 
Golancourt, 99, 127. 
Goldberger, Asst. Surgeon-General, 355. 
Goldmark, Josephine. Review of Andrews's 

Economic Effects of the War upon Women 

and Children in Great Britain, 197. 
Goldmark, Pauline, 296. 682. 

Women conductors, 309. 
Goldwater, S. S., 129. 

Health Department in Mitchel's administra- 
tion, 507, 516. 
Gompers, Samuel, 288, 295, 299, 348, 363, 379, 

515, 593. 
Gonorrhea, 407. 
Good habits, 220. 
Goodheart, Mr., 230. 
Goodrich, Anne W., 194. 
Goodsell, Willystlne. Review of Calhoun's A 

Social History of the American Family, Vol. 
II, 298. 
Gore, Charles, interview with, 683. 
Gorgas, Surgeon-General, 93, 323, 353. 
Government. 

City, commission, 548. 

City, Mitchel's contribution, 505, 516. 

Schools and colleges taken over, 644. 
Government clerks. 418. 
Government Research t'ouference, 322. 

Graham, Whidden. Alcohol and liberty (let- 
ter), 523. 
Grand Rapids, Mich., relief plan, 228. 
(inn I Brilain. 

Education bill iu Parliament, 325, 485. 

Health insurance, 263. 

Recreation and war, 196. 

Rule in India (letter), 407. 

War policy of labor, 191. 
Great Lakes Engineering Works, 379. 
Grgcourt, 127, 331. 
Greeks, 41:». 



Drawing of a marcher, 421. 



Drawing or a mi 
Greeley, Helen II.. 



ti'.i.s. 



Greenberg, David, 272. 

Greenhut, Eugene, 671. 

Greenwich House, 237. 

Greenwich House War Service Bureau, 580. 

Greenwich Village, 71. 

Gregory, Attorney-General, 225. 

Grey, Viscount. League of Nations (full text), 
400. 

Grippe, 720. 

Griswold, Mrs. Florence, 264. 

Groves, E. R. Review of Arp's Rural Educa- 
tion and the Consolidated School, 718. 

Gruenberg, F. P. 

Review of Mallock's The Limits of Pure 

Democracy, 543. 
Review of two books on the morals of trade, 
105. 

Gruny, 99, 100, 127. 

Gulick, L. H., obituary, with portrait, 579. 

Gulick, S. L. 

Review of books on Japan, 69. 
Review of Latourette's The Development of 
Japan, 456. 

Gwin, J. B., New Mexican immigration, 491. 



Haag, Charles, and his sculpture in wood, 560. 

Habits, bad results of good, 220. 

Hadassah. 261. 

Haig, R. M., 459. 

Halbert, L. A., 236, 255, 374, 484. 

Hale, R. L Review of Ogg's National Progress, 

199. 
Half Century Association of America, 351. 
Hall, Bolton. Review of Outhwaite's The Land 

of Revolution, 317. 
Hamp, Pierre. 

At school under bombardment, 510. 
Hampton, Va., Negro homes, 121. 

Women who win the war, 715. 
Hampton institute. 234. 
Han An, 637. 
Hanigan, T. W., 642. 
Hannah, I. C. 

Review of Archer's India and the Future, 430. 

Review of Coulton's Social Life in Britain, 
570. 
Hanson, J. M., 52. 
Harding, Governor, 394. 
Hare System, 235. 
Harris, L. I., 262. 
Harrison, S. M., 253. 

Review of Bailey and Cummings's Statistics, 
377. 

Review of Millard's A Parent's Job, 103. 

Review of Secrist's An Introduction to Sta- 
tistical Methods, 429. 
Hart, Hornell, 135. 

Wealth, work and war, 665. 
Hart, H. H. Twenty-five years of child wel- 
fare work in Canada, 171. 
Hart. Schaffner & Marx, 139. 
Hartman, E. T. 

Cities in Evolution (letter), 676. 

Review of Drake's Democracy Made Safe, 571. 

Review of Fernau's The Coming Democracy, 
231. 

Review of Spargo's Americanism and Social 
Democracy, 477. 
Harvard Medical School, industrial hygiene, 

479. 
Harvard University, Germanic Museum, 480. 
Hatfield. C. J.. 323. 
Hathaway, Winifred. Wood alcohol in war 

time, 609. 
Hawaii. 

Home Service. 621. 

Woman suffrage bill, 301. 
Haynes, G. E., 188. 

Negroes move north ; their departure from 
the South, 115. 
Hayward, W. D., 632. 

Healey, William. Review of Parmelee's Per- 
sonality and Conduct, 570. 
Health. 

American movement in war-time, 89, 154. 

Child Health Organization, 321. 

Course for Instructors. Wisconsin. 547. 

Education : a demonstration, 257. 

Industry and, 479. 

Surveys. 271. 

Topics at coming conferences, 698. 

Bet also Public health. 
Health Department, New York, 63, 129. 

Mitchel's administration, 607, 516. 

New phase of offensive against, 448. 455. 
Health exhibit in France, American, 449. 

Legislative hearing in New York state. 18. 
Health insurance. 

Great Britain, 263. 

Public, the, and, 349. 
Health officers, training women for industrial 

plants, 3 ."> 7 . 
Hearing. Sec Deaf. 
Henderson. Arthur. 296, 21>9. 451. 4U7. 470. 

497, 498, 499. 535. ,'.65. 
Henderson, E. F. War orphans and chijd \vd 

tare in Germany. 89. 
Henderson, E. T. Crippled soldiers as teachers 

(letter), 878. 
Herring, Rudolph. Review of Capes and Car- 
penter's Municipal Housecleanlng, 719. 
Sewes, Amy. Review of Eraser's Women and 

War Work. (iit. 
Hitchcock, Jane E. Review of Kelly and Brad- 

Shaw's A Handbook for School Nurses, 232. 
Hitchcock, Senator, 376. 



Index 



vu 



Hitchman case, 289. 
Hoboes, 525. 
Hobson, J. A. A world safe for democracy, 

366. 
Hogs and tuberculosis, 698. 
Holcomb, M. H., 226-227. 
Holmes, Justice, 284. 
Holt, Hamilton. A League of Nations now? 

607. 
Holt, L. E., 321. 

Home Economics Committee, working class fam- 
ilies and wage increases, 122. 
Home Service. 

After a year, 482. 

American Red Cross (Persons), 41. 

At the front, 321. 

Foreign-born women, 508. 

France, 46. 

Hawaii, 621. 

Oklahoma and Kansas and the southwest, 582. 

Rural difficulties, 370. 

Specimens of panels in exhibits of work, 
696, 697. 

Spirit and deed, 184. 

Work of the American Red Cross in the 
United States. 215. 
Hood, Harold, 99. 

Hooper, Charles. Seattle newsboys (letter), 50. 
Hoover, H. C, 18. 251, 516. 
Horning, G. D., 202. 
Horowitz, M. P., 271. 
Horse meat, 71. 
Hospitals. 

Base, New York city, 277. 

Boston dispensary and Brooklyn hospital (pay 
dispensaries), 334. 

Lakeside, Cleveland, 349. 

Motion pictures and, 698. 
Hours of work. 

Boot and shoe industry, 374. 

French women and night work, 228. 

Government clerks, 418 

Massachusetts, women, 17. 

Waynesboro, Pa., etc., 452. 

Wisconsin night work for women, 235. 

See also Eight-hour day. 
Hourwlch, 1. A. 

Marxism in Russia, 159. 

Review of books on Russia, 645. 

Review of three books on the Russian Revo- 
lution, 231. 
Housing. 

Beloit, Wis., 227. 

British Ministry of Reconstruction, 236-237. 

Charleston, S. C, 264. 

Chester, Pa. — a study of war conditions, 243. 

Government, 409. 

Great Britain, disabled soldiers, 72. 

Los Angeles survey, 262. 

New York city conditions, 237. 

St. Paul, Minn., 204. 

Scarcity of houses, 434. 

Shipyard workers, Wilmington, 595. 

United States Corporation, 460. 

War workers, government, 45. 

War workers in the West, 514. 

Waterbury, Conn., 226. 
Howland, E. L., 293. 
Hoyt, Helen. 

Idealism (verse), 612. 

To a factory girl's hands (verse), 15. 
Humanities, 397. 
Hunter, J. du B., 485. 
Huntington, L. I., 621. 
Huntington, Theodore T. Free auto rides and 

loans (letter), 202. 
Hurley, E. N., 379. 
Husband, R. W., 53. 
Hutchins, R. G., Jr., 47. 
Hyde Park, London, 139. 
Hylan, J. F., 63, 73, 129, 322, 699. 

Play proclamation, 643. 



Idiots, pauper, 11. 
Idling, 452, 453, 454. 

Bills against, 98. 
Ihlder, John. How the war came to Chester, 

243. 
Illegitimacy, 410. 
Illinois. 

Tuberculosis survey, 271, 272. 

Woman's Defense Committee, work, 556. 
Illinois Tuberculosis Association, 96. 
Illiteracy, 426. 

Illiteracy test. See Literacy test. 
Immigrants. 

Carnegie corporation to study, 96. 

Mexican laborers, 573. 

Suggested new test, 546. 

See also Foreign-born. 
Immigration. 

Mexican, new, 491. 

San Francisco Y. W. C. A. lectures, 596. 
Income tax, farmers', 621. 
Independence Day. 

Charities float in, 435. 

New (New York parade), 419. 

War exercises for, 319. 
Indeterminate sentence, 505. 
India. 

British rule (letter), 407. 

Plague, 320. 

Social work in Bombay, 72. 

Survey delivered by farmer, [145], 172. 
Indiana, prisoners and parole, 644. 



Indianapolis survey, report, 377. 

Individualism and war, 270. 

Industrial accidents. See Accidents. 

Industrial Board of Pennsylvania, 614. 

Industrial cripples, 162. 

Industrial physicians, 354. 

Industrial problems, outline for debate, at 

National Conference of Social Work, 255. 
Industrial research, Rockefeller inquiry aban- 
doned. 402. 
Industrial Service Section of the Ordnance De- 
partment, 345. 
I. W. W., 101, 102. 

Sentence of Judge Landis, 632, 663. 

Story of the trial at Chicago, 603, 630, 660. 
Industry. 

Boots and shoes, 374. 

Bureau of Women in, 483. 

Health problems, 479. 

Over the top (various progressive move- 
ments), 451. 

Pensions, 221. 

Prisoners and, 695. 

War work and President Wilson, 696. 

Women in, 295. 

Woolen mill experience of a college girl, 538. 
Infant mortality. 

Newark, N. J., 566. 

Shaw, G. B., on, 546-547. 

Waterbury, Conn., 566. 
Infantile paralysis. See Poliomyelitis. 
Insanity, syphilitic, cost in New York state, 

597. 
Insurance. 

Amount of soldiers' 235, 701. 

Casualty companies, 74. 

Private insurance companies and the govern- 
ment, 618. 

Red Cross workers abroad, 147. 

Unemployment, Russia, 160. 

War Risk, 147, 180, 235, 372, 701. 
Inter-Allied Labor and Socialistic Conference 

in London. 

As documented by the British press (Kel- 
logg), 7. 

Memorandum of war aims, 6. 
Inter-city Conference of Illegitimacy, 410. 
International Brotherhood Welfare Association, 

525. 
International citizenship, 687. 
International democracy, 172. 
International Relations (Nation supplement), 

621. 
Internment, 408. 
Intervention in Russia, 372. 
lone reformatory, 434. 
Iowa, English language, 394. 
Islam, children of, 585. 

Italians, drawing of group of marchers, 421. 
Italy. 

American medical unit, 694. 

Commission to prepare for peace, 485. 



Jacob!, Abraham, 129. 
Japan. 

America and, 139. 

Social welfare, 132. 
Jastrow, Joseph, 619. 

Loyalty of pacifism (letter), 520. 
Jerusalem, missions to, 261. 
Jews in Poland, 226, 614. 
Joe, 257. 
Joel, I. D., 272. 
Johnson, Bascom, 156. 
Johnson, J. W., 254. 

Review of Burlin's Negro Folk-Songs, 569. 
Johnson, P. B. Review of Stokes's The Third 

Great Plague, 316. 
Jokes, 388. 

Jones, Rt. Rev. Paul, 100. 
Jones amendment, 406. 
Joseph and Feiss Co., 88. 

Judd, C. H. Review of Alexander's The Prus- 
sian Elementary Schools, 166. 
Judges, woman, 433. 
Jugo-Slavs, 253, 292, 307, 325, 375-376 

Readiness to fight, 308. 
Julia Richmond High School, 236. 
Junior Red Cross, 235. 
Justice, economic, 397. 
Juvenile courts. See Children's courts. 
Juvenile delinquency. See Delinquency. 
Juvenile research in Ohio, 671 



K 

Kahn, Representative, 403. 
Kahn-Chamberlain bill, 418. 
Kansas, Home Service, 582. 
Kansas City, 285. 

Board of Public Welfare, 374, 484. 

See also National Conference of Social Work 
Kaufman, W. H. Single tax (letter), 459 
Kay, E. W. Red Cross seals (letter), 646 
Keating-Owen bill, 283. 
Kelley, Florence, 255. 

Tuberculosis statistics (letter), 571. 
Kellogg, P. U. 

Back of Ypres, 337. 

Two-edged (British Labor Conference), 7. 
Kelly, D. I., 434. 
Kelly, F. C, 647. 
Kelso, J. J., 171. 
Kentucky feebleminded, 11. 
Kenyon, Senator, 284, 375. 



Kerensky, 470. 

King, Edith S., Wanted — social workers, 125. 

King, F. A. Review of Morse's My Life With 
Young Men, 231. 

King, S H., 677. 

King, W. L. Mackenzie, 402. 

Kinley, David, 666. 

Kirchwey, G. W. Review of Parmelee's Crimi- 
nology, 670. 

Kitchens, communal, 648. 

Kohler, M. J., 614. 

Konenkamp, S. J., 292, 418. 

Kossovo Day, [305], 325. 

Krause, A. K., 323. 

Kresge, S. S., 379. 

Kritcher, Lawrence, 45. 

Kruesi, Charlotte. Review of three books on 
Socialism, 544. 

Kumamoto, S., 525. 



Labor. 

American and British (letter), 299. 

American delegation to Europe, 593. 

British, war policy, 191. 

Centralized recruiting, 348. 

Courses in employment management, 433. 

Docks, 350. 

El Paso section, 491. 

International embassy, 565. 

Laws enacted in 1918, 639. 

Leadership here and abroad, 348. 

Letter from an Englishman, 299. 

Mexican, 491, 515, 573. 

Nicaragua party, 234. 

Ontario, political party, 130. 

Packing industries, Chicago, 35. 

Politics and, 287. 

Return of American mission to England, 295. 

Shortage and market, 65, 454. 

Specializing on the human side, 270. 

Steady working force, 87. 

Tentative agreement drawn up in Washing- 
ton for duration of war, 3. 

War production, 345. 

Wilson, President, and peace, 100. 

See also American Federation of Labor ; Brit- 
ish Labour party ; Inter-Allied Labor and 
Socialist Conference. 
Labor, Department of. 

National employment service, 454. 

"Services", 147. 

War industries committees in war plants, 
t>77. 
Labor Day, Spirit. 613. 
Labor Sunday, message for, 613. 
Lace-maker, Flemish, [329]. 
La Courneuve, 62. 
La Defensa (periodical), 268. 
Lakeside Hospital, Cleveland, 349. 
Land Settlement, 405. 

California experiment, 684. 
Land Settlement Commission, 237. 
Land settlement systems in Australia, 313. 
Landis, Judge K. M., I. W. W. sentence, 632, 

663. 
Lane, F. K., 405, 682. 
Lane, W. D. 

National Conference of Social Work, 251. 

War service for law-breakers, 707. 
Lanux, Pierre de, 325. 
Lasker, Bruno. 

Fagots and furnaces, 368. 

French books on reconstruction, 517. 

Land settlement systems In Australia for 
the returning soldier, 313. 

Mobilizing the backyard, 13. 

Review of Bradley's The Enclosures in Eng- 
land, 618. 

Review of Jones's The Household of a Tudor 
Nobleman, 669. 

Review of New Towns After the War, 669. 

Review of Stoddard and Frank's Stakes of 
the War, 719. 
Lathrop, Julia C, 225, 256, 283. 

Portrait, 253. 
Laundries, New York city conditions, 262. 
Law-breakers, war service for, 707. 
Lawrence, David, 644. 
Lawrence, William, 373. 
League for the middle-aged, 351. 
League of Free Nations Association, 682 
League of nations. 

Foreign views, 607. 

Grey, Viscount, on (full text), 400. 
League to Enforce Peace, 52. 

Philadelphia convention, 259. 
Lee, Elisha, 432. 

Lee, Harry. Potter's field (verse), 5. 
Lee, Joseph, 319. 
Lee, P. R. Review of How to Meet Hard 

Times, 717. 
Legal aid, 263. 
Legal work, federal, 301. 
Legislation. 

Massachusetts, 373. 

New York, 73. 138. 
Leiserson, W. M. Labor shortage and market, 

65. 

Review of Gray's War-Time Control of In- 
dustry, 646. 
Lennon. J. B., 287. 
Leonard, J. A., obituary, 597. 
Lewis, B. G., 146-147, 434. 

Correction Department in Mitchel's adminis- 
tration, 506. 
Plan for prisoners' war service, 707. 
Lewis, O. F., 523. 



• •• 

VU1 



Index 



Lexington, Ky., subsidy system, survey, 164. 
Liberty. 

Alcohol and (letter), 523. 

French birthday, 447. 
Liberty bond campaigns, by foreign-born work- 
ers, 309, 311. 
Liberty Loan, Fourth. 

Cartoon, 721. 

Children's solicitation, 722. 
Libraries, institutional (letter), 676. 
Lies, E. T., 147, 572. 
Lifting, 295. 
Lima, Agnes de. Review of books on women's 

voting, 428. 
Lincoln, A., 232. 
Lingayen, 235. 

Liquor traffic. See Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Literacy test, 393. 

Suspension, 491. 
Lithuanians, 419. 

Drawing of an individual, 420. 

Experiences from Germany and hopes (let- 
ter)", 483. 
Lloyd, Demarest, 460. 
Lloyd, J. J., 323. 
Loafers, 452, 453. 454. 
Loans and free auto rides (letter), 202. 
Locke, Frederick, 228. 
Lodge, Oliver, 377. 

Loeb, Max. Compulsory English for foreign- 
born, 426. 
Lomonossoff, G. V., 373. 
London, Christian unity in, 139. 
I-iondon Lancet, 320. 
Long, Haniel. Book on economics, a (verse), 

475. 
Longmiddy, 72. 
Longshoremen, scheme for government control, 

350. 
Longuet, Jean, 471. 

Los Angeles, league for the middle-aged, 351. 
Louisiana, 572. 
Louisville, Ky., 352. 

War Camp Community Service (letter), 647. 
I^oungers. See Loafers. 
Lovejoy, O. R„ 694. 
Lowden, Governor, 322. 
Loyalty League, 226. 
Lucas, W. P., 406. 

Luncheon hour for women workers, 643. 
Lund, H. H. Review of Hall's Three Acres and 

Liberty, 298. 
Lvnch, J. M., 18. 

On Labor Day, 613. 
Lynching. 

Federal campaign against, 225. 

Fund for suppression, 593. 

Georgia, report, 511. 

Negro memorial on, 163. 

Prager's lynchers, acquittal, 301. 

See also Mob violence. 
Lynde, E. D. B., 228. 
Lyons, Child Welfare Exhibit. 449. 

M 

Macarthur, Mary, 99, 409. 
McCormick, Representative, 16. 
MacDonald, Ramsay, 295, 299, 497. 
MacDonald, Wm., 418. 
McDowell, Mary E., 213. 

Easter Day after the packing Industries 
decision, 38. 
McElroy, Professor, 260. 

McKelway, A. J., obituary and portrait, 76. 
MacKenzie, James, 354. 
Mackenzie, W. L., 615. 

McMahon, Edward, Review of Schafer's A His- 
tory of the Pacific Northwest, 172. 
McMurtrie, I). C. Review of Mawson's An Im- 
perial Obligation, 542. 
MacNeille, Perry, 346. 
Macy, V. E., 322. 
Magruder, J. W., obituary, 76. 
Mail. 

Child labor products and, 375. 

Seditious, 301. 
Malabry, 187. 

Brazil, 621. 
Malaria. 

Camps, 296. 
Mangold, C. B. Problems of subnormality 

(letter), 324. 
Mann, Kristine, 53. 
Martin, F. K.. 354. 
Martin, Katherlne H. Stammering (letter), 

647. 
Marxism in Russia, 159. 
Maryland. 

Coal companies and scales, 405. 

Idlers' law, 98. 
Masaryk, T. G., 292. 

Sketch of work, with portrait, 261. 
Mason, Miss C. A., 268. 
Massachusetts. 

Americanization work, 309. 

Child conservation, 194. 

Pood-saving ideas, 18. 

Legislation, 373. 

Ratifies prohibition amendment, 59. 

Scrubwomen's wages, 594. 

Venereal diseases, 373. 

Women's hours of work, 17. 
Masses. The, 139. 

May-Day cartoon (English Socialist), 159. 
Mayhugh, C. H., 66, 67. 
Mavo, C. H., 129. 
Mayo Clinic, 334. 
May time (ill.), [209], 234. 
Mead, ICUwood, 572. 684. 
Mead, G. H., 256, 294. 



Mead, Lucia A. Review of Marlowe's The 

Women Who Wait, 477. 
Mead, N. P. Review of Angell's The Political 

Conditions of Allied Success, 668. 
Medical corps, 483. 
Medical service. 

Co-operative, 349. 

Co-operative (pay clinics and dispensaries), 
334. 
Medical Women's National Association, 354. 
Mental hygiene. 

For laymen (letter), 378. 

See also Insanity. 
Merrill, Maud A. 

Basket makers, the (Minnesota's heritage, 
III), 611. 

Danny the drunk (Minnesota's heritage, II), 
584. 

Minnesota's heritage from the mountaineers 
of the South, 562. 

Rooky, the crook (Minnesota's heritage, IV), 
664. 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 618. 
Mexicans, 264. 

Immigrants, 573. 

Labor, 491, 515. 
Mexico. 

New immigration from, 491. 

Press representatives quoted, 404. 
Middle-aged, league for, 351. 
Middletown, Conn., health survey, 272. 
Midwives, 566. 

Migratory workers of the world, 525. 
Militarism and pacifism (letter), 619. 
Military prisons, 699. 
Military training, universal, resolution of 

teachers, 481. 
Miller, H. A., 292. 

The lost division, 307. 
Miller, Kelly, 354. 
Miller, Madeleine S. 

Hour in a naturalization court, 393. 

Munition-maker's prayer (verse), 564. 
Mills, H. E. College women and nursing, 94. 
Mills, W. P., 423. 
Milly — child of the streets, 562. 
Miners, Maryland companies and scales, 405. 
Minimum wage. 

California, 381. 

District of Columbia, 97, 306. 

New York city employes, 203. 

Office cleaners, 594. 
Minneapolis. 

Baby weighing, 405. 

Tuberculosis (letters), 571. 

Tuberculosis fight, 431. 
Minnesota's heritage of feeblemindedness, 562. 

584, 611. 664. 
Minor, C. L., 323. 
Misery, cry of (ill.), 712. 
Missions in Palestine, medical, 261. 
Missouri. Public Welfare League, 236. 
Mitcbel, J. P. 

Administration, spirit and purpose (group of 
tributes), 505, 516. 

Memorial, 516. 

Obituary, with portrait, 422, 436. 
Mob violence. 

Clipping from New York Times, 101. 

Federal campaign against, 225. 

Georgia, 511. 

Wilson's proclamation, 512. 
Mock, H. E., 353. 

Mohammedans in French North Africa, 585. 
Monroe, President, 173. 
Montague, G. II., 666. 
Montevideo, 147. 
Mooney case. 

California Supreme Court denial of writ of 
error, 682. 

Under review, 512. 
Moore, E. C, 202. 
Mormon farmers, 525. 
Mortality in battle and disease, 641. 
Mosquitoes and malaria, 296. 
Mosses, Wm., 263. 
Motion pictures and hospitals, 698. 
Moton, R. R., 132, 163. 
Mott, J. R., 357, 694. 
Moulton H. G., 665. 
Mt. Holyoke College, training for Industrial 

health officers. 357. 
Mouth hygiene, 546. 
Mulligan, W. J., 460. 
Municipal efficiency, 322. 

Mitchel's contribution, 505, 516. 
Munition-maker's prayer (verse), 564. 
Munition-makers, women and German shell ex- 
plosion, 715. 
Munroe, J. P. War's crippled, 179. 
Murlin, J. R., 294. 
Murphy, E. G., 76. 
Murphy, J. J. Tenement House Department 

In Mitchel's administration, 507. 
Murphy, J. P. Placing children in New York 

(letter), 200. 
Murray, Marr, 61. 
Mussey. II. R 918. 
Muste, A. J. Letter on "Christian Stockholm." 

.MS. 
Mutuallte Maternelle. 406. 
Myer, L. B., 147. 

N 

Names of societies, chauging, 712. 
Nathan, Mrs. Frederick, 295. 
Nation, The, 4is, 621, 

National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People. 511. 



National Association of Colored Women, 513. 
National Child Labor Committee, 76, 323. 
National Conference of Social Work. Divisions 
and their organization for 1919, 254. 

Industrial and economic problems, outline 
for debate, 255. 

Meeting place in 1919, 418. 

Officers elected at Kansas City meeting, etc., 
225. 

Presidential address, 395. 

Program for Kansas City meeting, 130. 

Report of Kansas City meeting (Lane), 251. 
National Conference on War Economy, 322. 
National Education Association, 481. 

Collier on Community Councils, 604. 
National Federation of Settlements, 293. 

Summary of war-time outlook, 616. 
National Industrial Conference Board, 374. 
National League of Teachers' Associations, 481. 
National League of Women Workers, 306, 402. 
National League on Urban Conditions among 

Negroes, 513. 
National Municipal League, 322. 
National Public Welfare League, 236. 
National Tuberculosis Association. 147. 

Fourteenth annual meeting, 323. 

Red Cross joint membership campaign, 724. 
National War Garden Commission, 13. 
Naturalization court, sketch, 393. 
Negroes. 

Conference of women, 513. 

Departure from the South (Haynes), 115. 

Educators and our war efforts, 132. 

Georgia lynching report. 511. 

Memorial on the rights of men, 163. 

National Conference of Social Work on, 254. 

Opportunity asked, 513. 

Pittsburgh welfare workers, 513. 

Rosenwald, Julius, and, 301. 

Social work for southern, 643. 

Troops in war camp communities, 306. 

With the Negro troops, 537. 
Neighborhood Playhouse, 234. 
Neumann, Henry. Review of Hocking's Hu- 
man Nature and Its Remaking, 670. 
Neville, A. O., 17. 
New England campaign for patriotic forum 

rallies. 460. 
New Hampshire child labor law, 52. 
New Jersey. 

Board of Charities and Correction, 146-147. 

Development of State Board of Charities and 
Corrections, 434. 

Prisoners' war service, 707. 

Rockefeller Plan, 46. 
New South Wales, 313. 
New York (city). 

Community council plan, 709, 710. 

Conference of Charities and Correction, 196. 

Council of Organizations for War Service, 
565. 

East Side, 234. 

Health crisis. 129. 

Health Department, service and plight, 63. 

Hospital base, 277. 

Julia Richmond High School, 236. 

Laundry conditions for women, L'i>2. 

Malnutrition in the public schools, 257. 

Mitchel's contribution to government, 505, 
516. 

Offensive against the Health Administration, 
new phase. 448, 455. 

Play proclamation, 643. 

Sale of liquor to soldiers, 156. 

School buildings, 698. 

School superintendent, 147. 

School superintendent and teachers' voice In 
choosing, lot). 

Socialist Aldermen, 203. 

Teachers' salaries, 139. 

Tenants' League, 435. 

Women in Industry and housing conditions. 

Working class families and wages, 122. 
New York (state). 

Anti-loaling law, 452. 

Bureau of Women In Industry, 483. 

Casualty Insurance companies, 74. 

Idlers' bills, 98. 

Legislation, 138. 

Legislation, meager work, 73. 

Placing children (letter), 200. 

Probation Commission's report. 131. 

Prohibition amendment In the legislature. 18. 

Syphilitic insanity, cost, 597. 
New York Building Managers' Association, 306. 
New York Evening Post, 418. 
New York league for the Hard of Hearing. 700 
New York Probation and Protective Associa- 
tion. 461. 
New York Times, 73, 337, 343, 400. 

Mob violence clippings, 101. 
New York Tribune, 349. 
Newark, N. J. 

American Button Co. fire, 721. 

Infant mortality, 566. 
Newman, B. J., 720. 
Newport News. 296, 537. 
Newsboys In Seattle (letter), 50. 201, 

Newswouian ( verse), 816, 

Nicaragua labor party. 2.'(4. 

Nicholson. Meredith, 229. 

Nicoll bill, 19. 

Nicoll-Meyer bill. 73. 

Night work for boys (letter), 676. 

Night work for women Bet Hours of work. 

Nightingale. Florence, 608, 

Noise in city streets. (US. 

Norrls amendment. 406 

North, Mary, 432. 

North Africa, 585. 



Index 



North China Christian Flood Relief Committee, 

423. 
Northumberland miners, 405. 
Nurses. 

Army rank for, 698. 

Army school for, and enlistment campaign, 
325. 

College women, 94. 

Colorado, University of, training courses, 
357. 
Nursing. 

Raising the profession, 194. 

Training nurses for small communities, 96. 
Nutrition. 

Army, 294. 

Demonstration, 257. 

O 

Obituary. 

Blankenburg, Rudolph, 139. 

Boiling, R. C, 76. 

Campbell, Helen S., 545. 

Courtney, Baron. 203. 

Cutting, R. B., 76. 

Gilmour. J. T., 682. 

Gulick, L. H.. 579. 

Leonard, J. A., 597. 

McKelway, A. J. (with portrait), 76. 

Magruder, J. W., 76. 

Parker, C. H., 108. 

Rauschenbusch, Walter (with portrait), 493. 

Nohaffner, Joseph, 139. 

Taylor, Leah D. (Mrs. Graham), 495. 

Wagner, Charles, 202-203. 
Occupations, useful, 453, 454. 
O'Connor, T. V., 351. 
Office cleaners, minimum wage, 594. 
O'Hagan, Anne. A settlement war service bu- 
reau, 580. 
Ohio. 

Child welfare : State Bureau of Juvenile Re- 
search, 671. 

Labor employment method, 65. 

State reformatory, 597. 

Wages of women, 351. 
Oklahoma. 

Home Service, 582. 

Tuberculosis srvey, 271. 
Oliver, Wis., 675. 
"One of the least," 673. 
Ontario. 

Child welfare anniversary, 171. 

Political labor party, 130. 
Ordnance Department, 345. 
Oregon Land Settlement Commission, 237. 
Orphans. 

Pan-American Fund, 268. 

War, Germany, 39. 
Orr, Gertrude. "Monsieur and Madame the 

Red Cross," 531. 
Osborne, F. J. Review of Lynch and Cum- 

mlng's How to Keep Fit in Camp and 

Trench, 428. 
Osier. Dr., 460. 
Ossorio, L. J., 404. 
Other people's shoes, 555. 
Otis, E. O.. 92. 

Ottumwa, Iowa, bronze relief, 496. 
Overman act, 301. 
Overstreet, H A. Review of Adler's An 

Ethical Philosophy of Life, 457. 
Ovington, Mary W. 

Review of books on the negro, 699. 

Review of Phillips's American Negro Slavery, 
718. 
Owen, Senator, 164, 284. 



Faciflsm. 

Loyalty of (letter), 520. 

Militarism and (letter), 619. 

Pacifists and war-pacifists (letter), 676. 
Packing industries in Chicago, Alschuler'a de- 
cision, 35. 
Paderewski, I. J., 721. 
Palestine medical missions, 261. 
Palmer, G. T., 91, 96, 272. 
Palmer-Owen bill, 283. 
Pamphlets, display method, 475. 
Pan-American Round Table, 264. 
Pankhurst, Sylvia, 469. 
I'aris, Red Cross as social police, 531. 
Park, J. E. Bad results of good habits, 220. 
Parker, A. C. Review of Houghton's Our Debt 

to the Red Man, 591. 
Parker, Carleton H„ death, 108. 
Parks in Beloit, Wis., 227. 
Parliament, woman candidate, 409. 
Parnell, 408. 
Parole. 

Indiana, 644. 

Mitchel and, 505. 
Parsons, James, 381. 

Passports to France for soldiers' relatives, 515. 
Patric, Gladys, 262. 
Patriotic campaigns, 460. 

Children and, 694, 722. 
Patriotism, 293. 

Practical (Illinois Woman's Defense Commit- 
tee), 556. 
Patterson. F. D., 354. 
Pauper idiots, 11. 
Pawnbrokerage, 202. 
Pav clinics, 334. 
Paying bills, 647. 
Peace. 

Negotiated (letter), 172. 

Permanent, convention notice, 52. 



Planning in England, 16. 
Peace league idea, 607. 

Peck, Anetta W. Our deafened soldiers (let- 
ter), 700. 
Peck, Esther J. Maytime (ill.). [209], 234. 
Peirano, Paul, 685. 
Peking, 423. 
Pennell, Joseph, [1]. 
Pennsylvania. 

Industrial Board's message concerning 
women, 614. 

Tuberculosis, 235. 

Workmen's compensation law, 108. 
Pennsylvania R. R., women and labor "turn 

over," 432. 
Pennsylvania School for Social Service, 725. 
Penology and army discipline, 568. 
Pensions. 

Industrial, 221. 

Pauper idiots in Kentucky, 11. 

Teachers (letter), 377. 
People's Council, 195. 
People's Institute, Brooklyn. 408. 
People's Institute of New York city, 701. 
Periodicals, new, 235, 236. 
Perkins, R. G., 44. 
Perlman, Jess. 

Other people's shoes, 555. 

Review of Feldman's The Jewish Child, 669. 
Persons, W. F., 47, 321. 

Home Service, 41. 

Home Service in rural places, 370. 
Petavel, J. W. Native Indian aspirations (let- 
ter), 407. 
Peters, Alberta, 418. 
Philadelphia. 

Co-operative companies, 235-236. 

Guidance for war-time volunteer workers, 
165. 

Probation officer, 306. 

War information bureau, 277. 
Philadelphia Housing Association, 243. 
Philippines, babies, 235. 
Phinney, S. II., 461. 

Review of Allen's Civilized Commercialism, 
459. 
Physicians. 

Army rank, 22. 

Industrial, and the returning soldier, 354. 

Need of, 404. 

Volunteer Medical Service Corps, 483. 
Pickens, William. Review of Peabody's Edu- 
cation for Life : The Story of Hampton In- 
stitute, 543. 
PInkham, H. W. Pacifists (letter), 676. 
Pittsburgh. 

Chamber of Commerce on prisoners, 695. 

Negro welfare workers, 513. 

New morals court, 639. 

Smoke posters, [33], 45. 
Plagues. 

Europe and America, 720. 

India, 320. 
Play. New York city, mayor's proclamation, 

643. 
Play school, 306. 
Playground and Recreation Association of 

America, 196. 
Playgrounds in North Africa, 585. 
Plessis Planet, 187. 
Poetry. See Verse. 
Pogroms in Poland (letter), 407. 
Poison, wood alcohol, 609. 
Poland. 

Homestead (poster), 615. 

Jewish situation, 614. 

Jews, 226. 

Pogroms (letter). 407. 
Poles, 307, 375-376. 

Detroit convention, 720. 

Riders on Independence Day, 420. 
Poliomyelitis. After Care Committee, 306. 
Polish Gray Samaritans, 621. 
Polish White Cross, 721. 
Political science, new college of, 194. 
Politics and labor, 287. 
Pollock. H. M.. 597. 
Pomegranate Blossom, 585. 
Poperinghe, 338, 340, 341. 
Portsmouth, N. H., 434. 
Post, George B., & Sons, 227. 
Post Office Department, seditious matter, 301. 
Tosters. 

Children's Bureau, 547. 

English women helping to win the war, [57]. 

Land Service Committee of Y. W. C. A., 432. 

Poland homestead, 615. 

Reconstruction of a French village, 517. 

Red Cross, [177], 193. 

Salvage, bv J. W. West, 337. 

Serbia. [305]. 

War Department, health, 90, 91. 

War garden (Flagg), 14. 
Potter, Z. L., 45. 
Potter's field (verse), 5. 
Poussineau, F61ix, 406. 
Poverty. 

Evolutionists and revolutionists (letter), 299. 

Town without, 546. 
Prager, R. B., 101, 225. 

Acquittal of lynchers, 301. 
Prayer of a munition-maker (verse), 564. 
Prentis, P. L., 454. 
Prevost, M. D. Review of Allen's Universal 

Training for Citizenship and Public Service, 
316. 
Price, Leo, 71. 

Prices and food profiteering, 375. 
Printers' Ink, 375. 
Prisoners. 



Government control, 695. 

War service, 707. 

See also War prisoners. 
Prisons. 

Detroit, 595. 

Indiana, parole, 644. 

Military, punishments, 699. 
Pro Captivis (society), 672. 
Probation. 

New York Commission's report, 131. 

Philadelphia officer, 306. 
Production, nerve center, 345. 
Profiteering, 375. 

Landlords, 434. 
Prohibition. 

Churches to the President, message, 228. 

Issue (letter), 547. 

Massachusetts ratifies, 59. 

National (letter from F. Almy), 572. 

New York state and the amendment, 18. 

Restrictions on liquor traffic, 675. 

Senate and, 406. 

Senate vote. 647. 

War, English plebiscites (letter), 647. 

War, House of Representatives, 706. 

War, Senate, 418. 

War ; shipbuilding, etc., 379. 
Proportional representation and Parliament, 

235. 
Prosser, C. A„ 323. 
Prostitution, 158, 407. 

Correctional treatment, 108. 
Protection of girls, 461. 
Psychiatric social service, 297. 
Public baths. 321. 

Most popular (cartoon), 321. 
Public employment offices in Canada, 410. 
Public health. 

Epidemics, 720. 

Rochester exhibit panel, 474. 

State and nation, 355. 

See also American Public Health Association. 
Public Health Service, 403. 

Conference of health officers at Washington, 
355. 

Place, 16. 

War bureaus, office, etc., 418. 
Public utilities, 443. 
Public welfare. 

Flint, Mich., 548. 

Outgrowths of Missouri League, 236. 
Public Welfare (periodical), 236. 
Publicity as punishment for soldiers, 155. 
Purdy, Lawson, 505. 

Review of McBaln's American City Progress 
and the Law, 104. 
Purdy, W. F., 467. 



Quakers. 

Conscience, 232. 

Periodical published in Paris, 235. 
Queen's ^\'ork (periodical), 290. 
Queensland, 315. 
Quinby case, 445. 
Quotas, 18. 

R 

Raemaekers. Louis. Cartoon of Wilson and 

labor, 613. 
Railroad. 

Wages, 197, 647. 674. 

Women's work. 296. 682. 
Railway Wage Commission, 197. 
Randall amendment, 379. 
Randolph, Stanley. 687. 
Ransom, W. L., 322. 

Agitation for higher fares. 443. 
Ratcliffe, S. K. League to Enforce Peace, 

Philadelphia convention, 259. 
Rats in India, 320. 

Rauschenbusch, Walter, obituary (with por- 
trait), 493. 
Reconstruction. 

Agricultural, army for, 671. 

Belgian books (two, in French), 542. 

Belgium, 461. 

British, housing, 236-237. 

British Labour Party resolutions, 500. 

Canada, groups, 272. 

Council of National Defense studies, 573. 

Discussion groups, 455. 

Educational (letter), 202. 

Flanders, etc., 344. 

French books on, 517. 

Social. 673. 

Social and economic, Second conference, 195. 

Soldiers and land, 405. 
Reconstruction (periodical), 235. 
Reconstruction Service of the Industrial Union, 

627. 
Recreation. 

Children's Year and, 512. 

Training course in organization, 523. 

War and, 196. 
Red Cross. 

Child Welfare Exhibit in Lyons, 449. 

China flood relief, 423. 

Christmas Roll Call, 723. 

Christmas seal, design, 375. 

Christmas seals, 723. 

Christmas seals, proceeds (letters), 646. 

Emergent and enduring service in France, 73. 

France : farm labor and soldiers, 320. 

France, man helping children and mother 
(ill.), [U3]. 

Greater demands ahead, 722. 

Help to refugees from Soissons-Rhelms belt, 
531. 



Index 



Home Service at the front, 321. 

Home Service extended to France, 46. 

"I wish mother wasn't so husy with Red 
Cross work" (cartoon), 691. 

Italv, medical unit to, 694. 

Junior, 235. 

La Courneuve, 62. 

Nurses wanted, 325. 

Palestine mission, 261. 

Posters, [177], 193. 

Reconstruction in France under fire, 127. 

Relief ship to Russia, 485. 

Relief work back of Ypres (Kellogg), 337. 

Results of drive, 301. 

Rumania conditions, 44. 

Russia, in Wilson's address, 235. 

Saving French babies, 406. 

Second campaign for funds, 193. 

Service to foreign-born women. 508. 

Solicitations by the young, 235. 

Swiss mission announced, 418. 

Trudeau Sanatorium in France, 187. 

Women's Advisory Committee, 418. 

Work on the fringes of the battle (Devine), 
331. 

Workers abroad, insurance, 147. 

See also Home Service. 
Red Triangle. See Y. M. C. A. 
Reed, Anna Y. Newsboy service (letter), 201. 
Refugees in France, etc., 331, 342. 
Regan, Mrs. Nora, 594. 
Regnier, Paul, 320. 
Rellley, Capt.. 346. 
Relief, public by private agency (Grand Rapids, 

Mich.), 228. 
Renaudel. Pierre, 471. 
Rents. 226, 434. 
Research studentships, 147. 
Responsibility, economic, 397. 
Restaurant worker, exhibit panel. 473. 
Returned Soldiers' Welfare League, 484. 
Reynolds, W. S., 147. 
Rheims, 531. 
Richardson. C. S., 135. 

Richmond, Va., Negroes and whites working to- 
gether, 121. 
Ricketts, Emily, 408. 
Rights of man, Negro memorial, 163. 
Riley, T. J. Review of Todd's Theories of 

Social Progress, 198. 
Rivet-driving, 293. 

Rivola, Flora S. The awakening (verse), 186. 
Robinson, L. N., 248, 306. 
Robinson law, 453. 
Roche, Josephine A., 351. 
Rochester, Minn., 334. 

Rochester, N. Y., employment managers' con- 
ference, 189. 
Rochester fare case, 445. 
Rockefeller Foundation, 402. 

Three appropriations, 306. 
Rockefeller Plan, 402. 

New Jersey, 46. 
Rogers, A. C, 562. 
Rogers, B. R., 698. 
Rogers, W. C, 345. 
Roller, Anna, 352. 
Rooky, the crook, 664. 
Root, Elihu, 470. 
Rosenstein, David. Letter commending The 

Survey, 50. 
Rosenwald, Julius, at Tuskegee, 301. 
Ross, Mary. 

American health exhibit in France, 449. 

Reconstruction under fire,, 127. 

Red Cross at La Courneuve, 62. 
Rotch, Mrs. A. G., 296. 
Rouen, 331. 

Routzahn, E. G. and M. S. Why have an ex- 
hibit? 473. 
Rumania, report on war and plague, 44. 
Rumanians, 292, 307. 
Rural life. See Country. 
Rush-Bagot arrangement, 173. 
Russell, J. R., 379. 
Russell Sage Foundation, 135. 
Russia. 

American League to aid and Cooperate with, 
164, 372. 

Instinct for democracy, 85. 

Intervention, 372. 

Marxism, 159. 

Red Cross relief ship to, 485. 

Social conditions ; clocks, 357. 

Unemployment insurance, 160. 

Wilson's Red Cross address, 235. 

S 

Sagamore Sociological Conference, 408. 

Sage Foundation. See Russell Sage Founda- 
tion. 

St. Louis, city plan, new steps, 480. 

St. Paul. 
Housing and city planning ordinances, 204. 
Labor convention, report, 363. 

St. Sulpice, 532, 534. 

Saltamaken, 132. 

Salvage (poster), 337. 

Salvation Army in Germany, 648. 

San Antonio, 156, 264. 

San Antonio Express, 593. 

San Francisco. 
Garden City, 514. 
Housing, 514, 515. 
Y. W. C. A. lectures by Immigrants, 596. 

Sanger, Margaret, 418, 676. 

Sanitation In India, 320. 



Scandinavian Christians, 451, 548. 

Schaffner, Joseph, death, 139. 

Scheidemann, Philip, 499. 

Schlesinger, Mrs. Bert. Letter commending 

The Survey, 52. 
Schmidt, Katharine R. Cooperative canning 

(letter), 324. 
Schneider, Herman, 345. 
Schneiderman, Rose. 435. 
School boys who pay, 217. 
School district councils, 203. 
Schools. 

Building, 698. 

Cincinnati, 134. 

Dunkirk, under bombardment, 510. 

Evening, 426. 

Julia Richmond High School, 236. 

New York City, superintendent, 147. 

See also Education. 
Schwab, Rosalind A. The Red Cross workroom 

(verse), 590. 
Schweinitz, Karl de. 

New names for old, 712. 

Review of Watson's Social Work with Fami- 
lies. 569. 
Scotch bandmaster, 421. 
Scotland, Mackenzie's report on welfare of 

mothers and children, 615. 
Scott, E. J., 132. 

Scottish Veterans' Garden City Association, 72. 
Scrubwomen, 594. 
Scudder, Vida D. Review of Roberts's The 

Church In the Commonwealth, 668. 
Sculpture in wood. 560. 
Seamen, charity singing, 677. 
Sears, Roebuck & Co., 88, 221. 
Seattle. 

Newsboy service, 201. 

Newsboys (letter), 50. 

Strong, Anna L., and The Survey, 21. 
Selby, C. D., 354. 
Seldes, Gilbert. Review of Latzko's Men in 

War, 168. 
Sellers, Kathrvn, 433. 
Semple, Mrs. Samuel, 108. 
Senate, U. S. 

Prohibition, new amendment, 418. 

Prohibition vote, 647. 

War prohibition, 406. 
Serbia, day of (poster), [305]. 
Seton, E. T., 13. 

Settlement worker, the (verse), 291. 
Settlements. 

National Federation, 293. 

National Federation's summary of war-time 
outlook, 616. 
Seymour, Gertrude. 

Health of soldier and civilian, 89, 154. 

Public health in state and nation, 355. 

Review of Vedder's Syphilis and Public 
Health, 569. 

Review of White's Principles of Mental Hy- 
giene, 318. 
Shaker colonies, war-time uses, 71. 
Shannon, W. A., 381. 
Shaw, Arthur L., 71. 
Shaw, G. B., 546. 
Shenton, H. N., 108, 203, 613. 
Shiels, Albert, 604. 
Shipbuilders, 293. 

Alcohol and, 379. 

Garden suburb at Wilmington. 595. 
Shirley, Mass., 71. 
Shonts, T. P., 270. 
Shortt, Adam, 665. 
Shower baths. 320, 677. 
Simkhovitch, Marv K., 237. 
Single tax (letterL 459. 
Slang, criminal, 20-21. 
Slavic Legion, 370. 
Slavs, 26i, 292. 375-376. 
Slovaks. 261, 292. 307. 
Slovenian letter, 308. 
Smillle, Robert, 468, 535, 536. 
Smith, B. C, 196. 
Smith & Wesson Co., 696. 
Smith bill, 162. 
Smith College. 

Psychiatric social service, 297. 

Relief Unit. 127, 331. 461. 
Smoke, Pittsburgh abatement league (with 

posters), [33.1 45. 
Smulski, J. F., 721. 
Sneddon, David. Review of Dean's Our Schools 

in War Time and After, 542. 
Snowden, Philip, 295, 299, 498. 
Social Christianity, interpreters, 493. 
Social Democratic League of America, 673 
Social hygiene. 

Government board, 403. 

War camp communities. 306. 
Social justice, study syllabus, 455. 
Social reconstruction. See under Reconstruc- 
tion. 
Social service. 

Mental and nervous cases, 297. 

Mitchel's contribution, 505. 

War and the churches, 229. 
Social settlements. See Settlements. 
Social survey in Los Angeles, 262. 
Social welfare. 

China, 633. 

Japan, 132. 
Social work. 

Bombay, 72. 

Catholic, 290. 

Central Powers at Vienna conference, 523 

Government participation, 255. 

Is It essential? (letter), 646. 



Social facts and scientific, 285. 

Southern Negroes, 643. 

War zone, letter, 568. 

Woods, R. A., on (address at National Con- 
ference), 395. 

See also National Conference of Social 
Work. 
Social workers. 

Coal and, 659. 

Emergency course in social science, 203. 

Labor shortage, 125. 

Self-confessional (letter), 459. 

Volunteer, guidance for, 165. 
Socialism. 

Celebration of Marx anniversary, 159. 

Debs, E. V., 695. 

Democratic, 673. 
Socialist Aldermanic Delegation, 203. 
Socialist Party's Congressional platform, 640. 
Socialists, enemy, and war aims, 451. 
Sociological Congress, Southern, 163. 
Sodalities, 290. 
Soissons, 531. 
Soldiers. 

Australian systems of land settlement, 313. 

Chivalry, 131. 

Colonizing returned, 572, 684. 

Crippled (letter), 675. 

Crippled, preferential employment in Indus- 
try, 306. 

Deafened, 627. 

Deafened (letter), 700. 

Dentistry. 546. 

Dependents, changes in care of, 372. 

Disabled (cartoon), 567. 

Disabled, France, 485. 

Disabled, Great Britain, housing, 72. 

France, agricultural re-education, 320. 

Girls and, 621. 

Health, 89, 154. 

Legal aid for dependents of, 263. 

Passports to France for relatives, 515. 

Returning, and industrial physicians, 354. 

Returning to land, 405. 

Stranded relatives, 215. 

Useless feeding. 648. 

Vocational re-education, 306. 

See also Cripples. 
Solicitations, 235. 
Solvay Process Co., 88. 
Sonyea, N. Y., 71. 
South, Negroes moving north from (Havnes). 

115. 
South Slavs. See Jugo-Slavs. 
Southern Sociological Congress, 163. 
Spain, finance and social unrest, 319. 
"Spanish influenza". 720. 
Spargo. John, 637. 
Specialists, medical, 334. 
Speer, R. W., 230. 
Spencer, Anna G. Obituary notice of Helen S. 

Campbell, 545. 
Spirit of '76 (drawing), [417]. 
Sprague, L. W. Children's Year (verse), 333. 
Springfield, Mass., Smith & Wesson Co., 696. 
Stammering (letters), 377, 647. 
Standard Oil Co., Bayonne plan, 46. 
State Councils of Defense, 605. 
Steel industry, wages raised, 48. 
Steen, Countess van den [329], 341, 344. 
Stella. Joseph. 5. 

Drawings [417], 420, 421 [441], 447. 
Stephens, Frank, 409. 
Stern, Rose G., 700. 

Our deafened soldiers, 627. 
Stiles, C. W., 91. 
Stockholm, 451, 548. 
Stokes, A. P., 388. 
Stone, F. F„ [489]. 
Strayer, P. M., 229. 
Street noise, 648. 
Street railways, 295. 

Wages, 545. 

Women conductors, 369. 

Women conductors In Cleveland, 725. 
Strikes. 

Interborough Rapid Transit, 270. 

Telegraphers. 292, 409. 418. 
Strong, Anna L. Recall and The Survey, 21. 
Su Chia Ch'ao, 424. 
Submarines in dry dock, [1]. 
Subnormallty problems (letter), 324. 
Subsidy system, Lexington, Ky., 164. 
Suicide of a conscientious objector, 109. 
Sullivan, James. Review of Robbing's The 

School as a Social Institution, 233. 
Sullivan, J. M., 20. 

Summer courses at Hampton Institute, 234. 
Sun Yat Sen, 686. 
Sunday, Billy, 60. 
Supreme Court. 

Asking a rehearsing of Child Labor case, 323. 

Federal child labor law, 283. 
Si RVHYj 'I'm:. 

India, farmer delivering [145], 172. 

Letters of commendation, 50. 53, 

Strong's (Anna L.) recall and an article, 21. 
Survey at Chester, Pa., results, 482. 
Swartz, Nelle, 262, 483. 
Sweden, unemployed women textile workers. 

484. 

Switzerland. 

Red Cross mission announced, 418. 

War prisoners, 672. 
Syphilis, 316. 407, 484, 620. 

See also Venereal diseases. 
Syphilitic mental diseases, 597. 
Szlupas, John. Lithuanian hopes (letter), 483. 



Index 



XI 



Taff Vale case, 289. 

Taft W. H., 259, 292, 403, 682. 

Tago, I., 132. 

Talbert, Mrs. Mary, 513. 

Tasmania, 314. 

Taunton, Mass., 409. 

Taxation. 408, 459. 

Tavlor, Graham, 253, 294, 454. 

American Medical Association, Chicago ses- 
sion, 353. 

Enforcing English, 394 

Gladden, Washington (obituary), 422, 43b. 

Rauschenbusch, Walter (obituary), 493. 

Review of Cope's Religious Education in the 
Church, 478. _ , ., 

Review of Ilogue's, The Church and the 
Crowd, 197. „ , 

Review of three books on religious educa- 
tion, 105. M ... 

Review of two books on democracy, 476. 
Taylor, Leah D. (Mrs. Graham), obituary, 495. 
Taylor, W. H., 484. 

Crippled soldiers as (letter), 378. 

Increased salaries asked in New \ork, 139. 

Pensions (letter), 377. 

Resolution on military training, 481. 

Voice in policies, 109. 
Telegraphers, 292, 418. 

Threatened strike and the government, 409. 
Teller, S. A. Is social work essential? (letter), 

Tenants' League of Greater New York, 435. 
Tenement House Department in Mitchel's ad- 
ministration, 507. 
Texas fund for suppression of lynching, 593. 
Theaters at army training camps, 461. 
Thomas, Albert, 471. 
Thomas, J. H., 467, 472, 497. 
Thomas, Norman. Review of Coulton s The 

Case for Compulsory Military Service, 429. 
Thompson, A. H. Letter on the nation's 

danger, 483. 
Thompson, Joseph. 434. 
Thornton, J. N.. 684. 
Thurston, II. W., 256. 
Tilton, Elizabeth. 

Beer and plebiscites in England (letter), 
647. 

Dry Mondays (letter), 201. 

Prohibition issue (letter), 547. 

Review of Stelzle's Why Prohibition? 591. 
Tippv, W. M., 229. 

Interview with Bishop Gore, 683. 
Tipton, E. II. "This Side the Trenches" 

(letter), 460. 
Tired of giving (cartoon), 165. 
Tole, James, 346. 
Tomeoka, Kosuke, 132. 
Tompkins, Ernest, 647. 

Review of Swift's Speech Defects in Children 
and How to Treat Them, 169. 

Stammering (letter), 377. 
Topography and rent, 226-227. 
Toronto, political labor party, 130. 
Town, cooperative, England, 546. 
Towns, C. B. 

R' view of Alcohol : Its Action on the Hu- 
man Organism, 570. 

Review of Hinckley's Narcotic Drug Addic- 
tion, 668. 
Trachtenberg, Alexander. Unemployment in- 
surance for Russia, 160. 
Trade equality (letter), 49. 
Trade schools, women in, 682. 
Training Camp Commission, 155. 
Trammel-Keating bill, 97, 306. 
Trees, sculpture, 560. 
Trial awards, 268. 
Troelstra, Pieter, 565. 
Trounstine (Helen S.) Foundation, 134. 
Trudeau (Edward L.) Sanatorium in France, 

187. 
Tuberculosis. 

Christmas seal design, 375. 

Farrand, L., on, 482. 

French armv. 48. 

Hogs and, 698. 

Illinois. 271, 272. 

Illinois Association, 96. 

Minneapolis fight, 431. 

National Association, 147, 323. 

Oklahoma, 271. 

Pennsylvania, 235. 

Red Cross Christmas seals, 723. 

Statistics (letters), 571. 

Trudeau Sanatorium in France, 187. 

War and, 323, 698. 
Tully, F. W., 345. 
Tulsa, Okla., 102. 
Turkey, 435. 

Turner, Jennie M. John Brown and interna- 
tional citizenship, 687. 
Turner, R. N., 61. 
Tuskegee, 132. 

Rosenwald welcome, 301. 
Typhus, 720. 



U 

Ukrainians, 292. 
Unemployment. 

Insurance for Russia, 160. 

New York, Mayor's Committee program, 717. 
Union Park Gardens, Wilmington, 595. 
Unionism, 287, 292. 
United Mine Workers, 405. 



United Neighborhood Guild, 408. 
U. S. Housing Corporation, 460. 
U. S. Steel Corporation, 48. 

Eight-hour day, 722. 
Upsala, 451, 548. 
Uruguay, 147. 

Useful occupations, 453, 454. 
Utah, Bishop Jones and, 100. 
Uzzell, Camella W. A demonstration in health 

education, 257. 



Vacation in a woolen mill, 538. 

Vandevelde, 471. 

Van de Water, Charlotte. To England — August 

4 (verse), 510. 
Van Kleeck, Marv, 347, 452. 
Van Raalte, Albert, 614. 
Van Schaick, John, 344. 
Vargas, T. L, 404. 
Vedder, Lieut.-Col., 93. 
Veditz, Mr., 228. 
Venereal diseases, 484. 

California, 157. 

Government board, 403. 

Kahn-Chamberlain bill, 418. 

Massachusetts, 373. 

Nation's danger (letters), 407, 620. 

New York legislation, 138. 

Syphilitic insanity, cost in New York state, 
597. 

Treatment, methods. 335. 

United States army, 92. 
Vernimont, Raymond. A new college (letter), 

572 
Vernon, H. W., 374. 
Verse. 

Awakening, the (Rivola). 186. 

Battleground, the (Brawley), 608. 

Because God lavished (Wynne), 289. 

Book on economics (Long), 475. 

Casualty list, the (Brewster). 561. 

Children's Year (Sprague), 333. 

Contrast (Chamberlain), 581. 

Idealism (Hoyt), 612. 

If ever power (Wynne), 161. 

Munition-maker's prayer (Miller), 564. 

Newswoman (Flexner), 315. 

"One of the least" (H. L.), 673. 

Potter's field (Leo), 5. 

Red Cross workroom (Schwab). 590. 

Settlement worker, the (Widdemer), 291. 

To a factory girl's hands (Hoyt), 15. 

To a working girl (Garesche), 392. 

To England — August 4 (Van de Water), 510. 
Vicariousness, 555. 
Victory Housing Corporation, 264. 
Vienna, 523. 
Villard, O. G., 418. 
Vincent, G. E., 403. 
Violence. See Lynching; mob violence. 
Vocational education. 

Crippled soldiers. 179. 

Cripples, soldiers and civilians, 162. 
Vocational guidance. 317. 
Volunteer Medical Service Corps, 483. 
Volunteer workers, guidance for, 165. 
Voters. 

Information bulletins published by women, 
236. 

Women, 428. 



W 

Wacker, C. II., 133. 
Wages. 

Bethlehem Steel Co., 545. 

Cost of living and, 122. 

Packing industries, 35. 

Railroad workers, 197, 647, 674. 

Standardization, 452. 

Steel industry, 48. 

Street railways, 545. 

Women's, in Baltimore and in Ohio, studies, 
351. 

See also Minimum wage. 
Wagner. Charles, death, 202-203. 
Wald, Lillian D., 294. 
Waldron, Rev. C. H.. 484-485. 
Walker, J. H. Review of Harris's Coopera- 
tion the Hope of the Consumer, 317. 
"Wall Street's back yard", 460-461. 
Wallln, J. E. W., 324. 
Walsh, F. P.. 292, 403. 
Walter, Henriette It. 

Review of Drake's Women in the Engineer- 
ing Trade, 668. 

Review of Hutton's Welfare and Housing, 
476. 
Wanamaker, John, 108. 
Wanted — social workers, 125. 
Wang, C. T., 635. 
War, the. 

Activities of our new Americans, 309. 

Church service in, 306. 

Churches and social service, 229. 

Colleges and, 301. 

Columbus (Ohio) chest, 97. 

Delinquency and, 131. 

Economic and social effects, 665. 

Effect on a typical city (Chester, Pa.), 243. 

Individualism and, 270. 

Information bureau, Philadelphia, 277. 

Labor recruiting, 348. 

Mortality, battle rate and disease rate, 641. 

Plans for winning, 162. 

Prisoners' service, 707. 



Production, nerve center, 345. 

Recreation in the first y-ear, 196. 

Social worker's letter, 568. 

Tuberculosis and, 698. 

Unionism and, 287. 

Women's work, training, 297. 

See also France. 
War aims. 

British press on the Labor Conference, 7. 

Enemy Socialists, 451. 

Memorandum adopted by the Inter-Allied 
Labor and Socialist Conference in London, 
6. 
War Camp Community Service, 319. 

Letter, 647. 
War chest plan. 97, 642. 

National, 674. 
War Economy. See National Conference on 

War Economy. 
War Garden Commission. Sec National War 

Garden Commission. 
War gardens. 

Flagg's poster, 14. 

Relation to national economy, 13. 
War industries committees, 677. 
War Industries Board, 433. 
War Labor Board, 100, 292, 452, 454, 455. 

Bridgeport and Springfield, 696. 

Eight-hour day, ~-ll. 

Two decisions (wages, Bethlehem and 
street railways), 545. 

Umpires appointed, 452, 
War Labor Conference Board, 100. 
War Labor Policies Board, 452. 
War orphans in Germany, 39. 
War prisoners in Switzerland, 672. 
War relief funds. 

National war chest, 674. 

War chest plan, 97. 642. 
War relief work of W. C. T. U., 648. 
War Risk Insurance Bureau. See Bureau of 

War Risk Insurance. 
War service bureau of Greenwich House, 580. 
War workers. 

Clearing house for, 565. 

Housing, government, 45. 
Ward, Estelle F. Work of Woman's Defense 

Committee, 111., 556. 
Warner, A. R., 349. 

See also Davis, M. M., and A. R. Warner. 
Washington, D. C, pawnbrokerage, 202. 
Waterbury, Conn. Housing, 226. 

Infant mortality, 506. 
Watson, D. C, 560. 
Watson, F. D., 725. 
Watteau, 337. 
Waynesboro, Pa., 452. 
Wealth, work and war, 665. 
Webb, Sidney, 405, 497. 
Webb-Kenyon act, 323. 
Weber, J. J., 306. 
Webster, A. P., 350. 
Welfare Work for Deaf Mutes, 627. 
Welfare workers in Pittsburgh, Negro, 513. 
Weller, C. F. Review of Geister's Ice-Breakers, 

429. 
Welleslev College, 402. 
Wells, H. Gideon, 44. 
Weu An, 423. 
Wenley, R. M. 

Review of Holmes's The Problem of the 
Soul, 477. 

Review of Judd's Introduction to the Sci- 
entific Study of Education, 618. 
West, J. W., 337. 
West Virginia, idlers' law, 98. 
Western Union Telegraph Co., 292, 409. 
Westinghouse companies, 222. 
Wheat, Utah, 525. 

Wheeling Mold and Foundry Co.. 722. 
White, J. C. Pogroms in Poland (letter), 407. 
White, W. A., 378. 
White, W. C. Malabry, 187. 
White, W. F., 511. 
White Motor Co., 460. 
Whiteside, Alexander. Our new Americans 

and war activities, 309. 
Whitley, Mary T. 

Review of Mateer's Child Behavior, 356. 

Review of Pintuer's The Mental Survey, 592. 
Widdemer, Margaret. The settlement worker 

(verse), 291. 
Wile, I. S. 

Review of Cabot's Training and Rewards of 
the Physician, 108. 

Review of Weaver's Medicine as a profes- 
sion, 105. 

Service and plight of the New York Health 
Department, 63. 

Who is incompetent? 448. 
Wilkes-Barre, 235. 
Willcox, W. G. Education Department In 

Mitchel's administration, 507. 
Williams, J. B., 535. 
Williamson, C. C. 

Review of Johnsen's Municipal Ownership, 
591. 

Review of Mabie's City Manager Plan of 
Government. 591. 
Wilmington, Del. 

Garden suburb for shipyard workers, 595. 

Juvenile court, 135. 
Service Citizens, 567. 
Wilson, Havelock, 535, 536. 
Wilson, J. A., 295, 364. 
Wilson, P. W., 322. 
Wilson, President. 

Baltimore address, 44. 

Greeting to France on Bastille Day, 447. 



XII 



Index 



Labor peace, 100. 

Leadership in international democracy (let- 
ter from England), 172. 

Letter of warning to recalcitrant employes, 
697. 

Mob violence proclamation, 512. 

On Community Councils and Defense Coun- 
cils, 605. 

On Labor Day, 613. 

Order on recruiting war labor, 348. 

Red Cross address, 235. 

Trade equality (letter), 49. 

Veto of bill affecting hours of work of gov- 
ernment clerks, 418. 
Wilson, W. H. Review of Smith-Gordon and 

Staples's Rural Reconstruction in Ireland, 

429. 
Winslow, C. E. A., 272. 

Review of Brand's Health and the State, 669. 
Winslow, Emma A. 

"My money won't reach," 122. 

Review of books on food in wartime, 199. 

Review of cook books, 234. 

Review of Farmer and Huntington's Food 
Problems, 317. 

Review of Vesselitsky's Expenditure and 
Waste, 478. 
Winslow, E. E. Review of Ravage's An Ameri- 
can in the Making, 70. 
Winter. C. A., 375. 
Winton, G. B. 

Review of Ackerman's Mexico's Dilemma, 
316. 

Review of Morrill's The Devil in Mexico, 592. 
Wirebaugh, F. E., 320. 
Wisconsin. 

Anti-Tuberculosis Association, 547. 

Night work for women, 235. 

Women's luncheon, 643. 
Wise, S. S., 284. 
Withycombe, Governor, 237. 
Woesten, 337. 

Woman Patriot (periodical), 235. 
Woman suffrage. 

Hawaii, 301. 
Woman Suffrage Party, New York State, 236. 
Woman's Defense Committee of the Council of 

National Defense, Illinois Division, 556. 
Woman's International League, 410. 
Woman's Land Army of America, [57], 433. 



Women. 

Alien enemies through marriage, 548. 

Bristol housing. 236-237. 

California professional, 381. 

Candidate for Parliament, 409. 

Cleveland street cars, 725. 

College graduates and nursing, 94. 

Colored, National Association, 513. 

Conductoring. 369. 

Conductors, night runs, 17. 

Employment, policies, '452. 

England, less work, 99. 

English, helping to win the war (poster), 
[57]. 

Foreign-born, 213. 

Industry and tenements in New York city, 
237. 

Instances of their work, 295. 

Juvenile court judge, 433. 

Labor Day message concerning, 614. 

Laundry conditions in New York city, 262. 

Luncheon, 643. 

Munition-makers and German shell explosion, 
715. 

Night work in France, 228. 

Pennsylvania R. R., 432. 

Ploughing and harvesting (cartoon), 433. 

Railroad work, 682. 

Shorter hours. 17. 

Street car service, 295-296. 

Trade schools, 682. 

Training for war work, 297. 

Value to Y. M. C. A. in France, 391. 

Voting, 236, 128. 

Wage studies in Baltimore and Ohio, 351. 

Wisconsin, night work, 235. 

Y. M. C. A. positions, 357. 
Women in industry. 

New York bureau, 483. 

Woolen mill experience of a college girl, 538. 
Women's Advisory Committee (Red Cross), 

418. 
W. C T. U., war relief, 648. 
Women's Peace Party, change of name, 410. 
Wood, stories of (sculpture), 560. 
Wood, Elizabeth. Home Service in the south- 
west, 582. 
Wood, T. D. Review of Andress's The Teach- 
ing of Hygiene in the Grades, 458. 
Wood alcohol, 609. 
Wood gathering, 368. 



Woods, Amy, 481. 
Woods, R. A., 252, 294. 

Massachusetts ratines, 59. 

Portrait. 252 

Regimentation of the free (address at Na- 
tional Conference), 395. 
Woodward, W. C, 572. 
Woolen mill, vacation in, 538. 
Work or fight, 452. 453, 454. 

Cartoons, 452. 453. 
Working girl (verse), 392. 
Workmen's compensation. 

Pennsylvania law, 108. 

Private insurance, 74. 
Wright, H. C. 

Charities Department in Mitehel's adminis- 
tration, 506. 

Review of Report on a Survey of the City of 
Indianapolis, Ind., 377. 
Wynne, Annette. 

Because God lavished (verse), 289. 

If ever power (verse), 161. 



Yarros, V. S. 

I. W. W. trial, 603, 630, 660. 
York, Pa., 324. 
Young Democracy, 351. 

Organization, 165. 
Y. M. C. A. 

China, 634. 

National War Work Council, expenditure, 
306. 

Proposed campaign, 301. 

Women helpers wanted, 357. 

Work in France, 387. 
Y. W. C. A. 

Campaign, 409. 

Land Service Committee (with poster), 432. 
Youngstown, Ohio, Charity Organization So- 
ciety, 52. 
Youth, organizing (against the older part of 

the community), 165. 
Ypres, 337. 
Yung Tao, Frank. 637, 638. 



Zimand, S. Review of Legler's Library Ideals, 

230. 
Zionist Medical Unit, 261. 




Notice to reader: When you finish read- 
ing this magazine place a one-cent stamp 
on this notice, hand same to any postal 
employe and it will be placed in the 
hands of our soldiers and sailors at the 
front. No wrapping — no address. 

A. S. Burleson, Postmaster General. 



SOKCW 




THERE THEY LAY IN LONG LINES — SOON TO BE READY TO START ON THEIR VENTURESOME VOYAGES 

(Submarines in Dry Dock, drawn by Joseph Pennell and included in his War Work in America, reviewed 

in this issue.) 



A War Program for Industrial Peace 

By John A. Fitch 



Mobilizing the Backyard 

By Bruno Lasker 



Two- Edged- -The British Labor Offensive as Documented 

by the British Press 



By Paul U. Kellogg 



Price 25 Cents 



April 6, 19 




MEN IN WAR 

By 
ANDREAS LATZKO 

"An officer in the Austrian army, Andreas Latzko, has written 
a book called 'Men in War,' which will unquestionably 

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of agony and horror. The publishers announce a first edition of ten thousand copies. 

One hopes that not fifty such editions will exhaust the public demand for such a book. 

It is such men as Latzko who will disrupt the evil fabric of Prussianism." 

— The Boston Transcript, March 20th, igi8. 

"The war has inspired two masterpieces: 'Under Fire' by the French soldier Barbusse 
and 'Men in War' by the Austrian officer, Andreas Latzko, an even more poignant 
interpretation of the effect of war on human beings than Barbusse 's novel." 

— New York Evening Mail. 

" 'Men in War' is notable among the war's great literary products. 'Under Fire' is realism, 
'Men in War' is artistic realism. From it we get a total impression (of the war) 
that is more complete than that suggested by Barbusse." — New York Evening Post. 



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UNBROKEN TRADITION. 

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[ADVERTISEMENT] 




A War Program for Industrial Peace 

Tentative Agreement Between Capital and Labor Drawn 
Up In Washington Last Week 

By John A. Fitch 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



THE agreement reached last week in Washington on 
recommendations regarding the relations between 
capital and labor for the duration of the war, is of 
great national importance both because of its terms 
and because of the personnel of the conferees who drew them 
up. From the standpoint of the nation at war, the two points 
of outstanding importance are: the declaration that there 
should be no strikes or lockouts while the war lasts, and that 
there should be a discontinuance of all rules or methods of 
work tending to limit production. These two points repre- 
sent concessions on the part of the labor men. Only second 
in importance, however, are the concessions of the employers, 
and from the standpoint of every social consideration, these, 
too, are of primary significance. They include the statement 
that "the right of workers to organize in trade unions and to 
bargain collectively through chosen representatives is recog- 
nized and affirmed;" that "employers should not discharge 
workers for membership in trade unions nor for legitimate 
trade union activities ;" and that in fixing the rates of pay the 
minimum is to be sufficient to "insure the sustenance of the 
worker and his family in health and reasonable comfort." 

The recommendations were drawn up by a conference 
board of twelve members, appointed by William B. Wilson, 
secretary of labor, for the purpose of threshing out a labor 
policy for the duration of the war. Five members of the 
board were named, at the request of Secretary Wilson, by the 
National Industrial Conference Board, a federation of em- 
ployers' organizations; five were named by the American 
Federation of Labor. Each group then named one additional 
member from the general public, the employers selecting 
former President William H. Taft, and the unions Frank P. 
Walsh, former chairman of the United States Commission on 
Industrial Relations. 

In order to make strikes unnecessary, it is proposed that a 
national war labor board similar in principle and in method 
of appointment to the conference board which prompted the 
recommendations, be created for the period of the war. This 
board, if the recommendations are adopted, will concern itself 



altogether with the settlement of industrial disputes in indus- 
tries of importance in carrying on the war. It would appoint 
local boards of arbitration, and where they fail to secure the 
adjustment of a difficulty, would itself render a decision. 
Where the board fails to reach a unanimous vote, it is pro- 
posed that they appoint an umpire to render a final decision. 
This umpire, if the board is unable to agree upon one, is to 
be chosen from a list of "ten suitable and disinterested persons" 
nominated by the president of the United States. 

There have been agreements not to strike that antedate 
these recommendations. Such agreements were entered into by 
the presidents of the international unions engaged in ship- 
building, the shipbuilding companies and the government. 
They were not binding upon the workers, because no au- 
thority had been given the international presidents to make 
any such agreement. It is a noteworthy fact, however, that 
while there have been many threats in these trades, there have 
been few strikes; the rank and file having kept the agreement 
to submit their grievances to arbitration. 

The present recommendations are more far-reaching and 
come with greater authority than those involving shipbuilding 
alone. They cover more than the trades and industries 
which were represented in the conference. The labor men 
were appointed not to represent their international unions, 
though several of the labor members are from the biggest 
unions in the American Federation of Labor, but they were 
appointed by the federation to speak for its total membership 
of two and a half million. In the same way the employers' 
representatives were chosen to speak for the organized em- 
ployers of America. 

These recommendations are made under better auspices 
than was the British Treasury Agreement, when thirty-four 
unions met officials of the government on March 19, 1915. 
and agreed not to strike for the duration of the war. This 
agreement was entered into by the individual unions and not 
by the British labor movement, and it carried with it a sug- 
gestion of failure at the very start by reason of the withdrawal 
of the miners' union. In less than four months, on July 2, 



The Survey, April 6, 1918, Volume 40, No. 1. 112 East 19 street, New York city 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 191 



1915, it was followed by the Munitions of War act, which 
made strikes in war industries illegal. The American recom- 
mendations one may well believe will be accepted by the 
workers and employers alike and faithfully adhered to. But 
if they do not end industrial warfare in this country, it should 
be remembered that the fatal defect in England, after all, was 
the failure to curb profiteering. 

No one can read the Washington recommendations with- 
out being impressed by the spirit of tolerance and good will 
that made them possible. The representatives of labor in- 
cluded W. L. Hutcheson, president of the Carpenters' Inter- 
national Union, who has recently been insistent in his demand 
for the closed shop in ship yards working on government con- 
tracts — yet his name is signed to a document that implies the 
giving up of the fight for the closed shop for the duration of 
the war. On the other side of the table were representatives 
of employers, some of whom have never dealt with organized 
labor, yet they conceded the right of labor to organize and to 
carry on collective bargaining. 

Probably no one believes, nevertheless, that the plan, in 
whatever good spirit it may be adopted, will work with utmost 
smoothness. It has already been pointed out by the president 
of an international union that it may not mean very much 
to say that workers shall not be discharged for union activity, 
since it is so easy to discharge undesirable employes for other 
reasons. On the other hand, it will be interesting to learn 
just how the unions will adjust themselves to the agreement 
not to use "coercive measures" in order to gain members or to 
induce employers to bargain with them. It is extremely diffi- 
cult to draw the line between action that is coercive and 
action that is persuasive. 

Curiously enough there is nothing in the recommendations 
as published to indicate how they are to be carried into effect. 
In form they are a list of recommendations made to the secre- 
tary of labor. He will undoubtedly have power to create a 
national war labor board, just as he created the conference 
board that prompted the recommendations. Such a board, 
appointed by a cabinet officer and on the recommendation of 
such a group of men as constituted the conference board, 
would undoubtedly have wide authority and would command 
universal respect. There is no provision in law, however, 
authorizing the secretary of labor to create such a board and 
to invest it with arbitrary power. It would seem that the 
only way to make the recommendations effective would be 
either for Congress to legalize them or for the international 
unions and the employers' associations to take formal action 
accepting them. The former would be a step of doubtful 
constitutionality and still more doubtful wisdom. 

The following statement from the recommendations em- 
bodies the principles that should govern the National War 
Labor Board in the consideration of controversies: 

There should be no strikes or lockouts during the war. 
Right to Organize: 

1. The right of workers to organize in trade unions and to bar- 
gain collectively, through chosen representatives, is recognized and 
affirmed. This right shall not be denied, abridged, or interfered 
with by the employers in any manner whatsoever. 

2. The right of employers to organize in associations of groups 
and to bargain collectively, through chosen representatives, is recog- 
nized and affirmed. This right shall not t>e denied, abridged, or 
interfered with by the workers in any manner whatsoever. 

3. Employers should not discharge workers for membership in 
trade unions nor for legitimate trade union activities. 

4. The workers, in the exercise of their right to organize, shall 
not use coercive measures of any kind to induce persons to join their 
organizations, nor to induce employers to bargain or deal therewith. 
Existing Conditions: 

1. In establishments where the union shop exists the same shall 
continue, and the union standards as to wages, hours of labor and 
other conditions of employment shall be maintained. 



2. In establishments where union and non-union men and women 
now work together, and the employer meets only with employes or 
representatives engaged in said establishments, the continuance of 
such conditions shall not be deemed a grievance. This declaration, 
however, is not intended in any manner to deny the right or dis- 
courage the practice of the formation of labor unions, or the joining 
of the same by the workers in said establishments, as guaranteed in 
the last paragraph, nor to prevent the War Labor Board from urg- 
ing, or any umpire from granting, under the machinery herein pro- 
vided, improvement of their situation in the matter of wages, hours 
of labor, or other conditions, as shall be found desirable from time 
to time. 

3. Established safeguards and regulations for the protection of 
the health and safety of workers shall not be relaxed. 

Women in Industry: 

If it shall become necessary to employ women on work ordinarily 
performed by men, they must be allowed equal pay for equal work, 
and must not be allotted tasks disproportionate to their strength. 

Hours of Labor: 

The basic eight-hour day is recognized as applying in all cases in 
which existing law requires it. In all other cases the question of 
hours of labor shall be settled with due regard to governmental 
necessities, and the welfare, health, and proper comfort cf the 
workers. 
Maximum Production: 

The maximum production of all war industries should be main- 
tained, and methods of work and operation on the part of employers 
or workers which operate to delay or limit production, or which have 
a tendency to artificially increase the cost thereof, should be dis- 
continued. 
Mobilization of Labor: 

For the purpose of mobilizing the labor supply, with a view to 
its rapid and effective distribution, a permanent list of the number 
of skilled and other workers available in different parts of the nation 
shall be kept on file by the Department of Labor, the information to 
be constantly furnished : 

1. By the trade unions. 

2. By state employment bureaus and federal agencies of like 
character. 

3. By the managers and operators of industrial establishments 
throughout the country. 

These agencies should be given opportunity to aid in the distribu- 
tion of labor, as necessity demands. 

Custom of Localities: 

In fixing wages, hours and conditions of labor, regard should al- 
ways be had to the labor standards, wage scales and other condi- 
tions prevailing in the localities affected. 

The Living Wage: 

1. The right of all workers, including common laborers, to a 
living wage is hereby declared. 

2. In fixing wages, minimum rates of pay shall be established 
which will insure the subsistence of the worker and his family in 
health and reasonable comfort. 

The report was signed by the following persons: Repre- 
senting the employers, Loyal A. Osborne, New York, vice- 
president of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company, and chairman of the executive committee of the 
National Industrial Conference Board; H. B. Worden, presi- 
dent of the Submarine Boat Company ; W. J. Vandervoort, 
East Moline, 111., president of the Root 5: Vandervoort Engi- 
neering Company; L. F. Loree, New York, president of the 
Delaware & Hudson Railroad Company; C. Edwin Michael, 
president of the Virginia Bridge and Iron Company. 

Representing the workers: Frank J. Hayes, president of the 
United Mine Workers of America, Indianapolis; William L. 
Hutcheson, president of the United Brotherhood of Carpen- 
ters and Joiners of America, Indianapolis; Thomas Savage, 
member of the Executive Council of the International Asso- 
ciation of Machinists, Washington, D. C. ; Victor Olander, 
representative of the International Seamen's Union of 
America, Chicago; T. A. Rickert, president of the United 
Garment Workers of America, Chicago. William H. Taft 
and Frank P. Walsh represented the public. 

The fact that it was possible for these representatives of 
organizations which have been frankly hostile to each other, 
to sit down and come to an agreement upon such recommen- 
dations is just another one of the indications of a changed 
spirit that the war has been effective in bringing to pa<s. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6 , i 9 1 8 



Drawn by Joseph Stella for the Survey 




The Potter's Field 

By Harry Lee 



I THINK the gray East River knows 
The morgue's dun driftwood 
As she flows, 
And, like a mother, 
On her breast 
She bears them 
To the place of rest. 

She knows them all — 
The young, the old, 
The wise, the fool, 
The meek, the bold — 
Between the Island 
And the Town, 
She carries them 
And lays them down. 

This brother, 
In his winding sheet, 
Need trudge no more 
On bleeding feet. 



This pallid sister 
Cares not now 
That love forgets 
The passioned vow. 

This poor, wee thing, 

A pinch of dust, 

A tiny, faded flower 

Of lust, 

Knew but a cry, a gasp, 

And then 

Sleep — 

And the folded wings again. 

I think the gray East River knows 

The barren acres' 

Numbered rows, 

Whose cross 

Speaks neither praise nor blame, 

Only— 

"He calls His own bv name." 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6 , 191 



"A League of Nations and Full Democracy" 

Memorandum on War Aims Adopted by the Inter-Allied Labor and Socialist Conference 

in London 



The following is a summary of the provisions of 
the memorandum, made up by the London Times, 
with the more important changes in the document 
as adopted by the British labor movement indicated 
between brackets 1 : — 



The parties reaffirm the declaration of February 14, 1915, 
that they are inflexibly resolved to fight until victory is 
achieved to accomplish the liberation of Belgium and of all 
peoples annexed by force, but to resist any attempt to trans- 
form a defensive war into a war of conquest. 

All States must be pressed to join a League of Nations for 
the prevention of wars. This involves the complete demo- 
cratization of all countries. The rules on which the league 
will be founded must be included in the Treaty of Peace. 
[This section has been redrafted ; the League of Nations 
is given greater prominence and its powers and duties are 
more precisely defined ; and an explicit acceptance of Presi- 
dent Wilson's general principles is added.] 

The establishment of the League of Nations gives a new 
aspect to territorial problems. It removes the last excuse 
for "strategic protections." The supreme right of each 
people to determine its own destiny must now prevail. [The 
right of self-determination is made the sole ground for ter- 
ritorial readjustments; the other ground — "for the purpose 
of removing any obvious cause of future international con- 
flict" — is omitted, in view of the powers assigned to the 
League of Nations.] 



BELGIUM AND ALSACE-LORRAINE 

Liberation and reparation for Belgium are a foremost condi- 
tion of peace. 

The question of Alsace and Lorraine is one of right, not ter- 
ritorial adjustment. Germany having broken the Treaty of 
Frankfurt, the new Treaty of Peace must nullify the vio- 
lation of the right of the inhabitants of the two provinces 
to dispose of their own destinies. When this is done France 
can agree to a fresh consultation of the inhabitants. [The 
original document merely denounced the crime of 1871, ex- 
pressed sympathy with the inhabitants, and asked that they 
should be allowed to decide their future position. The 
alteration makes it clear that disannexation must precede 
a plebiscite.] 



THE BALKANS AND ITALY 

Serbia, Montenegro, Rumania, Albania, and all the Balkan 
territories occupied by military force must be evacuated 
and each people must be given full liberty to settle its own 
destiny. The Balkan States should be federated for the 
settlement of common problems by mutual arrangement. 
[The explicit demand for the liberation of Serbia and the 
other occupied territories is new.] 

The claims of Italians outside the Italian boundaries to be 
united with Italy are supported, and the legitimate interests 
of Italy in the adjacent seas are recognized. Slavs in 
Italian territory and Italians in Slavonian territory must 
have full liberty of local self-government." [The reference 
to Slavs and Slavonian territory is new.] 



POLAND AND RUSSIA 

Poland must be reconstituted in unity and independence, with 
free access to the sea. [This is made more emphatic] 

Any annexation by Germany, open or disguised, of Livonia, 
Courland or Lithuania would be a flagrant and wholly in- 
admissible violation of international law. [A new pro- 
vision.] 

1 The War-Aims were published in full by the London Tim 
plement to its issue of March 23. 



JEWS AND THE TURKS 

Equal rights are demanded for Jews in all countries. 

Palestine should be freed from Turkish oppression and form 
a free state under international guarantee to which the Jews 
may return to work out their own salvation. 

Armenia, Mesopotamia and Arabia cannot be restored to 
the tyranny of the Sultan and his Pashas. If the peoples 
cannot settle their own destinies, they should be placed 
under the administration of an international commission, 
subject to the League of Nations. 

The Dardanelles should be permanently neutralized, under 
the control of the League of Nations. 

A U STRIA-HUNGARY 

Dismemberment of Austria-Hungary is not proposed, but the 
claims of the Czecho-Slovaks and the Yugo-Slavs to inde- 
pendence are not merely questions for internal decision. 
National independence should be given to peoples which 
demand it, and they should be free to substitute a federa- 
tion of Danubian states for the Austro-Hungarian empire. 
[A new provision.] 

FUTURE OF COLONIES 

The natives of all colonies and dependencies must be pro- 
tected against capitalist exploitation. Administrative au- 
tonomy should be granted to all groups sufficiently civilized, 
and to others a progressive participation in local govern- 
ment. 

Colonies taken by conquest must be the subject of special 
consideration at the Peace Conference. Those in tropical 
Africa should be controlled in accordance with international 
agreement under the League of Nations. [The proposal 
that the Colonies of tropical Africa should be handed over 
to the League of Nations is modified, and the problem of 
other conquered colonies, not expressly mentioned in the 
old memorandum, is left an open question.] 

NO ECONOMIC BOYCOTT 

There should be no economic boycott of any country after 
the war. Surpluses of foodstuffs, raw materials, and ship- 
ping should be allocated to the different countries accord- 
ing to their needs. 

Every government must take steps to prevent unemployment 
on the demobilization of armies and the disbandment of 
munition workers. 

RESTORATION AND COMPENSATION 

The restoration of devastated areas should be one of the 
most imperative duties of all countries, any international 
fund for the purpose being administered by an international 
commission. 

A Court of Claims and Accusations should be set up to in- 
vestigate allegations of cruelty, violence, and theft, and to 
award compensation or damages to the persons wronged, 
payable by the individual or government condemned. 

Special attention is drawn to the loss of life and property of 
merchant seamen and other non-combatants resulting from 
inhuman and ruthless conduct. 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 

The opinion is expressed that an international conference 
of labor and Socialist organizations, held under proper 
conditions, would at this stage help to remove obstacles to 
peace. Such a conference should be organized by an im- 
partial committee. An essential condition to it should be 
that all the organizations represented had publicly declared 
their peace terms in conformity with the principles of "No 
annexations or punitive indemnities, and the right of all 
peoples to self-determination," and were working to secure 
the adoption of those principles by their government < 
[This is a new clause.] 

s on February 25. and in full by the Ntvu Republic, as a sup- 



Two -Edged 

The British Labor Offensive as Documented by the British Press 

By Paul U. Kellogg 



EDITOR OF THE SURVEY 



THE charge upon General Foch as supreme com- 
mander of allied and American forces in France is 
to engineer such swift, united resistance to the tre- 
mendous German drive as to leave it a crumpled and 
disastrous failure. But beneath his immediate commission 
observers have been quick to see in this move, prompted by the 
crisis, a further step toward organizing that super-national 
force to check and thwart aggression which has been advocated 
as the essential arm of a league of nations. 

The inter-allied labor conference last month in London was 
a manifestation of another essential factor — a first joining of 
hands, if you will, of great social groups among the allies that 
found common cause in the principles which they held should 
enter into the constitution and legislation of such a league. 

Some of the leading British papers were quick to seize 
upon the labor development, and for not unrelated reasons. 
Yet so wide has been the gulf between American and English 
public discussion that few American journals saw this sig- 
nificance, and others, ordinarily democratic in their sympa- 
thies, have mistakenly denounced English labor. 

My belief is that if the present German offensive should 
hold its bloody gains in France this summer and strengthen 
the grip of the Prussian imperialists in Germany, the British 
labor movement will prove a tremendous force for coherence 
and endurance at home. It has, in its own statement of war 
aims and in the statement it elicited from the British govern- 
ment, given the people democratic issues which will fire them 
afresh in the same way that the issues at stake in the over- 
running of Belgium in the early days of the war fired them. 
On the other hand, if, as I expect — from such impressions as 
a layman gathers in talking with army men and war cor- 
respondents — the Germans are forced back or will have paid 
so ghastly a price for winning the desolate strip they gave up 
a year ago, that tremendous repercussions of feeling will 
follow in Germany, and the war will enter another stage, 
then it will be altogether clear how opportune it is that this 
deliberate and unified democratic movement in English life 
has asserted itself along lines kindred to President Wilson's 
democratic statesmanship. 

In such a situation, it is important, even in the midst of 
supreme events which may recast currents of thought by 
nations and continents, to gauge the real meaning of the 
British movement as it gathered head in February, so as the 
better to judge it at any future stage. In other words, to 
help bridge the gulf which has separated public discussion in 
the two countries, and make for that unity which can only 
come of free exchange of views. Many chasms enter into 
that gulf. Not the least is distance — the fact, for example, 
that only now in the midst of these events have the news- 
papers reached us which give a clear exhibit of responsible 
English opinion. There is the gulf that lies between a nation 
within sound of the great guns and one 3,000 miles away ; 
the gulf between the psychology of a people in the fourth 
year of war and one in the first. And moreover, there have 
been more than these natural difficulties to overcome in 
arriving at unity of feeling, or even at understanding. Only 



last week the Literary Digest, for example, purported to give 
a transcript of British, French and American opinion which, 
so far as the two former were concerned, was as unrepresen- 
tative as if the New York Sun, Times, Herald and Tribune 
were conceived as a sufficient exhibit of American opinion, 
either geographically or as reflectors of popular sentiment. 
And it indeed is just such a limited coterie of American news- 
papers that is usually quoted in the cables to the English 
press. Along with the proverbial limitations of "news," 
which takes small notice of opinion until it issues in action, 
there have been the inhibitions of censorship, of propaganda, 
and of other forms of bureaucratic control by semi-national 
interests over the currents of communication beween the two 
countries. 

To illustrate, let me quote an editorial published in the 
London Daily News of February 16: 

We have been anything but happy in our choice of emissaries 
to America in the past three years. At the present time there is a 
party of British trade unionists in America. They were selected 
by the war cabinet, not by the labor movement in this country, and 
they are in point of fact utterly unrepresentative of the solid mass 
of British labor on so vital a question as the holding of an interna- 
tional conference. Mr. Appleton's attitude, for example, is diamet- 
rically opposed to the decision of the four million members repre- 
sented by the Trade Union Congress. It is well that that should be 
recognized in America for we cannot allow differences of purpose 
to be assumed where, in fact, they do not exist. And if there is 
one prediction that can be made with more confidence than another 
of the trend of the growing volume of democratic thought in Eng- 
land, it is that it will flow with ever increasing momentum down 
the channels cut by the authorized exponents of the policy of Amer- 
ica. Mr. Wilson's League of Nations is the beacon hope of the 
democracy of Great Britain. His resolve that the war shall remain 
a war of liberation and not of aggrandizement is their resolve. 
They, like him, demand that the military weapon shall, continu- 
ously, be reinforced by the political. So far as their spokesmen 
convey any other impression, they convey a false impression. 

In judging of the British labor offensive, we need to dis- 
tinguish between the statement of war aims, built up by the 
two great British trade union organizations, and the procedure 
by which they have hoped to make these aims tell; to mark, 
moreover, the relation of that procedure to just such events 
as those of the past fortnight. For the threat of a German 
offensive hung over the sessions of the Inter-allied Labor Con- 
ference in London in late February. 

The War Aims 

First, as to the war aims themselves. Repeatedly, in the 
course of the war — whether a year or more ago at the time of 
the President's first request to the allies for a statement of war 
aims, or recently in the exchanges as to Japanese intervention 
in Siberia — Americans who have access to the British press 
have caught the note of comprehension and democratic sym- 
pathy with the American viewpoint in such journals as the 
Manchester Guardian. Here is what the Guardian says of 
the war aims of the Inter-allied Labor Conference: 

. . . Above all and through all runs the demand, not as a sequel 
in the conclusion of peace, but as an essential part of the terms of 
peace, for the establishment of an effective League of Nations, for 
disarmament, for the substitution of international law for force, 
and, as a corollary of these things, for open diplomacy, the publica- 

7 



8 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6 , 191 



tion of all treaties, the effective control of foreign affairs by popu- 
larly elected bodies. It follows, of course, that if governments are 
to rest upon consent and foreign affairs are to be controlled by pop- 
ularly elected bodies, there will be no room left for the autocracies, 
and that conclusion is plainly drawn. It is indeed designed that 
the whole of the belligerent nations shall form part of the League 
of Nations, and no conditions of entry are in terms imposed. But 
no nation could enter a league with such function and such a con- 
stitution which had not pretty effectively democratized itself — more 
effectively indeed, as regards control of foreign affairs, than has our 
own country up to the present moment. The first object of such 
a league is declared to be the one laid down by President Wilson 
for his own people, "to make the world safe for democracy," and 
it is to a democratic world, and a democratic world only, that the 
conference looks for the mighty step forward in the adjustment of 
human affairs which is necessary as the sequel to this war if 
worse, and much worse, is not to befall us in the days to come. 

This is the answer of democracy to autocracy, today so seem- 
ingly triumphant, and it is surely a notable one. It is, be it ob- 
served, the answer not of British democracy alone, but of the labor 
forces of the allied nations. The governments have so far failed 
to draw up a common program of war aims; the conference has 
done it for them. All the world can now know the policy of allied 
labor, and labor among the central powers may usefully ponder it. 
What will it say? That we have yet to learn, and nothing must 
stand in the way of our learning it. For in truth it is on the accord 
of the democracies far more than on that of their governments for 
the time being that the future depends. Indeed, it may yet be that 
only through the effective accord of the peoples can peace be 
reached at all. It is for the peoples, therefore, to assert themselves, 
our own people, the French and Italian peoples, the German and 
Austrian peoples. What hope, will it be said, is there of that? 
How is a triumphant militarism, at this very moment rich with 
spoil, to be crushed and broken? Perhaps the triumph is pretty far 
from being as complete as it seems; perhaps even its leaders have 
something more than a suspicion that their power rests on no very 
stable base, and that unless they in their turn can offer their people 
something more than conquest, can at least assure them peace, there 
may be limits to the endurance of the most patient. But in order 
that the peoples in those countries may have some stable ground to 
go upon, in order that they may know what for them peace would 
mean, it is essential that the terms should be clearly stated, and 
stated collectively. That is what the inter-allied conference has 
done so far as labor is concerned. It is well done, and the allied 
governments would be well advised speedily to follow suit. When 
it is fully known to the German people that peace means not sub- 
jection but liberty, there is no saying what useful transformations 
may not follow. 

But it may be said that the Manchester Guardian is a 
liberal paper, which has a critical attitude towards not a 
few of the activities of the British War Cabinet. Let us 
turn, therefore, to the editorial page of the London Times, the 
chief of the Northcliffe press. On February 25, the Times 
published the war-aims memorandum of the Inter-allied Con- 
ference in full, and described the memorandum as in the main 
"sound and sensible." Under the heading, A Democratic 
Challenge, the Times said in its leading editorial : 

The organizers of the Allied Labour-Socialist Conference of last 
week have every right to congratulate themselves on the result. 
In the first place they secured agreement, which is in itself no small 
triumph; and, in the second place, they did so, not by watering down 
the British labor memorandum to a few colorless generalities, but 
rather by amplifying and strengthening it. The result is a very 
long, detailed and definite statement of war aims and peace terms. 
The weakest part is the preamble, taken from a resolution adopted 
at a Socialist conference held three years ago, and implying that 
the war is due to general causes and especially to the "capitalist" 
order of society. . . . 

Readers who approve of some parts of the statement and object to 
others, must remember that it is addressed primarily to the labor 
Socialists of enemy countries, and that it speaks a language to which 
they are accustomed. It is not the voice of the nation; it represents 
a point of view, and if it occasionally ascends into a somewhat 
nebulous atmosphere, that does not weaken the firm and positive 
stand taken on essential matters. As a whole, it offers far more 
ground for satisfaction than for objection. 

The differences between the new international statement and the 
British memorandum adopted in December are considerable and im- 
portant. As we have said, the earlier draft has been amplified and 
strengthened in detail and its loeical sequence has been much im- 
proved. The first important difference is the prominent place as- 
signed to the project of a League of Nations. That is a project 
which has been put forward by President Wilson and by many 



other persons, but it has not, so far as we know, been previously 
laid down so explicitly and in so much detail. It is postulated as 
the future guardian of democracy and the key to the problem of 
preventing war forever. Further, it is to be the agency by which 
the principle of self-determination for nations is to be realized. 
It is forcibly urged that the right of self-determination would be 
valueless if it were at the mercy of fresh violation, and therefore 
that it must be protected by a super-national authority, which only 
the proposed league can supply. But, more than that, it is con- 
tended that the establishment of an effective super-national authority 
implies the complete democratization of all countries, with the 
abolition of autocratic powers and other features of the present or 
past politics of nations. It follows that if self-determination and 
the prevention of future wars depend on the establishment of a 
League of Nations wielding effective authority, and if this in turn 
involves complete democratization of the nations adhering to it, 
then it is evident that the first step towards the realization of the 
ideals set out is democratization. This means, when applied to the 
actual conditions before us, either that Germany must first be 
thoroughly democratized before any progress can be made, or that 
the League of Nations, formed without her, must be prepared to 
compel her compliance by force of arms. We agree. A League of 
Nations would be a farce with Germany as she is, ruled by a single 
will, cherishing boundless ambitions, restrained by no scruples, bound 
by no compact, owning no law but necessity, and armed to the 
teeth. . . . 

The Question of Procedure 

Compare these paragraphs with the following from a circu- 
lar letter sent out by Ralph M. Easley, chairman of the 
Executive Council of the National Civic Federation, in ad- 
vance of a meeting of that body on March 16. 1 

There has been observable within the last few weeks the rapid 
development of a serious break, in this country as well as in Europe, 
between a combination of the Pacifist, Socialist, Bolshevik and other 
pro-German forces, on the one hand, and, on the other, the organized 
labor movement (represented in this country by the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and the Railway Brotherhoods) and the other ele- 
ments in our national life that stand for continuing the war until 
a just and permanent peace can be secured. 

The offensive has been taken by the Pacifists and Socialists in 
Europe and they are now arranging to send to this country a dele- 
gation to promote a program which practically means the securing 
of an immediate German peace. This is accomplished by the call- 
ing of an international labor and Socialist conference at Stockholm 
or in Switzerland, where an overwhelming majority of the delegates, 
selected on the Socialist Party and Socialist Union membership 
basis, would be Germans or pro-Germans, thus enabling the Ger- 
mans to dominate every feature of the program. 

As a part of the program of the Pacifist-Socialists, who have 
arranged to send a delegation here to initiate the propaganda in 
this country, a lure is held out to labor in the form of a proposed 
"after the war industrial program," which, when stripped of all 
unnecessary verbiage, means nothing more nor less than Karl Marx 
Socialism, which has been repudiated by the labor organizations of 
the United States. As a prelude, or shall we say "barrage," they 
have already inaugurated from England an attack on the American 
Federation of Labor and especially on Mr. Gompers, as well as on 
British labor delegates now in this country who represent the 
trade union movement in Great Britain in the same manner as the 
American Federation of Labor and the Railway Brotherhoods rep- 
resent organized labor here, the trade union movement being the 
only one that has ever accomplished anything in the interest of 
labor in this or any other country. These assailed British delegates 
are the gentlemen who will be the guests of the National Civic 
Federation at luncheon on Saturday. 

The make-up of the labor delegation sent to this country 
by the British government is sufficiently clear, from the edi- 
torial quoted from the London Daily News. The internal 
economic program of the British Labour Party will be 
reviewed in a later issue of the Survey. How far such 
American critics were behind not only the liberal but the 
conservative British press in recognizing the true character of 
the inter-allied presentment of war aims scarcely needs com- 

1 l was asked to speak at this meeting on the proposed industrial program 
of the British Labour Party, and was the only speaker who discussed the 
topic. The circular letter quoted was not sent to me in advance of the 
meeting; and for an hour and three-quarters, with but four minutes for 
rebuttal, not my paper of the morning, but mv articles in the Svrvey for 
March 2 and 9 were the subject of a personal and heated attack in line with 
the temper of the circular letter. hv Mr Gompers and William English 
Willing; one spokesman for the administration of the American Federation 
of Labor, and the other a former exponent of syndicalism. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 191 



merit after the editorials quoted above. The remaining points 
in this circular letter have to do not with the statement of war 
aims, but with questions of personnel and procedure which 
afford our second basis for judgment. 

The London conference, according to the official statement 
issued at its closing session, consisted of the following dele- 
gations: 

The members of the Parliamentary Committee of the Trades 
Union Congress and of the National Executive of the Labour Party ; 
representatives of the Italian Socialist Union and the Italian Official 
Socialists; representatives of the Confederation General du Travail 
and of the French Socialist Party; and representatives of the Bel- 
gian Labour Party. There were also present consultative delegates 
from South Africa, Rumania, and the South Slav organizations. 

Messages were read from organizations in New Zealand, Portu- 
gal, South Africa, Rumania and the Social Revolutionary Party in 
Russia, endorsing the British labor memorandum on war aims. 

M. Camille Huysmans (secretary of the International Socialist 
Bureau) read a telegram sent to the French Socialist Party by MM. 
Roussanoff, Soukhomline, and Erlich, on behalf of the Menshevik 
section of the Russian Social Democratic Party and the Russian 
Social Revolutionary Party, intimating that these sections of the 
Russian Socialist movement had appointed delegates to attend the 
Inter-Allied Conference. The Bolshevist government, however, had 
refused passports to the delegations, and the message recorded their 
emphatic protest against this measure. 

Incidentally, the concluding sentence supplies an interesting 
footnote to the attempt to identify the proceedings at London 
with the Bolsheviki and the Brest negotiations. There were 
present at London, however, representatives of the Italian 
Official Socialists, whose national officers, Lazzari and Bom- 
bacci, were sentenced last month to imprisonment for issuing 
circulars in November, December and January, in which they 
urged, according to the Rome dispatches, "every possible oppo- 
sition to war," and upheld "their Russian comrades." Their 
defense was that they considered themselves bound by the In- ' 
ternational Socialist Congress at Basel in 1912, and "that it 
was their duty to remain apart from the war and do every- 
thing they could to secure peace." 

At London, also, the French minority Socialists had equal 
representation with the French majority (numerically the 
names are now reported a misfit) in the united French dele- 
gation; but the Kienthalians (the extremists) were not repre- 
sented. But to set up the inference that the London confer- 
ence was only a new front for these groups is as beside the 
mark as were the efforts to characterize the suffrage movement 
in its earlier stages by the positions taken on marriage by some 
of the more pronounced feminists; or to identify the Lincoln 
Republicans with the abolitionists in the campaign of eight- 
een-sixty. The engineers of the British labor offensive set the 
gauge of their movement broad enough to draw into their 
affirmative program and procedure, elements which until now 
had been largely negative in their attitude towards the war, 
together with the vastly larger groups which have been for 
the war. To do less than that would have been to defeat the 
very purpose of the movement, namely, to afford a constructive 
sluice-way for all the springs of working-class unrest and 
aspiration among the western democracies and turn them 
into a dynamic force. But it is this affirmative program and 
procedure which, as such, unites them and is the object of 
their support. 

The initiative of the conference by the more conservative 
elements was in itself a response to those very forces which 
were reflected in the swing to the left in 1917 both among 
English labor men and among English liberals. As the Lon- 
don correspondent of the Manchester Guardian pointed out in 
his news letter, commenting on the success of the February 
conference to get together, where that of last August failed, 



program and procedure were the result of a distinct will for 
unity. As in all democratic movements, it is possible that at 
some future stage the center of gravity may swing still further 
to the left. But the course of military events on both fronts, 
in which the ruthless power and intention of the German 
imperialists has shown itself in such stark contrast to the 
ability of the German Socialists to counter it, can have no 
other result than to stiffen the conviction of the conference 
leadership in standing out for the unremitting prosecution of 
the war as the resistance of the democracies to the transcend- 
ing threat of Prussian militarism. At the same time they will 
await those crystallizations in working-class purpose in Ger- 
many which they believe their joint unimperialistic overtures 
— like the manganese that is thrown from the outside into the 
molten mass of the converter in a steel mill — may yet help to 
bring into being. 

The London conference — and this is a point which the 
earlier cables did not bring out — made the convincing mani- 
festation of that change on the part of the German labor 
and Socialist groups a prerequisite to any inter-belligerent 
meeting. 

i 
German Labor Must Come Across 

The paragraph in its war aims memorandum reads: 

As an essential condition to an international conference the com- 
mission is of the opinion that the organizers of the conference should 
satisfy themselves that all the organizations to be represented put 
in precise form, by a public declaration, their peace terms in con- 
formity with the principles "no annexations or punitive indemni- 
ties, and the right of all peoples to self-determination," and that they 
are working with all their power to obtain from their governments 
the necessary guarantees to apply those principles honestly and unre- 
servedly to all questions to be dealt with at any official peace con- 
ference. 

The Belgian delegation, which for the first time came into 
an inter-allied conference without a mandate to oppose an 
international gathering, carried conviction as to this conserva- 
tive procedure. Moreover, the London conference did not 
attempt to re-establish the International Socialist Bureau, with 
its old scheme of representation ; but decided that any inter- 
national conference, 

held during the period of hostilities, should be organized by a com- 
mittee whose impartiality cannot be questioned. It should be held 
in a neutral country, under such conditions as would inspire confi- 
dence; and the conference should be fully representative of all the 
labor and Socialist movements in all the belligerent countries accept- 
ing the conditions under which the conference is convoked. 

The fact that the Italian reformists and the French 
majority groups — the pro-war wings of the Socialist parties 
in the Latin countries which have shared in the war ministries 
— no less than the Belgian Socialists similarly placed — were 
for this procedure is evidence that they had confidence in the 
safeguards outlined. We must weigh that against snap 
judgments on this side of the water that the Germans would 
"dominate every feature of the program." 

The man who actually drafted the original British war 
aims memorandum was Sidney Webb, who, from the begin- 
ning, has been backing up the war in the New Statesman. The 
man who presided at the joint conference which adopted the 
memorandum was Frank Purdy, who, while the Nottingham 
meeting was on, was out on the big square speaking at the 
"tank" for war bonds. Americans will remember one of the 
strongest British labor leaders who has visited this country 
on a government mission since the war began. He is J. H. 
Thomas. And he headed the delegation of the National 
Union of Railway Men at the Nottingham convention, which 
confirmed the war aims and advanced the procedure for 



10 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 191 



inter-allied and inter-belligerent labor conferences. The sig- 
nificant thing is that we have here a new alignment in the 
English working class movement — in which supporters of the 
war as a defensive one against German aggression, Henderson, 
Webb, Thomas and the old majority struck hands with men 
like Ramsey McDonald and Robert Smillie, who have stood 
out for working class negotiations from the first year of the 
war. The issue was not pacifism, but imperialism, and the new 
working majority offered itself as a nucleus around which the 
democratic forces in England might unite. 

It is significant that at the London conference itself the 
British representation was confined to the executives of the 
Labour Party and the Parliamentary Committee of the Trades 
Union Congress, and the smaller, more radical, Independent 
Labour Party, which has a separate affiliation with the Inter- 
national, was left out. It is equally significant that in every 
case the chairmanships of the important working committees 
went to the conservatives. M. Renaudel, the French majority 
Socialist who has recently been exposing German spy activities 
in the industrial districts of France, was named as head of 
the committee to report on the League of Nations; Mr. Webb 
as head of the territorial commission; J. H. Thomas, M. P., as 
head of the economic commission; Albert Thomas (former 
French minister of munitions) as head of the committee on 
publicity and drafting; and Arthur Henderson as head of the 
committee on the advisability and conditions of an interna- 
tional conference. In a subsequent interview, in one of the 
English papers, Mr. Henderson pointed out that the proposed 
international conference had been cast deliberately in a form 
which would give it a trade union no less than a Socialist basis, 
so as to make it broadly representative of the workers, including 
such organizations as the British Labour Congress, the Con- 
federation Generate du Travail, and the American Federation 
of Labor. 

British Views of an International Meeting 
But here again we can turn to outside witnesses of stand- 
ing. The London Times gives the history of the British 
labor offensive in all but the same words that I employed in 
my article of March 9. It began: 

The present conference of labor and Socialist parties representing 
the allied countries is evidently guided by skillful hands. They 
have gone to work in a methodical and purposeful way, very dif- 
ferent from the crude and impetuous attempt to hold a general in- 
ternational meeting at Stockholm last summer. It is clear now that 
if the meeting then proposed had been held it would have been a 
Babel of discordant voices expressing irreconcilable views in diverse 
tongues and with extreme heat. . . . The project fell through at 
the outset because no preliminary agreement could be reached in this 
■country among the intended delegates. The problem of overcoming 
this initial difficulty has occupied the best heads among them during 
the ensuing six months, and substantial progress has been made 
along a very laborious road. . . . 

Of the whole procedure, the Manchester Guardian of Feb- 
ruary 25 said : 

It is a sound and practical program and it is to be hoped that none 
of the allied governments will raise any objection to its being carried 
out. It ought, on the contrary, to be welcomed by all. 

While the conference was on, the London Daily News 
held that 

the importance of the agreement there is every prospect of at- 
taining at the present conference can hardly be over-rated. . . . 
There are certain services to the world which only democracy can 
render. No appeal, no warning, no menace from the British gov- 
ernment, or the French, or even the American, will detach a single 
German democrat from his allegiance to the Kaiser. If German 
democracy is to be kept true, or made true, to democratic principle, 
it must be by the establishment of a frank understanding with the 
democracies of England and Italy and America and France. If 



Russia is to be saved even yet from the cataclysmic disasters that 
threaten her, it can only be as she establishes with western democ- 
racy relations she will never countenance with western governments. 

In discussing the project of an international labor con- 
ference, the London Times called attention to points which 
"must be given consideration," such as that enemy labor "may 
return specious answers" which will have to be "carefully 
scrutinized before going further." Nonetheless, this is what 
the Times said of the procedure which was determined upon 
and which, if this British journal closely identified with the 
administration found worth fair discussion, would seem at 
least to have warranted a fair hearing from American labor 
bodies : 

Let us, therefore, suppose again that the allied labor declaration 
of war aims is brought to the notice of the corresponding bodies in 
the enemy countries. The first object is to extract an answer from 
them which will show their real position, and if that agrees in any 
measure with the allied labor views, then to proceed further with 
negotiations and attempt the international meeting. The eventual 
object appears to be to convince the enemy labor representatives that 
they have been deceived by their own government and that no inten- 
tion of crushing or ruining them is cherished on this side; that what 
we are fighting against is German "militarism" and the gospel of 
force which it represents. 

That is a fair and proper object which has been pursued by Presi- 
dent Wilson and others; and not only have the labor organizations 
a right to pursue it too, but they can in some respects do so more 
effectively than statesmen or governments. . . . 

The question of whether, in view of the great German 
offensive, the time is opportune or may become so for pro- 
moting such an inter-belligerent labor conference is quite 
another matter. 

But while the proposal for it may be shelved for the present, 
and the plan to send a delegation to America may be held 
up pending the arrival of labor men sent from this country, to 
say that the British labor offensive as a whole has been aban- 
doned is to mistake its temper. Vorwarts doesn't make that 
mistake when it charges that Mr. Henderson "preaches the 
aim of reconciliation, but does so raising the fist of enduring 
readiness for war." It is resistance to German militarism 
which is the other edge of the British labor sword — or plough- 
share, if you will — and which is being driven home as part of 
the general marshalling of allied arms to meet the shock of the 
German drive. Emile Vandervelde, Belgian minister of in- 
tendence, spoke at London in a way which forecast the present 
situation. He said: 

We are meeting in very serious times. At the time this conference 
assembled, it was stated in the newspapers that all the forces of 
imperial Germany were to be thrown against Paris. On that very 
day, we also learned that the Russian revolution, overcome by the 
weight of its own miseries, and its own mistakes, had resigned itself 
to the signing of peace with the Hapsburgs and the Hohenzollerns. 
We cannot ignore what the Bolshevikists have done to discredit 
their own country, and international socialism, but we must not for- 
get, on the other hand, what the Russian revolution has done for 
internationalism and socialism. In the splendor of its first triumph, 
it proclaimed those principles which, adopted by President Wilson, 
will form the basis of the democratic peace of tomorrow. 

But we have more to do than to congratulate ourselves on the 
achievement of the Russian revolution; we must also draw lessons 
from its failures. The great lesson is that democracy was commit- 
ting an irretrievable mistake by throwing away its arms before im- 
perialism had been defeated. Whilst holding the olive branch in 
one hand, we have to hold the sword in the other. We have been 
forced to take up the sword as the only means of defense. We must 
not forget that if we are able to assemble here, it is because the 
British navy holds the seas, and the millions of allied soldiers main- 
tain the line. If the German offensive were to succeed the resolutions 
we pass would be mere "scraps of paper" and of no more value 
than the bank notes of the Russian state bank. If our soldiers are 
able to throw back the attack with which we are threatened, we 
shall have the glorious opportunity of taking a leading part in the 
effort that can then be made to attain a just and democratic peace. 

Two further quotations can be made from two delegates. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 1918 



11 



one a Frenchman and one an Englishman, who in a sense 
may be said to stand as the chief exponents of the working- 
class movement in their countries. The point of both of thorn 
has to deal neither with the procedure of an international con- 
ference nor with the western front, but rather with the 
first edge of labor's blade — the organization of a working class 
political and moral offensive as a new force in the world 
struggle. 

M. Albert Thomas, who as minister of munitions earlier in 
the war is credited with doing for France what Lloyd George 
did for England in speeding up the production of war ma- 
terial, toured England following the London conference, 
speaking on platforms with members of the cabinet and others 
in behalf of Anglo-French understanding and unity. At Lon- 
don he stood for the same thing in the conference of the 
workers. 

At the opening session he reported that never had there 
been such a "healthy and unanimous collaboration between 
the Socialist Party and the Federation of Labor in France as 
now." "The French Socialist Party in their National 
Council had registered agreement in such a majority that it 
might be described as practically unanimous." And at the 
closing luncheon, the London Times quotes him as saying that 

the conference had done what the governments and the old tra- 
ditional diplomacy had refused to do. It had never hesitated to 
face difficulties and differences, even on delicate questions. It had 
been able to deal with the question of the colonies, although that 
vitally affected certain British interests. The delegates had also 
been able to discuss frankly and fully the war aims of Italy. They 
had not hesitated, as governments had done, to support the claims 
of oppressed nationalities, and they had given a definite reply to 
the appeal of the southern Slavs. The governments were concerning 
themselves with propaganda in Germany. Lord Northcliffe had 
been placed in charge of this work here. If he was to be well ad- 
vised he would not rely exclusively on the help of business men, 
scientists, or newspaper men, but would turn to the representatives 
of the working classes. Then he would receive sound advice on 
the best method of speaking to the German people. 

Arthur Henderson, in speaking at the closing luncheon, 
said: 

In spite of cajolery and misrepresentation, we say to our critics: 
After nearly tour years of ruthless slaughter and destruction, in 
which humanity is slowly bleeding to death, it is time that the 
military effort was seriously supplemented — not superseded or sup- 
planted, but seriously supplemented — by the pressure of the moral 
and the political weapon. It appears to us that the interests of all 
the nations involved in the struggle and the interests of humanity 
as a whole render it imperative that the war should cease the 
moment the conditions of a world-peace are assured. 

As I understand the position of allied labor, it is this: We seek a 



victory; but we do not seek a victory of a militarist or diplomatic 
nature. We seek a triumph for great principles and noble ideals. 
We are not influenced by imperialist ambitions or selfish national 
interests. We seek a victory ; but it must be a victory for interna- 
tional moral and spiritual forces, finding its expression in a peace 
based upon the inalienable rights of common humanity. By the 
acceptance of the amended war aims, the Inter-Allied Conference 
has declared that, whilst we are unprepared to continue the conflict 
for an imperialistic peace for the allies, neither would we consent 
to the acceptance of terms which would mean a German militarist 
peace. We have made our declarations of policy in good faith, 
repudiating all deceit and cunning. We shall refuse to countenance 
any attempt by either group of belligerents to defeat the principles 
for which we stand. We shall oppose any unscrupulous applica- 
tion of these principles to any particular cases in which any country 
may be interested. We shall continue to press our case against all 
opposition, whether it be internal or external, in order that we may 
eventually secure that constructive, democratic peace so essential 
to social and economic progress the world over. 

In order to secure such a peace we are ready to cooperate on 
the principles of conciliation with all elements, whether they be 
allied, neutral, or amongst the belligerent peoples. All peoples 
we are prepared to cooperate with who are inspired by principles 
identical with those upon which our peace proposals are based. 
Doubtless we shall again be charged with pacifism, and told that 
we are playing the game of the enemy. Let me say emphatically 
that though we are not seeking exclusively a French peace, an 
Italian peace, or a British peace, we are all of us, I believe, much 
more strongly opposed to a German peace. Nor do we want "peace 
at any price." 

We must do everything in our power to hold an international 
conference under proper conditions, and as speedily as circumstances 
will permit. We must use that international conference as an 
opportunity for removing every obstacle that stands in the way 
of an honourable, just, world-settlement. 

A group of American labor leaders have been sent to 
England. They will have a chance to clear up misunderstand- 
ings — such as the tampering with Mr. Gompers' telegram to 
the London meeting and the short-circuiting of the meaning 
and message of the forces in the British labor movement by 
the government labor delegation which has visited this country. 
They will have a chance to do more than clear up misunder- 
standings, however. They will have a chance to make for 
understanding. They will have a chance to see that the 
British labor movement has given England a new issue in 
these days of stress — a new issue for the workers to fight for, 
a new vision of the England they are fighting for. They will 
have a chance to see that as result of the British labor 
offensive, greater unity than ever before has come into being 
among the allied labor groups both in the support of the 
prosecution of the war and in the prosecution of the new 
diplomacy. They will have a chance to see that the British 
labor movement is, in truth, in line with President Wilson's 
statesmanship, throwing its strength alongside his. 



Being a Pauper Idiot 

How Kentucky Has Changed Her Century-Old System of 

Pensioning the Feebleminded 



TET'J 



44^T*ET'S PLAY," as Frank Tinney used to say to 
Vernon Castle in 'Watch Your Step,' "let's play" 
that you are a new clerk in a general grocery 
store in Frankfort, Ky. A customer approaches 
you and buys a quart of potatoes. 

"Nine cents, please," you say, handing him his parcel. 
"Oh, I have a charge account," he answers. 
"Have you? What is your name?" 

"Bill Hike's my name. Yes, I have a charge account. You 
see I'm a pauper idiot." 

"A what? A pauper idiot?" 



"Yes. The state calls me a pauper idiot. That means I 
can't support myself, see? Ain't got brains enough. The 
state pays me a pension, too. I work for old man Jones and 
get fifty cents a day, but the state knows I can't support my- 
self, so it pays me $75 a year to live on. I live with my 
wife and children out Valley town way. The state don't pay 
my $75 direct to me. It don't pay the money direct to none 
of us pauper idiots. It pays it to a 'committee,' see, and thc- 
committee takes care of the idiot that the money's meant for 
— buys things for him and sees that he gets enough to eat_ 
Now, Mr. Black, the owner of this store, is my 'committee/ 



12 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 191 



see? He takes care of me and gets my $75 from the state. 
And one of the ways he takes care of me is to let me come in 
here and trade my $75 out with him." 

This conversation might very well take place in any part 
of Kentucky today. Kentucky is the only state in the union 
that still pensions its feebleminded. It pays them — not all of 
them, but a large number— $75 a year and leaves them alone. 
They go about as they choose and give only a nominal 
account of themselves. A law just passed will abolish this 
in a few years. Meanwhile, the abuses of it have been im- 
pressing themselves upon the people of the state. 

For one thing, it is a rather profitable business to be the 
"committee" for several pauper idiots at a time. You do not 
have to account for the money you get from the state; maybe 
you turn it all over to the person under your care and maybe 
you "shave" part of it. Maybe you keep the entire amount 
and supply the idiot with whatever he needs in the way of 
food and other necessaries. Maybe you employ him on your 
farm and let him earn the $75 over again as wages. Maybe 
you are conscientious about seeing that he gets his due but 
charge him or his relatives $5 for your "trouble." There are 
lots of ways in which petty graft can come to your aid once 
you learn the ropes. 

And there are those who learn the ropes so well that they 
become professional "committees" for large groups. In many 
counties one man is serving as a committee for a majority of 
all the idiots in the county. A state inspector recently found 
that in Bell county one man was committee for twelve out of 
fifty pauper idiots; in Clinton county, one man for ten out of 
twenty-one ; in Christian county, one man for seventeen and 
another for eight out of thirty-four; in Green county, one 
man for fourteen out of fifteen ; and in Marion county, one 
man for all of twenty-eight! Moreover, keepers of county 
poor-farms have succeeded in placing a number of their in- 
mates on the state's pauper idiot list, thus increasing their 
remuneration for running the poor-farm. One keeper had 
twelve inmates; three of these were pauper idiots; he was 
committee for each, and added $225 to his salary. At the 
time of the investigation he was expecting to have three more 
inmates declared idiots. 

Small wonder that the increase in pauper idiot claims in the 
last twenty-five years has been six times as great as the in- 
crease in population. 

"Investigations have shown," says this inspector, Nat B. 
Sewell, "that the courts in many counties have made a farce 
of inquests and have certified to the auditor, as pauper idiots, 
persons who are fully capable, both mentally and physically, 
of caring for themselves or who live with parents or other 
relatives who are amply able to care for them. Also, that 
petty politics is permitted to play a large part in the appoint- 
ment of committees who expect to benefit by handling the 
claims of pauper idiots to whom they are in no way related 
or in whom they have no interest. These failures of courts 
to comply with the law account in a large measure for 
the apparent remarkable increase in pauper idiocy in the 
state." 

Feebleminded Without Protection 

Meanwhile, the feebleminded themselves are left by this 
arrangement without proper protection or guardianship. They 
may become the prey of every designing person they meet. 
Mothers who are themselves pauper idiots may bear as many 
children as thev wish or can be induced to. Then- are 



instances where normal men and women have married pauper 
idiots for the purpose of securing the allowance of $75 ; some 
of these claims have continued indefinitely after the marriages. 
So bad is the situation that Kentucky's statutes in regard to 
the feebleminded have been called "laws for the propagation 
of idiots and imbeciles." 

Some of the feebleminded are deaf, some are blind, some 
are epileptic. These are allowed to live in the community very 
much as other persons. Many of them are trained to be para- 
sites. The report of the Committee on Provision for the 
Feebleminded in Kentucky cites a colored girl of seventeen 
who lived with her mother and received a state pension be- 
cause she could not learn in school. This girl was able- 
bodied and could readily have learned to work, yet her pension 
was making it easy for her and her mother to be "parasites." 

Over Two Thousand Pensioners 

Altogether, there were in September, 1917, 2,352 feeble- 
minded persons being cared for in this way in Kentucky. At 
the rate of $75 each, the state was paying approximately 
$170,000 a year for their maintenance. In addition, it was 
caring for 370 inmates at the Feebleminded Institute at 
Frankfort, as well as a number of feebleminded persons scat- 
tered through other state institutions. It was spending a 
total of $300,000 on the care of this class of people. Over the 
bulk of this expenditure it had no supervision. Properly 
administered, this amount would care for all of these feeble- 
minded and more in colonies, would guarantee them protec- 
tion and would make them, to a large extent, self-supporting 
and happy. 

Kentucky has possessed her pension system for a hundred 
years. Recently some of her progressive people decided that 
it must go. With the aid of the National Committee on Pro- 
vision for the Feebleminded and the National Committee for 
Mental Hygiene, they put the facts before the people, and the 
legislature has just passed a law providing modern care for 
this relatively helpless class of the population. A farm colony 
is to be established, comprising at least 500 acres, and the 
present institution at Frankfort is to be converted into a 
training school. Together the two are to be known as the 
State Institution for the Feebleminded and are to be under 
the State Board of Control of Charitable Institutions. For 
building purposes the institution is granted $25,000 for two 
years, in addition to $75 a year for each inmate. There is 
an additional annual appropriation of $190 per inmate for 
maintenance. 

The end of the pension system is provided for also. Every 
pauper imbecile or feebleminded person over six years of age 
and below eighteen if a male, or below forty-five if a female, is 
henceforth to be committed to the state institution, if there is 
room; if not, he may, until January 21, 1921, be placed in the 
care of a committee as formerly, but no pension is to be 
granted for any period beyond that date. Persons now in the 
care of committees will not be disturbed until the expiration 
of their present pensions. 

The act renders it unlawful to aid or abet the marriage of 
any feebleminded person in Kentucky. Anyone found guilty 
of doing so may be fined from $50 to $500. It is also 
made one of the special duties of health officers and public 
health nurses to institute proceedings to secure the proper 
segregation and custody of feebleminded persons likely to 
become fathers or mothers of other feebleminded persons. 

\Y. D. L. 



Drawn by Ernest Thompson Seton 




Mobilizing the Backyard 

The Relation of the War Garden to 
National Economy 

By Bruno Lasker 



For the Woodcraft League 



our 6&c< 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 




I AST Sunday, the war garden drive for 1918 was 
begun by sermons from thousands of churches, and 
forceful lessons were drawn from the many stories 
V of man's relation to the soil in which early Bible 
history abounds. On Monday, a special war garden holiday, 
recommended by the National War Garden Commission to 
emphasize the patriotic importance of the movement, was 
celebrated by many large industrial plants, which either gave 
their workmen an extra holiday, without loss of wages, to 
start digging their plots, or hired tractors to plow the plots 
for them. There is much truth in the assertion of the com- 
mission that the great thing is to start as many men as pos- 
sible; once a man has dug and cleared the ground, or actually 
fertilized and sown it, he is not likely to stop until the crop 
is garnered. 

The War Garden Commission shows psychological insight 
also in laying the emphasis of its appeal upon the fact that 
every meal raised in a home garden by so much relieves the 
danger of famine abroad, conserves the energy that goes into 
transportation, and saves the fuel expended in haulage. It 
does not overinsist upon the advantages to the individual, al- 
though undoubtedly these advantages are considerable. The 
economic benefits of the garden plot become of national im- 
portance only when surveyed in the aggregate, without any 
particular relation to the domestic budget of the individual 
gardener. 






The statistics that have been published concerning the total 
number of plots cultivated last year, and the yields obtained, 
somehow do not inspire confidence. The Food Garden Com- 
mission estimates that there were at least three million suc- 
cessful home gardens; the writer of one agricultural paper 
asserts that there were six and a half million, and allows his 
fancy to fly to a prediction of ten or twelve million this year. 
But even with the more conservative figure, we should have 
one to every eight or nine homes — which does not seem exactly 
probable in a country where half the population is urban and 
by now probably one-fifth lives in cities of 250,000 or more. 

The War Garden Commission estimates that the value of 
the produce raised on home plots last year exceeded three hun- 
dred million dollars, an average of $100 per plot. So high 
an average seems only possible if holdings are included which 
by no stretch of the imagination can be termed war gardens 
and which are small farms rather than home gardens of non- 
vocational producers. There are no figures to show that so 
high an average production as $100 can be maintained even in 
a single community of amateurs, not to speak of a whole na- 
tion. 

While, therefore, we must accept these figures as somewhat 
in the nature of campaign advertising licensed by patriotic mo- 
tive, it still remains true, as P. S. Ridsdale, secretary of the 
commission, writes, that "the stupendous total which is added 
to the country's food supply through the products from mil- 

Brown in the Chicago Daily News 




BEGINNING THE SPRING OFFENSIVE 



13 



14 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, igil 



Sow the seeds/ Victoij! 



plant £/■ 
raise 
your own 
vegetables 




A new poster in three colors, painted for the National 
War Garden Commission by James Montgomery Flagg. 

lions of war gardens must be of inestimable value in strength- 
ening the sinews of war." Its financial value to the nation 
consists in the use of a labor resource that is free and not in 
competition with any other business. 

"The mill hand and the clerk, the street car conductor and 
the bookkeeper can each have a little garden plot at home 
without losing a minute of time or shirking in the slightest 
degree his regular duties. Home gardening could use 100 per 
cent of the people from all other lines of work without dimin- 
ishing by a particle the man power of these other industries." 

And here we come to one aspect of the matter where the 
propagandists, or some of them, are on the brink of commit- 
ting a grave psychological error, as well as an error of fact. 
We are asked to believe that the products from the home 
garden will go far to meet the higher cost of living. That 
the produce enriches the diet and renders it more wholesome 
is unquestionable ; that the getting of it is a healthful occupa- 
tion and takes up time which otherwise might have been given 
to a consumptive rather than a productive use of energy also 
will in most cases be true. But it is very bad policy to stretch 
the point that employers will derive benefit from the surplus 
energy used by the employe in his leisure time. If the bene- 
fit lies in the improvement of the wage-earner's efficiency and, 
hence his productivity, then clearly the employer should pay- 
more for his services; if it represents an addition to the income 
side of his home budget, this does not release the employer 



from raising his wage to compensate for the shrunken value- 
of the dollar. 

"Until the business man saw," states an article in the Na- 
tion's Business, "what was in the back yard, it remained one 
of the greatest of our undeveloped resources. Curiously 
enough, what he saw were increased dividends for himself. 
The profits to the owner of the garden were incidental. 
. The men out in the plant, the boys in the office and 
the families at home imagine that it is a straight-out piece of 
philanthropy, guiltless of any commercial value to us [a big 
"boss" is quoted]. But we are the ones who are getting the 
best of the bargain." 

Of course, this reference is not directly to wages but rather 
to the influence of the garden upon the health and spirit of 
employes. In spite of the disclaimer, the newspapers this week 
are full of praises for manufacturers and big corporations who 
have given the use of land free of rent, in some cases prepared 
the ground or dug wells, or provided educational aid. The 
point is that the average wage-earner does not like to have his 
doings in his own time cashed in as business assets by his em- 
ployer — however obvious their effect upon his general effi- 
ciency might be. But above all he resents any suggestion that 
his leisure occupation has a cash value which might be used to 
keep down wages. In a bulletin just issued by the United 
States Department of Agriculture on the Value of a Small 
Plot of Ground to the Laboring Man (by W. C. Funk, 
Bulletin No. 602), we read: 

"The facts and figures gathered in the study . . . are 
presented as suggestive of what the industrial establishment 
can do for the welfare of its employes by locating where the 
cost of living may be kept down bv the home production of 
food." 

An examination of the figures upon which this statement is 
based shows it to be absurd. It takes some pretty big incen- 
tive in the matter of wages — for the consideration of low cost 
of living comes to that — to fall heavily into the balance in the 
choice of location for an industrial plant. 

In the southern cotton-mill towns studied by Mr. Funk, 
home gardening is not a recent craze but a tradition, and is 
aided by employers who provide the land. In many cases prizes 
for the best garden are given, and in one case the services of an 
expert and a demonstration garden. Yet the average value of 
vegetables raised on 548 gardens of about one-seventh of an 
acre is only $29.87, and that of fruits raised 72 cents. Though 
there is no statement to that effect, it must be assumed that 
the produce was weighed and measured, and valued at current 
retail prices. Apparently, the cost of seeds, manure and tools 
($3.54) must be deducted from this sum, so that the net re- 
turn is $27.05. Only 165 of the 548 families kept poultry. 
Spreading the net returns of eggs and fowls used and sold, 
$14.20, over the whole number of plotholders. we get an 
average value of $4.28 per home which must be added to the 
above, making the addition to the family's income from sales 
and saved expenditures about sixty cents a week. That is not 
enough to move any factory; and it is not enough to justify 
any man's apprehension that his spare time work and that of 
his wife and children is going to be exploited by his employer. 

There are two means by which the yield from home gardens 
can be greatly increased, whether with or without aid from 
employers. First, no man will do his best on land over which 
he exercises no secure right of tenure. The amazing extension 
of the allotment movement in England is sometimes quoted as 
showing that there are practically no limits to the demand for 
land in small plots, whether tenure be for a season only or for 
a number of years. But, as a matter of fact, these English 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 191 



15 



efforts are very different from those of American Vacant Land 
Cultivation Societies, which practically have not progressed 
at all. They do not in the main rely on derelict urban sites 
loaned by the owner from year to year while he is waiting for 
an opportunity to build or to sell. For the most part, they 
use sites bought for the purpose of gardening by the municipal 
authorities, by cooperative organizations or, less frequently, by 
philanthropic associations, and in most cases leased year after 
year to the same tenants. Even the Vacant Land Cultivation 
Society in London, which was founded by the late Joseph 
Fels of Philadelphia, and last year had 7,000 plot holders, in 
the main operates upon land owned by the various borough 
councils of the metropolis. 

Unless possession of the land is acquired for several years 
or there is at least a probability of continued tenure, the aver- 
age cultivator of small means will scarcely apply all the ferti- 
lizer which the ground can profitably absorb; for, it is im- 
possible to get back the value in the first year's crop. The cost 
of tools and such adjuncts as glass or small structures for 
poultry or potting cannot be recovered in one season either; 
and a careful rotation of crops is as advantageous on small 
plots as it is on large farms. 

Another means of increasing yields is, perhaps, even more 
important. This is brought out in a communication to the 
Survey by Burgess Shank, of Ann Arbor, Mich., from which 
we quote as follows : 

The land should be cultivated in much larger tracts. To handle, 
for example, five acres in, say, fifty units, as fifty separate enter- 
prises with as many individual conductors, will cost several times 
as much outlay as when the same area is managed as one unit. In 
the former case there will be a great many wasted trips to and from 
the job, beginning with the negotiations for getting possession of the 
land and continuing till the produce reaches the consumers. There 
will be waste in the purchase of seeds and plants, waste in duplica- 
tion of the mechanical equipment, wastes in transportation, distri- 
bution and marketing. But the greatest waste will be due to the 
fact that the little plots must be worked by hand while the large 
ones can be worked by horse power. 

Both means for securing larger crops which we have men- 
tioned, security of tenure and cultivation in larger units, have 
a common requisite, and that is cooperation. In some cases, 
it is true, an individual employer may provide these conditions 
by sub-leasing to his employes a large tract of land and himself 
arranging for the preparation of the ground, and for such 
purchase and marketing as is most profitable on a large 



scale. But as a rule his interference beyond a certain point 
would probably be resented, and some cooperative form of or- 
ganization among the garden holders therefore becomes neces- 
sary, whether the land be obtained for them by the employer 
or not. The National War Garden Commission has recog- 
nized the desirability of this and is urging everywhere the 
formation of garden clubs — leaving it, of course, to the leaders 
and the homes in the individual community to carry the prin- 
ciple of cooperation as far as they can. 

Mr. Shank suggests that a group of neighboring families 
might form a cooperative society, in which case both sexes and 
old and young would find employment under unusually at- 
tractive conditions. More usually, the employes in the same 
plant or office and students of the same school or college or 
members of the same church or fraternal order will already 
have among them a nucleus of association which will enable 
them without much friction to organize a stock company for 
really effective cooperative action. 

In every case where operations of any magnitude are in- 
tended, it is important that some farm or gardening expert 
be employed. Not only the production of large yields has to 
be considered, but also the selection of the most suitable veg- 
etables and fruit for winter needs, i. e., those which lend them- 
selves to forms of preservation other than the expensive and 
exacting canning. Accessibility as well as soil properties is of 
importance in choosing the site. 

High praise has been given to America's gardening efforts 
last year; and in some ways it was well deserved. But this 
year we shall have to show that we can do even better. Too 
often was there to be seen last summer, as Mr. Shank points 
out, a gardener at work with a hoe and an automobile wait- 
ing for him by the roadside. The use of the automobile may 
have cost more than the crop was worth, and the hoe is as 
out of date in gardening — if maximum production be the aim — 
as is the use of bow and arrow in war. Do not let us pretend 
to be engaged in patriotic work if each jealously guards his 
sovereignty over his own little potato patch. To make our 
effort in the garden help win the war and stave off famine, 
we shall all have to work together for a bumper crop, taking 
advice from those who are the most experienced, sharing our 
tools, lumping our buying and selling, hiring in common ex- 
pert help and labor saving machinery, and all helping along 
in a fine spirit of fellowship and democracy! 



To a Factory Girl's Hands 

By Helen Hoyt 



DATIENT hands, folded so still, 
You have always to do the will 
Of another, not your own. 
How small you are; each small wrist-bone 
Speaks to me through the pale skin. 
Patient hands, patient and thin, 
Where is your happy hurrying blood? 
What have you of hardihood 
To contend with the quick wheel? 



With its whizzing, buzzing dizzy zeal; 

Keeping pace, pace, hour on hour ; 

Matching your languor to its whirling power, 

To its ever replenished might, — 

Listless hands, frail and slight, 

Now so heavy, so inertly lying, — 

Hands that are eager, and complying, 

Childlike and old, and strong and weak, — 

Is it the wheels that have made your grace so meek? 



C092920 




PLANNING FOR PEACE IN 
ENGLAND 

ALTHOUGH detailed plans for 
demobilization cannot be made 
while there is so little prospect of an 
early peace, the thoroughness of Eng- 
lish preparedness for the time when 
peace "breaks out" could not be better 
illustrated than by the arrangements 
already made or in progress for the re- 
absorption of the immense British army 
into civil occupations. 

A sub-committee on demobilization 
of the Reconstruction Committee work- 
ing with the Ministry of Labor, has 
elaborated a tentative plan that has been 
laid before the War Cabinet and has 
received the endorsement of the Army 
Council and the Lords of the Admiralty. 
Both of these bodies recognize that re- 
lease from the forces must be in keeping 
with industrial and labor rather than 
military or naval requirements. 

While demobilization itself is a mili- 
tary function, all responsibility for find- 
ing employment and looking after the 
welfare of discharged soldiers and sailors 
has already been assumed by the Min- 
istry of Labor. The national labor ex- 
changes will be the principal machinery 
used ; but for the special purposes of 
this great national task, they will be re- 
enforced both by national and local or- 
ganization. A labor resettlement com- 
mittee, with the minister of labor as 
chairman and Lord Burnham as vice- 
chairman, has already been appointed to 
advise the ministry. 

Under it, there will be local advisory 
committees in connection with all the 
more important exchanges, consisting of 
representatives of employers and em- 
ployes in the principal local industries 
in equal number and of representatives 
of local bodies particularly concerned 
with the welfare of discharged soldiers 
and sailors. These committees are ex- 
pected to safeguard the interests of those 
already employed and also to adjust the 
difficulties in individual cases that may 
have to be dealt with. 

The largest problems likely to arise 
are, of course, those concerning the ef- 
fect of the great influx of men upon 

16 



labor conditions and industrial stand- 
ards. While the local advisory com- 
mittees can do much towards their solu- 
tion, many of the problems can be dealt 
with satisfactorily only for each indus- 
try on a national scale. For this reason, 
the ministry is energetically pushing 
forward the organization of joint stand- 
ing industrial councils on the lines rec- 
ommended by the Whitley Commission 
on Industrial Unrest. In some cases, 
preliminary memoranda have been pre- 
pared which the ministry wishes to re- 
fer as soon as possible to such councils 
for careful consideration and report. 

These councils, in organized indus- 
tries, are already working out means of 
preventing hardship that might arise 
from inability to re-absorb men former- 
ly engaged in a particular industry 
through changes in processes or dilution. 
Their separate plans will be coordinated 
by the central resettlement committee. 

It is unavoidable that grave difficul- 
ties will arise at the time of demobiliza- 
tion, when industry will change from a 
war to a peace footing and men who 
have served their country will find them- 
selves confronted with innovations in 
processes and methods of management 
not dreamt of three years ago. But the 
British government is determined — and 
so are the leaders among masters and 
men — to leave nothing undone that can 
possibly contribute to freeing that tran- 
sition from unnecessary strife and suf- 
fering. 



April 6, 1918 



Vol. 40, No. 1 



THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street, New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 
U. Kellogg, editor; Arthur P. Kellogg, 
secretary; Frank Tucker, treasurer. 
25 cents a copv; $3 a year; foreign 
postage, $1.50; Canadian, 75 cents. 
Copyright, 1918, by Survey Associates, 
Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 
25, 1909, at the post office at New York. 
N. Y., under the Act of March i, 1879. 



THE PLACE OF THE PUBLIC 
HEALTH SERVICE 

AVERY small bill may open a very 
big subject. The bill (H. R. 
10716) introduced by Representative 
McCormick of Illinois contains only 
sixteen lines, but it precipitates a 
discussion of questions that have been in 
many minds for a long time. Mr. 
McCormick would have the Public 
Health Service, now under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Treasury Department, trans- 
ferred to the Department of the Interior. 

It will be recalled that during the in- 
vestigation called by Senator Chamber- 
lain the past winter, it was suggested 
that if the Public Health Service were, 
for the period of the war, transferred to 
the administration of the surgeon-gen- 
eral of the army, the military health 
necessities of the time would be greatly 
relieved. As the military health has 
been proved to be by no means inde- 
pendent of civil health, this plan would 
perhaps not leave that practice of pre- 
ventive medicine generally known as 
"public health" so out in the cold as at 
first it might seem. 

Certain it is that a man in uniform 
can secure many results nowadays that 
the before-the-war public health officer 
cannot do ; the public health officer him- 
self says so. Such a transfer would re- 
move from physicians of the Public 
Health Service the necessity that now 
exists for claiming exemption from mili- 
tary service. Unwillingness to go on 
record as having claimed exemption is 
said to have kept many from the Public 
Health Service who would have been 
valuable additions to its personnel. 

But another group will probably be 
heard from in the near future— those 
who have long held the ideal to be a 
national department of public health, 
and who have seen in the events of this 
past year — especially in the results of 
the selective draft examinations — an- 
other demonstration of a broader, more 
uniform, thorough-going health admin- 
istration. 

Mr. McCormick's bill is referred to 
the Committee on Interstate and For- 
eign Commerce. The hearing, when it 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6 , i 9 i 8 



17 





CUTTING UP THE BEEF AND DISTRIBUTING IT 

Full-blooded Australian aboriginals, said to be decreasing 



comes, will doubtless bring forth an in- 
teresting array of opinions. But one 
thing is imperative - — prompt action 
securing to the service adequate funds 
for its big task, to be accomplished 
through whatever official channel leads 
most directly to the desired result. 

NIGHT RUNS FOR WOMEN 
CONDUCTORS 

ALTHOUGH some 150 women's 
organizations have endorsed the 
bills in the New York legislature pro- 
tecting women workers in war time (see 
the Survey for March 9), these bills 
are still "slumbering" in the Rules Com- 
mittee of the Assembly and in the Com- 
mittee on Labor and Industry of the 
Senate. Only the bill prohibiting the 
employment of girls under 21 in messen- 
ger service and permitting women over 
21 to work in this business not more than 
54 hours per week, nor over 6 days a 
week, nor between 10 p.m. and 6 A.M. 
has been reported out of committee and 
advanced to third reading in the Senate. 
Meanwhile, the newly enfranchised 
women of the state are not slumbering. 
Not content with sending telegrams they 
are planning a second delegation to ap- 
peal to the legislators in Albany. (See 
the Survey for March 30.) 

At the first hearing two weeks ago 
little of the opposition to the bills came 
out in the open. Perhaps the proposed 
legislation to be attacked most strenu- 
ously was the bill prohibiting the em- 
ployment of women on street cars in 
New York between ten o'clock at night 
and seven in the morning, and limiting 
their working day to ten consecutive 
hours. Representatives of the Women's 
League for Equal Opportunity were 
heard in opposition to the bill. Miss 
Sullivan, the secretary of the league, said 
that all women who had had any experi- 
ence working at night prefer that to 
working on the day shift, because they 
can sleep during the morning and have 
the afternoon in the open air. Mrs. 
Wolf, president of the league, said that 
if women are to be prohibited from 
working at night on account of the dan- 



ger of insult, they should also be pro- 
hibited from riding on the street cars 
during the rush hours, for the same 
reason. It developed on inquiry that 
the league has seventy-five members, 
some of whom are linotype operators, 
others in secretarial work, and some are 
said to be telephone operators. 

Representatives of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company and the New York 
Railways Company also appeared in op- 
position to the bill, and said that on 
account of the draft and the high wages 
offered in munitions' factories, it was 
impossible to get men to fill the posi- 
tions. If the bill were to become a law, 
they said, New York city would have 
to get along without very much street- 
car service at night. 

The proportion of female to male 
labor on the transportation lines, they 
declared, is constantly increasing. There 
are now about five women to nine men 
employed. A great majority of the 
women are to be found on the cars at 
night, because of the seniority rules per- 
mitting the older employes to choose 
their runs ; the men having been longer 
in the service select the day-runs and 
leave the night-runs to the women. 

Miles M. Dawson, who appeared for 
the Consumers' League, said he had dif- 
ficulty in reconciling the statement of 
the League for Equal Opportunity that 
the night-runs are preferable, and the 
statement of the attorneys for the trac- 
tion companies that the reason why 
women are on the night-runs is that 
they have to take what is left. The 
attorneys did not greatly clear the issue 
when they replied that no reconciliation 
was needed. 

WOMEN SUPPORT SHORTER 
HOURS' BILL 

A MAXIMUM of forty - eight 
hours of work a week as a protec- 
tive war measure for women and chil- 
dren is being urged before the Massa- 
chusetts legislature. "With the grow- 
ing sentiment in favor of a shorter-work 
day, with the federal endorsement of 
the principle, and with the establish- 



ment of an eight-hour day in govern- 
ment service and in all work on govern- 
ment contracts, the prospect for favor- 
able action on the women's bill looks 
more encouraging than at any time in 
the past," writes Ethel M. Johnson to 
the Survey. 

The tssential features of the Massa- 
chusetts measure are: Reduction of the 
hours of women and minors from fifty- 
four to forty-eight a week ; a maximum 
six-day week ; a maximum nine-hour 
day instead of a ten-hour day, as at pres- 
ent ; abolition of overtime for seasonal 
occupations, thus doing away with the 
fifty-eight hour week now possible in 
many establishments; prohibition of 
child labor before six in the morning; 
inclusion of a number of new occupa- 
tions under the law so as to embrace 
practically every form of mercantile, 
manufacturing, mechanical, and com- 
mercial establishment. The bill is not 
strictly an eight-hour bill, since it per- 
mits either a uniform eight-hour day or 
six days a week, or an eight to nine hour 
day for five days with a Saturday half 
holiday. 

Strong support is being given by the 
principal women's associations through- 
out the state in addition to the vigorous 
campaign conducted by the Women's 
Trade Union League and the men's la- 
bor unions. The Social Welfare Com- 
mittee of the legislature is expected to 
report shortly on the measure. 

AUSTRALIA'S CARE FOR HER 
ABORIGINES 

RECENT investigations in Aus- 
tralia show that the full-blooded 
aboriginals are slowly decreasing in 
spite of the care which is being lavished 
upon them at the present time. Many 
reasons have been given for this de- 
crease. "It is difficult to ascribe any 
particular cause for it," A. O. Neville, 
chief protector of aborigines for west- 
ern Australia, writes to the Survey, 
"beyond stating that with the march of 
civilization, bringing the whites into 
contact with the natives, such decrease 
appears to be inevitable." 



IS 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6 , i o 1 8 



TO SAVE BABIES BY THE HUNDRED THOUSAND 

DRAFT quotas, liberty loan quotas, war fund quotas have become as familiar 
as men in khaki. A new kind of quota has entered the field. Each state is 
being told how many lives of babies it is expected to save during the year beginning 
April 6. This is to be "Children's Year," and the United States Children's Bureau 
has set 100,000 babies and young children as the goal for the whole country. You 
will find your state in the following apportionment : 

Population Quota of Population Quota of 

underfive; lives to underfive; lives to 

1910census be saved 1910census be saved 



Maine 71,845 676 

New Hampshire.. 39,581 372 

Vermont 34,171 321 

Massachusetts .... 328,886 3,094 

Rhode Island 54,098 509 

Connecticut 112,244 1,056 

New York 898,927 8,455 

New Jersey 266,942 2,511 

Pennsylvania 884,270 8,318 

Ohio 479,475 4,510 

Indiana 275,524 2,592 

Illinois 597,989 5,625 

Michigan 298,554 2,808 

Wisconsin 256,171 2,410 

Minnesota 226,840 2,134 

Iowa 236,063 2,220 

Missouri 360,503 3,391 

North Dakota... 82,399 775 

South Dakota 73,489 691 

Nebraska 140,096 1,318 

Kansas 191,519 1,802 

Delaware 20,045 188 

Maryland 137,714 1,295 

Dist. of Columbia 26,669 251 

Virginia 268,825 2,529 

The saving of 100,000 lives is only part of the campaign for 
30,000,000 children under fifteen to be inaugurated by the bureau, 
ing and measuring test is to start the campaign. Five thousand 

the Child Welfare Department of the Woman's Committee 
National .Defense will help to make it a success. 



West Virginia. . 
North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 

Georgia 

Florida 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi .... 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico. . .. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Washington . . . 

Oregon 

California 



169,118 

332,792 

228,459 

376,641 

96,956 

294,503 

294,591 

311,716 

259,661 

230,701 

224,069 

241,904 

538,984 

38,323 

40,444 

15,331 

82,562 

45,285 

24,778 

52,698 

6,383 

108,756 

60,211 

193,659 



1,591 

3,130 

2,149 

3,543 

912 

2,770 

2,771 

2,932 

2,442 

2,170 

2,108 

2,275 

5,070 

360 

380 

144 

777 

425 

233 

496 

60 

1,023 

566 

1,822 



the welfare of the 

A national weigh- 

local committees of 

of the Council of 



The present policy of the department 
is to establish settlements where the in- 
digent, sick and infirm natives may be 
collected, as well as the orphan and 
half-caste children, and be cared for by 
the department's own officers. In ad- 
dition, large tracts of country are set 
apart where the uncivilized natives may 
work out their own salvation in their 
own way, protected from all interfer- 
ence by white men. 

Western Australia has an area of 
nearly a million square miles and is 
sparsely populated by white people. 
Although, therefore, natives in all 
stages of civilization are found in the 
state, only those left to themselves seem 
to be able to survive. One inspector 
who last year visited fourteen ration- 
ing stations — places where indigenous 
; natives, whether in want through lack 
of employment or of game or through 
laziness, can obtain government sup- 
plies — only observed five children 
throughout the trip. 

Altogether, ( the disappearance of the 
full-blooded Australian native, not so 
much from intermixture with other 
races as from lack of progenitiveness 
on the part of young men and women 
maintained in idleness, is a phenomenon 
which is not without its counterpart in 
the white race and provides a good text 
for the modern race-hygienist. 




Cetare in N. Y. Evening Poit 

"missed him" 
New York has not yet passed the 
federal prohibition amendment, but 
the great spread of the movement is 
indicated by a test vote (adverse) of 
24 to 25 in the New York state 
Senate, called the wettest legislative 
body in the United States. It was 
said, indeed, that the question in New 
York was not, Shall we go dry? but, 
Shall zve take our prohibition neat or 
diluted by a referendum? Thirty- 
eight cities in the state will vote 
under the local option lazv on April 16. 



PUTTING THE COOK ON THE 
FIRING LINE 

"I attended a meeting of the town club 
and listened to a lot of hot air on nitrates 
in Chile being good fertilizers for grain 
in Kalamazoo, etc., and I bethought me of 
some means of putting the cook more im- 
mediately upon the firing line." 

SO a New York physician recently 
wrote to Herbert Hoover, food ad- 
ministrator. The rest of his letter, de- 
scribing the means by which he inter- 
ested the people around his summer home 
in Massachusetts in the food conserva- 
tion campaign, contains a number of 
hints which may be useful to leaders in 
this movement elsewhere: 

I got the housewives of the village to 
bring sample war breads and war cakes 
with receipts and statement of cost. We 
had a typewriter at the show who copied 
these receipts and gave them away free to 
any who desired them after tasting the 
samples. 

A farmer brought samples of all the 
local wild foods (nuts, honey, maple sugar, 
etc.). One woman had charge of the bean 
exhibit, and showed all the beans which 
can be grown in this locality. The grow- 
ing and dried beans were shown with all 
sorts of dishes made from them. Another 
brought rice cooked in various novel ways. 

We showed food substitutes, such as ba- 
nana flour, cotton seed meal, and the like ; 
also food containers of pasteboard, fiber, 
etc. I made a model of a ''calorie" (which 
most of my friends think is a kind of bird), 
consisting of a test tube with a gram of 
water, a centigrade thermometer and a 
spirit lamp. It is labelled "raising the 
temperature of one gram of water one de- 
greee, as shown by this thermometer, pro- 
duces one calorie which is the standard 
unit of fuel value, whether the fuel be al- 
cohol, coal, gasoline or the food which is 
burned up as body fuel." 

The correspondent then describes a 
number of war food posters, made for 
the most part of pictures which hap- 
pened to be at hand with telling cap- 
tions. The show was such a success 
that it ran for three days, was opened 
also in the evening, and a demand for it 
came from neighboring towns where it 
was subsequently staged with equal suc- 
cess. One exhibit that attracted much 
attention was the display of the addi- 
tional quantity of food which one can 
get for a dollar if it is bought in bulk 
instead of packages. Prices for loose 
and package goods can easily be ob- 
tained anywhere, and the different quan- 
tities weighed out. 

HEALTH INSURANCE 
ARGUED AT ALBANY 

BECAUSE they are in war service 
in Fiance or in civilian relief work 
behind the lines, the New York doctors 
who have been most outspoken in favor 
of health insurance were not present at 
the legislative hearing in Albany last 
week to hear health insurance de- 
nounced as "Prussianism." So it re- 
mained for James M. Lvnch. a member 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 1918 



19 



of the industrial commission and former 
president of the International Typo- 
graphical Union, to remind the senators 
that many of the soldiers who are now 
opposing the German drive in France 
are the working men of England, where 
health insurance has been in vogue since 
1912. And James Holland, president 
of the State Federation of Labor, re- 
marked that if the opposing speakers 
had spent less time in studying so ab- 
horrent a thing as Prussianism and more 
in familiarizing themselves with Ameri- 
can conditions, they would know more 
of the need at home out of which the 
movement for health insurance has 
grown. 

The hearing was on the Nicoll bill 
for compulsory health insurance, intro- 
duced at the request of the New York 
State Federation of Labor, and en- 
dorsed in the series of reports by them, 
reviewed on page 708 of last week's 
Survey. The opposition was mar- 
shalled by Mark Daly, secretary of the 
New York State Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation, and included representatives of 
manufacturers, employing printers, coal 
dealers, real estate men, commercial 
travellers and doctors. Appearing for 
the bill were representatives of the State 
Federation of Labor, the City Club of 
New York, the Association for Labor 
Legislation, and the Women's Trade 
Union League. Representatives of in- 
surance companies were present but 
took no part in the proceedings. 

Mr. Daly read from figures compiled 
by the Insurance Economic Society of 
America purporting to show that the 
cost of health insurance in this state 
will be appalling. Every year 736,000 
patients would require 15 days of nur- 
sing service; 491,000 would require 12 
days of hospital service; there would be 
245,000 operations at $20 each ; there 
would be 44,100,000 physicians' visits; 
2,945,000 people would get $5 worth 
of dental attention, each ; and the total 
cost of one year of health insurance 
would be $136,891,000. 

"Who pays for all this now?" some- 
one asked as Mr. Daly completed the 
reading. "Why, I suppose a good deal 
of it is paid for by the state," replied 
Mr. Daly, "and a good deal of it by 
the workers themselves." 

When James M. Lynch rose to reply 
to the opposition, he said that if 20,000 
more trained nurses, 5,000 more den- 
tists, and $100,000,000 more in hospi- 
tals would be required to take care of 
the sick people of the state, as alleged 
by the pamphlet, nothing could be more 
convincing evidence of the need of 
health insurance. He would accept the 
figures if they were well-founded, and 
hoped that the state would proceed at 
once to provide this necessary equip- 
ment. William G. Curtis, president of 
the Insurance Economic Society of 
America, which compiled the pamphlet, 




The Spirit of War Service 



Alone in the midst of war's 
desolation, the telephone line- 
man crawls to mend the broken 
wires. 

On all sides the thunder of 
artillery; in the air bursting 
shrapnel. 

He faces danger with that 
unconquerable spirit of war 
service which permits him to 
think only of maintaining the 
telephone connections. 

The safety of the troops de- 
pends on these lines of commu- 
nication, often used for the sen- 
tries' warnings, the carrying of 



official commands and the sum- 
moning of reinforcements. 

In a dark hole hidden among 
sparse brushwood are the tele- 
phone operators, some of whom 
have been for months in their 
damp cave ceaselessly swept by 
shells. 

And they are admirable, all 
these heroes of the Signal Corps, 
whether serving in darkness or 
in the all too bright light of day. 

The spirit of war service, over 
here as well as over there, fur- 
nishes the nerves, the endur- 
ance, the morale — the stuff that 
wins war. 




American Telephone and Telegraph Company 
And Associated Companies 

One Policy One System Universal Service 



and also president of the National 
Casualty and Health Insurance Com- 
pany of Detroit, was present at the 
hearing but made no remarks. 

Judge Ommen, representing the em- 
ploying printers and bookbinders of 
New York, said that the employers could 
not stand the cost that would be in- 
volved if the bill were to pass. He said 
also that the workers had no desire to 
have any such aid as this bill proposed. 
"The poor," he said, "want to fight to 
get on. They are able to take care of 



themselves and they are not objects for 
social workers to play with," and he 
proposed that if the desire were to help 
the poor, the benefits be limited to 
workers with an income of $800 or less. 
This very principle was in the bill last 
year — only the limit was $1,200 instead 
of $800, — and it was most bitterly de- 
nounced by representatives of employers' 
organizations. They feared that it 
would create classes in America. Judge 
Ommen intimated that he would favor 
a national health insurance program. 



20 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 191 



THE PROBLEM of the 
MOTION PICTURE 



War activities have demanded so much time of the social 
worker that little has remained for the consideration of the 
motion picture problem. But it continues to be an impor- 
tant one, for as many people as ever are drawing upon the 
motion picture theatre for their entertainment, and are ab- 
sorbing whatever good or evil there may be in the films of 
the present day. 

The motion picture organization of which Thomas A. 
Edison is the head, has given not a little thought to the 
preparation and distribution of a group of motion pictures 
which are closer than the average to the ideal films for 
community exhibitions. 

In the SURVEY for January fifth, nineteen and eighteen, 
mention is made of the community motion picture work of 
the state of North Carolina. A large number of the films 
used in this work, including the Boy Scout story and the 
health pictures referred to, were made in the Edison 
Studios. 

Edison Community Films may be had in grouped pro- 
grams or separately, for school, church, playground, social 
center or theatre exhibitions. Exchanges supplying this 
service at reasonable rental prices are in every large city. 

Correspondence is invited. 



3ta jfitfmoo OL.GJdbon Sodiao 

Community Motion Picture Division 
ORANGE, N. J. 



Undoubtedly, the strongest opposition 
came from representatives of the Med- 
ical Society of New York. They at- 
tacked the provision in the bill for the 
selection of a doctor from a panel and 
intimated that the remuneration of the 
doctor would not be sufficient. The 
secretary of the society stated categori- 
cally that the bill is unnecessary; that it 
is uneconomic, and that there is no evi- 
dence that longevity has been increased 
anywhere by health insurance. The 
chairman of the Economics Committee 
of the State Medical Society said that 



the bill will mean reduced medical ser- 
vice, and the chairman of the Commit- 
tee on Legislation of the New York 
County -Medical Society, expressed the 
fear that the personal relationship be- 
tween physician and patient will be de- 
stroyed. He said that it is not alone the 
dispensing of medicines and the perform- 
ing of operations that makes a doctor's 
services valuable ; his services are some- 
times equally important in advice, coun- 
sel and cheer. All of which led Rose 
Schneiderman of the Women's Trade 
Union League to remark, "We don't 



get very much solace at the dispensary. 
The average worker," said Miss 
Schneiderman, "doesn't get adequate 
medical service. We have to put up with 
twenty-five cent service now," she 
stated, referring to the pamphlet issued 
by the Insurance Economic Society, 
which conveys the impression that un- 
der the bill the doctors would have to 
be satisfied with twenty-five cents a 
visit. 

Miles M. Dawson, attorney and ac- 
tuary, appearing for the New York 
City Club, agreed that health insurance 
originated in Germany. He said that 
when he investigated the matter several 
years ago over there, he found that to 
be about the only democratic thing in 
Germany. Since that time nearly every 
other country of importance in Europe 
has adopted the health insurance idea, 
including Switzerland, and Norway, 
which he declared to be the most demo- 
cratic country in Europe. And only re- 
cently, he said, word had come that in 
Sweden, under the present wartime con- 
ditions, health insurance has just been 
enacted into law. Mr. Dawson esti- 
mated that the cost of insurance under 
the proposed bill, would be 4 per cent 
of the wages up to twelve dollars a week. 
The weekly contribution for each 
worker would not, therefore, be in excess 
of forty-eight cents to be divided equally 
between the employer and the worker. 

"AS I WAS JOGGING DOWN A 
BLOOMING SLUM" 

THERE is no longer any excuse for 
writers of annual reports, investi- 
gations, case records, etc., to be dull. 
An anti-soporific has been supplied by 
a distinguished member of the Boston 
bar, Joseph M. Sullivan; this will add 
spice to any subject and enliven any 
style. It consists of a small "dictionary 
of criminal slang," just revised and re- 
published. Criminals, it appears, have 
a sense of humor, like everyone else. 
To "croak" is to die or to kill ; hence a 
"croaker" is logically a physician. Sym- 
pathy goes by the name of "Vermont 
charity," while "student" is the name 
given to an "educated political heeler 
living off a padded payroll." 

Much, apparently, depends upon the 
context for an accurate understanding 
of what a criminal means. "Hop" may 
mean opium, but "hops" means tea. An 
overcoat may be referred to as either a 
"Benjamin" or a "flogger." A "beak" 
is a magistrate, but "beak-huntim:" 
means poultry-stealing. The names 
given to particular prisons have real hu- 
mor back of them: Auburn and Clin- 
ton prisons, in New York, are known 
respectively as "Copper John" and 
"Pork Dump." while Trenton prison in 
New Jersey is known as "Sleepv Hol- 
low." 

Criminals, it we may believe Mi. 
Sullivan, are occasionally highbrows. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 191 



21 



Apparently it is common for them to 
speak of the "psychological moment" 
when they mean the right time to do a 
thing. "Bertillon measurement" is as 
familiar a phrase to them as being 
"mugged." Some of their "slang" has 
a strangely familiar sound. "Lost his 
nerve" means no more than that cour- 
age failed him, while the word insane is 
replaced in their vocabulary by the well- 
known epithet "nutty." 

It is disappointing that no definition 
of the word "criminal" is given us. Mr. 
Sullivan himself comes partially to the 
rescue, however. A "yeggman" is de- 
scribed as a person who "breaks into 
country post offices and country stores 
and uses dynamite to blow open safes." 
This daring adventurer, we are told, is 
recruited mostly from "broken-down 
freight brakemen." We should hate to 
be Mr. Sullivan's companion on a freight 
train if this view of his should ever leak 
out. 

A SURVEY ARTICLE AND THE 

RECALL 
tt\T 7*E hope now to have a period 
VV of rest from the pernicious ac- 
tivities of your little friend, Anna 
Louise, and her illustrious dad. You 
may be very proud of her as one of your 
contributors, but I assure you the rep- 
resentative people of Seattle are not 
proud of her citizenship or lack of pa- 
triotism. Both she and her dad should 
be interned." 

The "representative" people of Seat- 
tle apparently do not very much out- 
number the "unrepresentative" ones, if 
both the writer of the above letter to the 
Survey and the election figures in the 
recall of Anna Louise Strong speak 
truth. Miss Strong was recalled from 
the Seattle school board by a popular 
election at which the votes in her favor 
were 21,000, those against her 27,000. 
Inasmuch as the charge against her was 
disloyalty and for three months prece- 
ding the election none of the daily news- 
papers would accept a statement from 
her, this is a less overwhelming cen- 
sure than might easily have been ex- 
pected. 

Miss Strong has been an occasional 
contributor to the Survey, and it was 
her article in our issue of May 19, 1917, 
on The Verdict at Everett — or rather a 
garbled version of it given out by the 
local press — that chiefly condemned her 
in the eyes of some people. This article 
was an account of events before and 
after the shooting of members of the 
I. W. W. who attempted to land at 
Everett by boat on November 5, 1916 — 
five months before war was declared. 

In a statement on the war printed as 
a pamphlet and circulated by the Cen- 
tral Labor Council of Seattle, Miss 
Strong said that she was opposed to the 
war "before war was declared." "Now 
that we are at war," she said, "I wish 



Women's am/Misses' 

Spring Apparel 



1 at 




Reg. Trad* Mark = 



A most attractive display of new models in Coats, 
Tailored Suits, Daytime Dresses, Blouses, Hats 
and Skirts. 

Smart Spring Coats of Wool Velour, Gabardine, Serges, 
Silvertone Tweeds, and Jersey Cloth, #27.75 to 39-5° 

Plain Tailored and Trimmed Suits in a variety of at- 
tractive materials and models . . $29.75 to 59.50 

Afternoon Gowns of Taffeta, Silk, and Crepe de 
Chine $24.50 and 28.50 

Misses' Daytime Frocks of Taffeta in street and light 
shades $19-75 

Street Dresses of Serge with smart White Pique collars 
and cuffs $17-75 

Blouses (Specials) 

Georgette Crepe Blouses in light colors . $5.00 

Tailored Blouses of Striped Tub Silk . . . $5.75 
Blouses of plain White and Striped Cotton Voile $2.00 



Hats 



Tailored Straw Hats 



$4.75 to 11.75 I 



Orders by mail given special attention 

I James McCutcheon & Co. | 

I Fifth Avenue, 34th and 33d Streets, New York | 



the best possible fortune for our boys. 
... I hope, at the end of the war, 
first, that democracy may make signal 
gains all over the world; and second, 
that the moment a permanent demo- 
cratic peace becomes possible we may be 
in a position to take advantage of it, 
without the necessary loss of one life. 
The position taken by our President bids 
fair to secure these ends, if he is up- 
held in it by loyal citizens." 

Though the Survey is not concerned 
with the particular circumstances of 
Miss Strong's recall, which was closely 



bound up with the city elections, the in- 
cident apparently revealed one very ob- 
vious defect of the recall as an instru- 
ment of democracy: It appears that 
any group of citizens may make any 
charge they please and have it printed 
on the ballot paper, while no space is 
given for the defense of the officer 
whose recall is demanded. In the case 
of Miss Strong, the charge was one of 
offense against not one but several fed- 
eral statutes. Yet she was given no 
space for reply; and her legal advisers 
assured her that in all probability a 



9? 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, igil 



Courses including practical work 

in Family and Child Welfare, 

Community Organization, Play, 

Health, Penology, Industry 

Cummer school 

^"^ for Teachers, Social Workers, etc. 
July 8 — August 16 

THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF 
PHILANTHROPY 105 E. 22 St. 

Bulletin ready April 1 



PALDING PLAY APPARATUS 



c 

^^ —Of Quality Unexcelled — 
^ W Catalog Sent on Request 

A. G. Spalding & Bros., Inc., 




VICTORIAN ORDER OF NURSES: 

Post-Graduate course in District Nursing, 
four months, is given at the four training 
centres of the Order at Ottawa, Montreal, 
Toronto and Vancouver. Salary during the 
course and good openings after successful 
terminations. For full information apply to 
the Chief Superintendent, 578 Somerset St., 
Ottawa. 




Answer 
Thus! 



ABOUT PROHIBITION 



All the objections to prohibition answered in a tiny booklet 
that will go into an envelope. 10 cents apiece; $1 a dozen; 
$30 per 1,000. Just the thing for dry campaigns. Address 
E. Tilton. 11 Mason Street. Cambridge, Mass. 

ENGLISH-ITALIAN PHRASE BOOK 
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A phrase book for social workers, teachers, physicians and 
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judge would consider the recall a privi- 
leged statement and so unamenable to 
the usual laws concerning libel. 

GIVING THE DOCTORS DUE 
RANK 

ANOTHER call has gone out for 
more physicians for the army serv- 
ice. Simultaneously appear many testi- 
monies of sanitary orders disregarded 
because the army doctor is only a major 
and the line officer is a colonel, or gen- 
eral. In the navy, a medical officer rises 
steadily to the higher ranks. In the 
army, the maple leaf is the best insignia 
offered him. Some urgent matter con- 
cerning the hospital and its patients may 
arise, but the "major" in charge must 
wait a major's turn before being ad- 
mitted to the commander's presence. 

Nor does it make for future recogni- 
tion of American medical science that 
medical officers are sent abroad with 
commissions of lower grade than those 



of the foreign medical officers with whont 
they are associated. One is tempted to 
speculate, albeit respectfully, upon rela- 
tive ranks and values could a good, acute 
appendicitis befall a general or two. 
However, there is surely the possibility 
of a change even while in corpore sano. 

The bill introduced simultaneously in 
the Senate by Senator Owen and in the 
House by Representative Dyer, requires- 
that hereafter commissioned officers of 
the medical corps and of the medical re- 
serve corps, shall be distributed in rank 
in the same ratio as that established by 
law for the navy. The highest ranks- 
are opened by the bill to both corps 
equally. 

The passage of the measure might 
result in a more rapid response to the 
call for new medical officers. Why call 
a man to military service and hold in 
lower esteem that for which he is to be 
of especial value to that service? Is it 
because "civil doctors have not had mili- 
tary training?" 



Book Reviews 



Pictures of War Work in America 

Joseph Pennell. Thirty-six plates and 8 
pages. J. B. Lippincott Company. Price 
$2; by mail of the Survey $2.12. 

These reproductions of lithographs — un- 
fortunately very uneven in quality so far as 
the lithographic process is concerned — were 
made with special permission of the govern- 
ment and are more convincing evidence of 
American war industry than many of the 
speeches recently made in and out of Con- 
gress to defend this or that branch of the 
administration. 

"I did not do these drawings," says Mr. 
Pennell, "with any idea of helping to win 
the war, but because for years I have been 
at work — from my earliest drawings — trying 
to record The Wonder of Work, and work 
never was so wonderful as it is today." He 
has had unique opportunities of comparing 
the war industry of this country with that of 
Europe; and, if we do not deceive ourselves, 
his pictures show the difference that he men- 
tions in the text. There is less of that rest- 
lessness that speaks from the English draw- 
ings published a year ago. B. L. 

The Future of the Southern Slavs 

By A. H. E. Tavlor. 319 pp. Dodd, Mead 
& Co. $3.00; by mail of the Survey $3.15. 

South-Eastern Europe 

By Vladislav R. Savic. 276 pp. Fleming 
H. Revell Co. Price $1.50; bv mail of the 
Survey $1.62. 

Serbia Crucified 

By Milutin Krunich. 303 pp. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. Price $1.50; by mail of the 
Survey $1.62. 

As may be deduced from their titles, the 
first two of these books cover the same ground 
to some extent. The second, however, forms 
a valuable supplement to the larger volume, 
inasmuch as it deals at greater length with 
certain aspects of 'the subject which did not 



lie so well within the scheme of Mr. Taylor's 
work, as for instance the Pan-Slar question 
and the influence of Russia. 

Moreover, it is well to be able to compare 
the views of the interested parties with those 
of the independent onlooker with no axe to 
grind. It speaks well for the essential jus- 
tice and moderation of the southern Slav case 
that the demands of Mr. Savic coincide so 
nearly with those of the English writer. 

The two books come at an opportune mo- 
ment, when there is a growing desire in this 
country for information on the more difficult 
aspects of the European situation. Of all the 
obstacles to lasting peace none would be more 
formidable than a partial solution of the 
Balkan question. A settlement which leaves 
the southern Slavs with a legitimate griev- 
ance can only lead to new wars, for they 
have reached the limit of endurance. 

On the new state which will hare to be 
formed with Serbia as nucleus, the future 
peace of Europe will depend to a great de- 
gree. Serbia it must be remembered, is the 
one nation which Germany in her prepara- 
tions for the Drang nach Osten could neither 
terrorize nor suborn. Her loyalty to demo- 
cratic ideals has proved unbreakable and 
can be relied on to stand any future tests. 

Mr. Taylor's book is a very valuable and 
eminently readable study of the future south- 
ern Slav state, preceded by a concise and 
lucid resume of Serbian history up to the out- 
break of the great war. His chapter on the 
Problem of the Adriatic may well prove a 
useful contribution to the eventual recon- 
ciliation of conflicting southern Slav and 
Italian aspirations. In the face of the re- 
morseless logic of the facts, it is difficult to 
imagine Italy deliberately playing Austria 
to Serbia's Piedmont; and, indeed, as Mr. 
Taylor demonstrates by wide quotation, the 
best thinkers in Italy are coming to realize 
the validity of the southern Slav claims on 
the eastern Adriatic coast. 

(Continued M paot- 24> 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6 , 1918 23 



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THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 1918 



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(Continued from page 22) 

Nothing affords better ground for optv 
mism in regard to the future southern Slav 
state than a review of the internal progress 
of Serbia in the period immediately preced- 
ing the Balkan War of 1912, since which 
time, of course, she has been continuously at 
war. Serbia herself is the most essentially 
national of the Balkan countries. She is in 
the best sense of the word "home-made." 

Unlike Bulgaria, which owes her exist- 
ence as a state to the will of Russia, Serbia 
regained her independence by her own un- 
aided efforts. Her ruling house — alone with 
that of Montenegro among Balkan dynasties 
— is a native one, democratic to the core. 
She has struggled forward with none of the 
dubious advantages of foreign guidance for 
her first steps in independence; with the re- 
sult that her constitution, her laws and 
customs are genuine products of the soil, 
formed to meet national needs, and not mere 
sentimental imitations of foreign institu- 
tions. 

Her progress has been proportionately less 
spectacular; but the need for coping with 
her own problems in her own way, under the 
burden moreover of an unmerited reputation 
bad enough to harig the proverbial dog, has 
fostered a sturdy self-reliance and laid for 
the national edifice a secure foundation in 
the particular genius of the race and the 
conditions of the country. 

When, after the war, with increased re- 
sponsibilities, Serbia takes up again the busi- 
ness of national development, she will have 
little to clear away except the evils in- 
flicted by the foreign domination of the mo- 
ment, and can safely build on the basis al- 
ready established. She has indeed arrived 
in some respects at a point towards which 
many of the larger countries are still strug- 
gling. 

The national taste for cooperation, rooted 
in the ancient social economy of Serbia as 
centered in the Zadruga or family group, 
has produced conditions in both the agri- 
cultural and the nascent industrial life of 
the people, which in Britain and America 
are still little more than distant ideals of 
advanced economists. Her organization of 
cooperative productive societies may well, 
as Mr. Taylor suggests, develop into the 
point of reconciliation, sought for with such 
earnestness in these days, "between capi- 
talism and labor, between syndicalism and 
socialism, between individualism and collec- 
tivism, between the old order and the new." 

That her path in this direction has been 
the path of wisdom is evidenced by her im- 
proved financial condition. Financial sta- 
bility is not usually associated in the pub- 
lic mind with the Balkans; but an exami- 
nation of Serbian affairs for the years prior 
to the war shows a steadily growing surplus 
in the budget, a considerable decrease in the 
national debt, and a generally sound sys- 
tem of state accounts. 

The future Serbia, however, while duly 
reckoning with increased opportunities for 
developing her vast and almost unexploited 
mineral wealth and industrial potentialities, 
will do well to give some heed to the plea 
of Mr. Taylor, which is indeed the hope of 
all who believe in her: 

"For many years, however, it is to be 
hoped that no effort will be made artificially 
to stimulate industry. The ultimate strength 
of a nation is derived from agriculture, and 
for a long time the soil of greater Serbia 
with its agriculture, its forests and its pas- 
toral industry, will suffice to maintain not 
merelv the present population but one very 
much larger. Nations pay dearly enough for 
industrialism in the loss of many things that 
make life sane and sweet, in the decay of a 
sturdy peasantry, in the loss of a simpler 
and more healthv mode of life, of simpler 
and healthy pleasures, and of a really gentle 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6 , 191 



25 



COULD YOU EXPLAIN 

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a democracy and thence to chaos ? These 
transitions and the reasons for them are ex- 
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In the same book, Professor R. J. Kerner tells 
the story of The Jugo-Slav Movement, a 
struggle for nationalism now after 1300 years 
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THE 

POLISH PEASANT 

IN EUROPE AND AMERICA 

By William I. Thomas 
and Florian Znaniecki 

Department of Sociology, 
The University of Chicago 

To consist of five volumes. 



NOW READY 

VOLS. I and II 

PRIMARY -GROUP 
ORGANIZATION 

The materials for these two volumes 
are selected from about 15,000 peasant 
letters. 

The two volumes, 1134 pages, $5.50, post- 
age extra (weight 4 lbs. 10 oz.). Not sold 
separately. 

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THE JOURNAL OF 
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The professional Jour- 
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No progressive house- 
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Issued monthly ; sub- 
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code of manners. To transform the Serb 
peasant into a copy of the western artisan 
would be a poor work, and if the Serb re- 
tains his present dislike of manufacture and 
town life, the evil would be still worse, 
either in the form of a corruptio optlmi pes- 
sima or in the introduction of an alien- 
owned and worked industry superimposed 
upon those elements which have preserved 
the heritage of the Serb through darkest de- 
pression to our own day. 'A peasant state,' 
so let it remain as long as may be." 

Serbia's greatest treasure is unquestion- 
ably her magnificent peasant stock, proba- 
bly the finest in Europe; and nothing that 
she might gain in the way of industrial pros- 
perity could compensate for its deterioration. 

In view of the immense strategic impor- 
tance of her geographical position, there is 
reason for universal thankfulness that this 
gateway between East and West lies, and 
will lie, in the hands of a nation which, 
after a hard struggle up the ladder of po- 
litical development, has so fully "found it- 
self" and gives such promise of progress. 

Few more vivid pictures of Serbia's share 
in the world sacrifice have been given than 
that contained in the four sketches which 
make up the third book. The author fought 
throughout the campaigns of 1914 and 1915, 
and whether the stories be a record of his 
own experiences, or simply founded on fact, 
they bear the stamp of actuality. Indeed, 
knowing all we now know of Serbia's mar- 
tyrdom, there is no need to question the es- 
sential veracity of these incidents. 

This is a cry that comes from the heart 
of the men and women who endured the 
agony, not — as in so many cases — the account 
of a spectator who saw them suffer. The 
story of Our Child, the little waif of the 
great exodus, throws as much light on the 
character of the Serbian soldier, his un- 
wavering heroism, his love of the land, his 
gentle kindliness, as on the terrible burden 
of memory that must weigh on each pitiful 
little survivor of the retreat, and on the chil- 
dren still growing up in the darkened land. 
The "aid in English idiom of Leah Marie 
Bruce," acknowledged on the title-page, has 
been skilfully given, inasmuch as it has en- 
sured a fluent and readable English without 
taking away from the characteristic flavor 
of the author's style. 

E. M. Chadwick. 
Vocational Education 

Compiled by Emily Robinson. The Hand- 
book Series. H. W. Wilson Company. 303 
pages. Price 1.25; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $1.35. 

This title, which has been given to a com- 
pilation of extracts from books, periodicals 
and pamphlets, is of such current present- 
day interest, that we may well wonder why 
a book "published January, 1918" has an 
author's introduction dated April 10, 1917, 
when the months from August to December, 
1917, have been epoch-making in vocational 
education. For during these five months, the 
Federal Board for Vocational Education was 
organized, state boards of control set up, 
plans for a system of federal and state aided 
secondary vocational education in the forty- 
eight states of the union were approved, and 
the federal apportionment paid over to the 
states by the federal board. 

No reference to this great accomplishmen* 
appears; and only the second of the two pur- 
poses for which the federal and state money 
is to be devoted — salaries of teachers and 
training of teachers — is mentioned. Surely 
such information would better serve the com- 
piler's purpose to "stimulate other educators 
to further effort in solving the problems of 
education for all the members of their com- 
munities" than the first extract (p. 5) on 
Cultural and Vocational Education with long 
quotations from Spencer, Herbart, Nietsche, 
Ruskin, etc. 



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In arranging insurance-protection the best 
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THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 191S 



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The book is described as a "source book" 
designed to be "helpful to teachers of vo- 
cational education and students who are 
training to be public school teachers, as well 
as people who have only a general intelli- 
gent interest in education," but no indica- 
tion of the writer's position, his professional 
connections or his authority to speak on the 
subject covered by his extract appears. Do 
we not need some basis for judging the com- 
petence of the writer and the value of the 
"source"? 

The selection of authors is puzzling. The 
first three hundred pages of extracts contain 
not a word from the universally acknowl- 
edged leader of secondary vocational educa- 
tion — C. A. Prosser, director of the Federal 
Board for Vocational Education. On pages 
300-303, a four-page extract on The Voca- 
tional Survey, by Mr. Prosser, appears. Five 
other authors appear twice, two appearing 
twice within the first thirty-nine pages. 

Similarly, reports from three writers on 
Industrial Education for Girls appear, but 
nothing from Florence M. Marshall, one of 
the pioneers and recognized leaders in this 
field. 

Still, many writers well qualified to dis- 



cuss their subject are included, and a forty- 
page bibliography and 300-page compilation 
of extracts on this vital subject are most 
welcome for use in university and teacher 
training classes. But we do need "selected 
critical bibliographies," and they must be 
prepared by people who know the field and 
are in a position to select critically. 

May Allinson. 

Fear God in Your Own Village 

By Richard Morse. Henry Holt & Com- 
pany. 212 pp. Price $1.30; by mail of the 
Survey $1.40. 

Who is Morse and where is Hilldale? We 
found out in rather an unusual way; for 
when we sent the book to an old friend of the 
Survey whom we knew to be engaged in all 
sorts of remarkable social and religious ex- 
periments in a country parish, we got it back 
with the following letter: 

"Doggone it! Every time I want to have 
a little fun my conscience seems to get in the 
way. I happen to be the author of that 
book, so, scenting fun, I told you that I 
would be happy to review it and began to 
collect rare superlatives. I intended to write 



a humdinger. Then along came my con- 
science and said: 

" 'No, don't do it — they will find out some 
day, and then your name will be mud. Be- 
sides, this book is really too important to be 
made the subject of a practical joke. It has 
a real message for serious-minded people, 
even though the writer's pen may have been 
dipped in humorous ink now and then. It 
is a report of a five years' scientific experi- 
ment in community cooperation and deserves 
a better and longer review than you can give 
it anyway. Let Graham Taylor or Paul 
Kellogg or some fellow like that try it.' 

"That is the sort of conscience I have, 
darn it, so I am sending the book back to 
you, wishing it luck." 

Well, in my review, I need hardly say 
more than that the book is all written in the 
breezy style of this letter; that if we had 
read a few pages of it before sending it out 
we should undoubtedly have spotted its 
authorship, and that the author's claim for 
it is completely justified. 

Among all the books on the rural church 
and rural social work which have come to 
us for several years, there has hardly been 
another so crystal-clear in its vision of the 
task for the rural community organizer, so 
practically helpful, so delightfully human in 
its appeal. 

There are thousands of Hilldales in the 
land with just such Deacon Bosticks and 
Neighbor Freemans. Each one of them has 
its peculiar difficulties and opportunities, but 
they all need the same spiritual leadership 
and the same sense of fellowship in common 
service to make a community out of what 
otherwise would be merely a chance aggre- 
gation of individuals and families. 

Fear God in Your Own Village deserves 
the widest possible circulation and enjoyment 
among countryfolk, and especially among 
rural pastors. P. U. K. 

The Third and Fourth Generation — An 

Introduction to Heredity 

By Elliot Downing. ,163 pp. University 

of Chicago Press. Price $1 ; by mail of 

the Survey $1.10. 

We have traveled far in the past fifty 
years since the time when the name of evo- 
lutionist had the same sort of connotation as 
infidel or profligate to the present when a 
series in religious education publishes the 
book of a modern biologist on heredity and 
eugenics prepared for classes in the Sunday 
school and for the reading of ministers. 

Nor is there anything in Dr. Downing's 
presentation of the subject that indicates that 
he has been in any degree influenced, in re- 
counting the discoveries of the biologists, by 
consideration for the feelings or preposses- 
sions of his intended readers. He has said 
what he had to say simply and well, has 
not attempted to make the book in any sense 
a religious one, nor, on the other hand, to 
point out any errors in past or present creeds. 
Indeed, he boldly lays stress on the contrast 
between the unlimited pains that breeders of 
hogs, sheep and dogs take to secure the best 
of progeny by careful mating and the care- 
lessness of man in this respect. Even the 
pedigrees of the best breeds of cats must 
be carefully kept, but a registration of 
the progeny of mated human beings is not 
required in all states. Dr. Downing is 
confessedly an optimist and believes that 
grandeur is so nigh to our dust that human 
matings may in time be influenced by a con- 
sideration of probable nature of the off- 
spring. 

This little book may be cordially recom- 
mended (though it is not without slipht 
errors) to those who seek a simple presenta- 
tion of the findings of modern genetics and 
eugenics. It was probably wise that the 
author should stop where he stopped and 
(Continued on page 29) 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 191 



27 




A single year's record of 

13,000,000 Persons 

who protect themselves and each other 

In Life and In Death 



1,300,000 Visits made by Nurses on 

230,000 Individuals. 

18,000,000 Copies of Health Maga- 
zine distributed in seven 
languages. 

18,225,462 Copies of Health Litera- 
ture Printed and Dis- 
tributed. 

500 Clean-up and Baby Week 
Campaigns Inaugurated 
or Assisted. 

150 Health Exhibits con- 
ducted. 

Children's and Veterans' League 
Managed. 

Sickness Surveys Taken. 



18 policyholders die every hour of 
the year, and every 

37 seconds in each working day a 
death claim is paid. 

$3,936,181,898.00 Insurance on their 

Lives. 

$453,749,902.00 increase in amount 
of insurance. 

$58,792,940.06 paid in Death 
Claims. 

$303.14 paid every minute during 
each working day. 



18,262,933 policies in force. 
1,310,164 increase in 1917 



Over 900,000 Additional Individuals 

joined this Mutual "Metropolitan Family" in the year. 



The 14,000 Representatives of these people will be glad to help you in your Health Cam- 
paigns. Have you called on them? If not, communicate with the 

WELFARE DIVISION 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



28 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, igi 



Home and Institutional Economics 

FOR OUR READERS INTERESTED IN HOME ECONOMICS, 
HOME MAKING AND INSTITUTION MANAGEMENT. 



Nousefurnishing 
Warerooms 

(Established 1835) 

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Cutlery. China, Glassware. 

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Brushes, Brooms, Dusters, Polishes for Floors, 
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HOUSES SUPPLYING 
INSTITUTIONAL TRADE 



Dry Goods. 

FREDERICK LOESER & CO., 
484 Fulton Stbxdt, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Groceries. 

SEEMAN BROS., 
Hudson and North Moore Sts., New York 



Hardware, Tools and Supplies. 

HAMMACHER, SCHLEMMER ft CO., 
Fourth Ave., Thirteenth St., New York 



Electric Clock Systems. 

LOCKT"OOD & ALMQTJIST, Inc., 
113 East 19th Street, New York City 



Reduce Your Cost of Living ! 

THE increasingly high cost of living can be re- 
duced at once only by the application of 
Domestic Science, which shows how to lessen 
the food bills, how to save time and labor, how to 
keep the family in health, how to manage all the 
details of housekeeping in the best and easiest way. 
Domestic Science makes the work of the housekeeper 
an interesting profession instead of deadening 
drudgery. 

The correspondence courses of the American 
School of Home Economics were prepared by leading 
teachers, especially for home study. They have been 
tested and proved by over 25,000 housekeepers, 
teachers, institution managers, etc. 

The attractive illustrated 100-page ^handbook of the 
school, "The Profession of Home-Making." will be sent on 
request. Address a postcard or note — A. S. H. E.. 519 West 
69th Street. Chicago. III. 



Essential to Health and 
Comfort 

Mattress Protectors are necessary for cleanliness of 
the Mattress. 

No good housekeeper considers her bed rightly 
equipped without Mattress Protectors. 

A sheet in itself cannot properly protect the Mattress. 

During sleeping hours the body in complete repose 
throws off waste tissues and gases, much of which 
penetrate the sheet and are absorbed by the Mattress 
if not properly protected. 

Our Quilted Mattress Protectors are made from pure 
white wadding incased in bleached white muslin 
easily washed whenever necessary. 



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Insist on seeing our trai le 
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sior Quilted Mattress 
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' None genuine without 
Trade Mark " 



Excelsior Quilted Mattress Co. 

15 Laight Street, New York, N. Y. 



SECOND EDITION— REVISED 

THE NORMAL LIFE 

BY EDWARD T. DEVINE 

Adopted as a text-book in Red Cross and university classes and in schools for 
training social workers. 

Price, $1.2S TIjr SITRVFY By M * n ' ,l ' S$ 

112 EAST 19 STREET - ... NEW YORK 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 6, 191 



29 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travels, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various 
headings "Situations Wanted," "Help Wanted," 
etc., five cents each word or initial, including 
the address, for each insertion. Address 
Advertising Department, The Survey, 112 East 
19 St., New York City. 



WORKERS WANTED 

YOUNG woman, thoroughly experienced 
in institution as housekeeper. Excellent 
manager. Address 2753 Survey. 

WANTED — Experienced Jewish woman 
to act as resident Executive Director of 
large New York organization doing work 
for Jewish women and girls. Must have 
training and thorough knowledge of social 
work along modern lines. Address by letter, 
giving references, 2751 Survey. 

WANTED, CIVIL SERVICE— Indus- 
trial Examiners, collecting data for In- 
dustrial Commission ; $100 to $120 month. 
Address 533 State House, Springfield, 
Illinois. 

WANTED — Experienced case-worker to 
become supervisor of child-placing agency 
in large eastern city. New position, op- 
portunity for advancement. Address 2752 
Survey. 

POSITIONS open for experienced edi- 
tors, editorial staff World Outlook. Ad- 
dress W. G. Parker, 150 Fifth Avenue, 
New York. 

WANTED — General superintendent for 
Welfare Board of St. Joseph, Missouri. 
State age, education, experience and salary 
wanted. Address William E. Stringfel- 
low, President. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

WANTED — Position of responsibility by 
graduate nurse with wide experience in in- 
stitutional work and in care and feeding of 
babies and children. Address Miss L. 
Wright, 49 Third Street, Troy, N. Y. 

SOCIAL worker, teacher of Montes- 
sori Method and Manual Training, desires 
situation. Emma Y. Elliott, East Green- 
wich, R. I. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

FOR SALE— Medical Books, new and 
used ; many bargains ; write for our list. 
The S. Isca Company, Booksellers, Min- 
neapolis, Minn. 

SOCIAL WORKERS OR COLLEGE 
STUDENTS 
Furnished apartment connected with 
leading settlement for rent §ow. Four 
rooms and bath; modern improvements. 
Spring 8470. 

WHEATLESS-MEATLESS MEALS 

84 menus, 124 recipes, directions, food values, substitutes, tiuieiv Biurjestions, eto. 

10c. « FKEE (or two names interested in Domestic Science. 
Am. School ol Home Economics, 519 W. 69th SI.. Chicago, II 

FOR RENT OR SALE 

Staten Island 

Small modern farm, near New Dorp. 
Situated on high land in centre of island ; 
14 acres, 3-story stone house, completely 
furnished, 12 rooms, 2 baths, 3 toilets, ver- 
anda enclosed with glass. Telephone. 

Good barn, with cement cellar and gar- 
dener's living quarters above. City water in 
house and barn. Good kitchen garden. Fine 
orchard. 10 minutes from trolley. Has been 
occupied as a Home for Girls. For further 
information, apply to 
Mrs. P. Mali, 8 Fifth Avenue, 37 Spring 



{Continued from page 26) 
not attempt to draw the corollaries that flow 
from biological researches — such corollaries 
as these: That "man" is a mixture of species 
that differ greatly in physical, mental and 
temperamental traits; That man has evolved 
by "spontaneous" changes in the germ plasm 
that had its beginning in our amoeba-like an- 
cestors; That the germinal determiners of 
human traits (like those of other animals) 
were implicit in that primordial germ plasm; 
That the traits of mankind as well as of the 
individual person have not been selected in 
the slightest degree by the possessor; That 
with the gifts that we were born with we 
do what they lead us to do in our environ- 
ment, and for the good we do we may ask no 
praise and for the evil deserve no blame. 
Before these corollaries shall be accepted 
and acted upon by society there is still a 
long road to travel. 

Charles B. Davenport. 

A Survey of a Public School System 

By Henry Lester Smith. Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University Press. Series 
No. 82. 304 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of the 
Survey $1.10. 

In this book the author presents the re- 
sults of a survey of the school system of 
Bloomington, Indiana, made during a period 
of six years while he was superintendent of 
schools of that city. The larger part of the 
work was done in 1912-13 and 1913-14. The 
1913-14 part of the survey was made by Dr. 
Smith under the supervision and direction 
of Prof. George D. Strayer of Teachers 
College. 

Due to this guidance and Dr. Smith's ex- 
ceptional ability, the survey stands out as one 
of the most successful and complete of the 
"self-surveys" of school systems made under 
the immediate direction of a superintendent 
of schools. It furnishes another of the evi- 
dences of the tremendous advance that has 
been made in recent years in the quantitative 
analysis of educational conditions and 
progress. 

Dr. Smith was fortunate in securing the 
assistance and cooperation of graduate stu- 
dents and instructors from Indiana Uni- 
versity for investigating and reporting on 
many minor problems included in his study. 
The fact that "practically every teacher in 
the school system has contributed to the re- 
sults" is evidence that Dr. Smith has insured 
the success of his survey from the very be- 
ginning by enlisting all of those who might 
make the greatest contributions in any result- 
ant reorganization or readjustments. 

It is recognized that the majority of school 
superintendents will not have at command 
experts or a trained graduate corps to assist 
in studying the social background or the 
needs and achievements of a school system, 
as Dr. Smith has done. Superintendents must 
bear in mind, however, that even limited 
amounts of such data as Dr. Smith has pre- 
sented will secure for their recommenda- 
tions to their boards and communities far 
greater and kindlier consideration than will 
result from recommendations based on sub- 
jective opinion alone. 

The book has a distinct place in every 
superintendent's library. It will appeal to 
members of boards of education and laymen 
interested in local educational progress. To 
them it will furnish a means for judging the 
quality of the report which their own super- 
intendent provides for annual consumption. 
The faults of the study appear to have re- 
sulted from an effort to solve too many of 
the hundreds of problems confronting a citv 
school superintendent. The author acknowl- 
edges the lack of completeness and unitv that 
is apparent to the reader. The inclusion of 
some uninterpreted data is warranted, since 
their preservation is thus ensured. 

N. L. Engelhardt. 



PERIODICALS 



Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

American Physical Education Review; nine issues 
(October to June) ; $3; official organ for the Amer- 
ican Physical Education Association. Original 
articles of scientific and practical value, news 
notes, bibliographies and book reviews. Amer- 
ican Physical Education Association, 93 West- 
ford Avenue, Springfield, Mass. 

The Child Labor Bulletin; quarterly; $2 a year; 
National Child Labor Committee, New York. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; published 
by The National Committee for Mental Hy- 
giene. 50 Union Square, New York. 

The Negro Year Book; published under the aus- 
pices of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.; an 
annual; 35c. pustpaid; permanent record of cur- 
rent events. An encyclopedia of 450 pages of 
historical and sociological facts relating to the 
Negro. General and special bibliographies; full 
index. 

Public Health Nurse; quarterly; $1 a year; na- 
tional organ for Public Health Nursing, 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. 

Scientific Temperance Journal; quarterly ; 64 pages; 
$1 per year; a magazine for serious students of 
alcohol question; practical articles; educational 
methods; world temperance progress notes; re- 
views. Free to members. Scientific Temper- 
ance Federation, 36 Bromfield St., Boston. 

Southern Workman, illustrated monthly; $1 for 
700 pages on race relations here and abroad; 
Hampton Institute, Va. Sample copy free. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Work With Boys; 10 times a year; $1.50. How to 
reach the working boy and his younger brother 
through boys' clubs, etc. William McCormick, 
publisher, Reading, Pa. 



CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly insertions, 
copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Order pamphlets from publishers. 

Consumers' Co-operation During the War. Al- 
bert Sonnichsen. 5 cents. Co-operative League 
of America, 2 West 13 St., New York. 

The Fetishism of Liberty. An essay on social 

evolution by Harry Waton. Published by Marx 

Institute, 201 W. 142 St., New York. Price 
50 cents. 

Girls and Khaki. Winthrop D. Lane. Reprinted 
from the Survey. 10 cts. Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Helping Hoover. A Business Man's Synopsis of 
Food Values, Food Combinations and Simplified 
Dietetics. Free on request from Richard Mayer, 
200 Summer St., Boston. 

Immigration Literature distributed by National 
Liberal Immigration League, P. O. Box 1261, 
New York. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

You Should Know About Credit Unions. A 
manual furnished gratis upon request. Massa- 
chusetts Credit Union Association, 78 Devon- 
shire Street, Boston. 



COMING MEETINGS 



(Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month.) 

American Physical Education Association. 
Annual convention Philadelphia, April 10-13. 
A preconvention schedule of visitation of schools 
and colleges has been arranged for April 8, 9 
and 10, 93 Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 

Charities and Correction, New Jersey State 
Conference of. Newark. April 21-23. Sec'y, 
Ernest D. Easton, 45 Clinton street, Newark. 

Charities and Corrections, Tennessee State 
Conference. Memphis, May 12. 13, 14. Sec'y. 
Mary Russell, Associated Charities, Memphis. 

Public Health Nursing, National Organiza- 
tion for. Hotel Hollenden, Cleveland, May 
6-11. Sec'y, Ella Phillips Crandall, 156 Fifth 
avenue, New York city. 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 




KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you want to know the agencies 
at 'work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed ; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply) and 
pamphlets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



'H 1 



WARTIME SERVICE 
T OW the Survey can serve" 

was the subject of an infor- 
mal conference held early in the war, 
in our library, to which we asked the 
executives of perhaps twenty national 
social service organizations. The con- 
ference was a unit in feeling that as a 
link between organized efforts, as a 
means for letting people throughout 
the country know promptly of needs 
and national programs — how, when 
and where they can count locally — the 
Survey was at the threshold of an 
opportunity for service such as has 
seldom come to an educational enter- 
prise. 

The development of this directory is 
one of several steps in carrying out 
this commission. The executives of 
these organizations will answer ques- 
tions or offer counsel to individuals 
and local organizations in adjusting 
their work to emergent wartime de- 
mands. 



Listings $3 a month for card of five lines (in- 
cluding one listing in SUBJECT INDEX by full 
name and three by initials), fifty cents a month 
for each additional line. No contracts for less 
than three months. Additional charge of $1 for 
each change of copy during three-month period. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Animals, Amer. Humane Education Soc. 
Birth Registration, Aaspim. 
Blindness, Ncpb. 
Cancer, Ascc. 
Charities, Ncsw. 



CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Sbo. 

CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Child Welf. Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept of Child Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Praa. 

CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 
Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Bureau of Municipal Research 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Commission Government, Sbo. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 
Correction, Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 

COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca. 
County Ywca. 

Credit Unions, Mass. Credit Union Assn. 

Crime, Sa. 

Cripples, Red Cross Inst, for Crippled and 

Disabled Men. 
Disfranchisement, Naacp. 

EDUCATION 

Amer. Humane Education Soc. 
Amer. Physical Education Assn. 
Cooperative League of America. 
Natl. Board of the Ywca. 
Public Ownership League of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 
Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 

Efficiency Work. Bmr. 

Electoral Reform, Ti, Aprl. 

Employment. Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Eugenics, Er. 

Exhibits. Aaspim, Ncpb. 

Feeblemindedness, Ncmh. 



FOUNDATIONS 

Russell Sage Foundation. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort 

Amer Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Amer. Red Cross. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl. Orir. for Public Health Nursing. 

Ncsw, Ncwa. 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance. Aall. 
Home Economics. Ahea. 
Home Work. Nri < ■. 
Hospitals. Naspt. 
Humane Education, Ahes. 
Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca, Apea. 

IMMIGRATION 

Im. Aid, Council of Jewish Worn. 
International Institute for Foreign born Women 

of the Ywca. 
Industrial Education, Rcicdm. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 
Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 
Natl. Child Labor Com. 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 
Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 
Ncsw, Ncwa, Nlws. 

Insanity, Ncmit. 
Institutions, Ahea. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Anti-Imperialist League. 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 

Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
Labor Laws. Aai i ... Nclc 
Legislative Reform, Aprl. 



LIBRARIES 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 

Mental Hygiene, Cppm, Ncmh. 

Mountain Whites, Rs». 

Municipal Government, Aprl, Nfs. 

Negro Training, Hi, Ti. 

Neighborhood Work, N»s. 

Nursing, Apha, Nopbn. 

Open Air Schools, Naspt. 

Peace, Ail. 

Peonage, Naacp. 

Playgrounds, Praa. 

Physical Training, Apea, Praa. 

Prostitution, Ash A. 

Protection Women Workers, Ntas. 

Public Health, Nophn. 



RACE PROBLEMS 
Er, Ail. 

Hampton Institute. 
Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 
Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 
Tuskegee Institute. 

Reconstruction, Ncsw. 

RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 
Nbywca, Nwwcymca, Apea. 

REMEDIAL LOANS 
Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans, Mcua. 

Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Savings, Mcua. 
Self-Government, Nlww, Ail. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Nat. Fed. of Settlements. 

Sex Education, Asha. 
Schools, Ahea, Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Social Hygiene, Asha. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca. 
Nwwcymca, Pola. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 
Bureau of Municipal Research. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 
Ncmh, Praa, Ncwa. 

Thrift, Mcua. 



TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers Aid Society. 

Iacjw. 
Tuberculosis. Naspt. 
Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 
Unemployment, Aall. 



WAR RELIEF 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of Yw< * 
Nwwcymca, Rcicdm. 

WOMEN. 

Amer. i. ie Economics Assn. 
Natl. Board of the Y. W. C. A. 
Natl. League for Woman's Service . 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Work for Soldiers, Natl. War Work Counci 

V. M C. Assns. of U. S. 
Working Girls, Iacjw, Ntas, Nlww. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St.. 
New York. For national employment service for 
mobilizing and demobilizing war workers: main- 
taining labor standards; workmen's compensation: 
health insurance; efficient law enforcement. 

AMERICAN ASSN. FOB STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MOBTALITY— Gertrude 
B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. _ Literature. Exhibits. L T rges prenatal in- 
struction; adequate obstetrical care; birth registra- 
tion; maternal nursing; infant welfare con suit 



ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 

— Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y, Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
tions in home, school, institution and community. 
Publishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN HUMANE EDUCATION SOCIETY 

— Founded by Geo. T. Angell. To promote kindness 
to animals through schools, press, and societies for 
young and old. Organ, Our Dumb Animals. Free 
literature. 180 Longwood Ave., Boston. 

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION— William Burdick, M.D., pres., McCoy 
Hall, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Persis B. McCurdy, 
acting sec'y, 93 Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 
Object to awaken a wider and more intelligent 
interest in physical education. Annual member- 
ship fee $3 includes magazine. 

AMERICAN PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TION LEAGUE— C. G. Hoag, sec'y; 802 Franklin 
Bank Building, Philadelphia. Advocates a rational 
and fundamental reform in electing representatives. 
Literature free. Membership $1. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION— William F. Snow, M.D., gen. sec'y; 
105 W. 40 St., New York. For the repression 
of prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotion of sound sex education; pam- 
phlets upon request; membership $5; sustaining 
$10. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Miss Marion H. Mapelsden, acting 
exec, sec'y; 25 W. 45 St.. New York. To dissemi- 
nate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free on 
request. Annual membership dues, $3. 

ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE— Founded Nov. 
19, 1898. Moorfield Storey, pres. (first pres., 
George S. Boutwell) ; David Greene Haskins, Jr., 
treas., 10 Tremont St., Boston; Erving Winslow, 
sec'y. Object: To protest and agitate against ex- 
tension of sovereignty over peoples, without their 
own consent. 

BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH— 261 

Broadway, New York. Has a department of field 
work to make surveys of governments and institu- 
tions anywhere at cost. Efficiency systems in- 
stalled. Twelve years' experience. Estimates fur- 
nished. 

COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St.. New York. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice concerning all phases of 
consumers' cooperation. Annual membership, $1, 
includes monthly, Cooperative Consumer. 

IMMIGRANT AID, COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL)— Headquarters, 242 East 
Broadway, New York. Helen Winkler, ch'n. 
Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. Has international system of safeguarding. 
Conducts National Americanization program. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic pos- 
sibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE cfaURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constitutefc-iby 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles 5>- >Iacfarland, 
gen'l sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New Yrtfc. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service; 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Rev. 
Clyde F. Armitage, asso. sec'y; Herbert M. 
Shenton, special sec'y; Miss Grace M. Sims, 
office sec'y. 

Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 

Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 
Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life; Rev 
Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Campaign for the Conservation of Human Life; 
Charles Stelzle, sec'y. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal- 
elect; G. P. Phenix, vice-prin.; F. K. Rogers 
treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, Va! 
Trams Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State 
nor a Government school. Free illus. literature. 



MASSACHUSETTS CREDIT UNION ASSOCIA- 
TION— J. C. Bills, Jr., managing dir.; 78 
Devonshire St., Boston. Gives information con- 
cerning credit unions, and assists in their organ- 
ization and development. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Moor- 
field Storey, pres.; John R. Shillady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure _ to colored 
Americans the common rights of American citizen- 
ship. Furnishes information regarding race dis- 
crimination, lynching, etc. Membership, 10,000, 
with 100 branches. Membership, $1 upwards. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY 
AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS— 

Charles T. Hatfield, M.D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph.D., ass't sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New 
Vork. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational methods. 



NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOM- 
EN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexing- 
ton Ave., New York. To advance physical, social, 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county centers; 
physical education; camps; rest-rooms, lunch-rooms 
•ind cafeterias; educational classes; employment; 
Bible study; secretarial training school; foreign 
work; war work councils. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22 St., New 
York, 35 state branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration: education: delinquency; health; recrea- 
tion; children's codes. PuDiishes quarterly Child 
Labor Bulletin. Photographs, slides and exhibits. 



NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION 

— Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Cooperates with hundreds of social 
agencies. Headquarters for child welfare mate- 
rials, exhibits, literature, etc. Inquiries invited. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq.. 
New York. Pamphlets on mental hygiene, mental 
disorders, feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, 
criminology, war neuroses and re-education, social 
service, backward children, surveys, state societies. 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director; Gordon L. Berry, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22 St., 
New York. Objects: To furnish information, ex- 
hibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish literature 
of movement — samples free, quantities at cost. In- 
cludes New York State Committee. 



NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 
— Robert A. Woods, pres., Boston; William T. 
Cross, gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago. 
General organization to discuss principles of hu- 
manitarian effort and increase efficiency of agencies. 
Publishes proceedings annual meetings, monthly 
bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information bureau. Mem- 
bership, $3. 45th annual meeting Kansas City, 
May 15-22, 1918. Main divisions and chairmen: 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Mrs. Jessie D. 

Hodder. 
Health. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 

Johnstone. 
The Family, Gertrude Vaile. 
Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 

Florence Kelley. 
The Local Community, Charles C. Cooper. 
Mental Hygiene, Frankwood E. Williams, M.D. 
Organization of Social Forces, Allen T. Burns. 
Social Problems of the War and Reconstruction, 

Prof. George H. Mead. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
— Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state, and na- 
tion, for meeting the fundamental problems dis- 
closed by settlement work; seeks the higher and' 
more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR WOMAN'S SERVICE 

— Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'n; 257 Madison Ave., 
New York. To mobilize and train the volunteer 
woman power of the country for specific emer- 
gency service; supplemental to the Red Cross; co- 
operating with government agencies. 



NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS— 
Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New York. 
Evening clubs for girls; recreation and instruction 
in self-governing and supporting groups for girls 
of working age. Magazine, The Chtb Worker, 
monthly, 30 cents a year. 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Object: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of technique; 
to maintain a central bureau of information. Bul- 
letins sent to members. 



NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 
—Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22 St-, 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations with 
trained workers. 



NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil- 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y; rooms 20-21, 465 Lexington Ave., 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of travel- 
ers, especially women and girls. Non-sectarian. 



NATIONAL WAR WORK COUNCIL OF THE 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS 
OF THE UNITED STATES— 347 Madison Ave., 
New York. To promote the physical, social, in- 
tellectual, moral and spiritual interests of men in 
uniform. Wm. Sloane, ch'n; Cleveland H. Dodge, 
treas.; John R. Mott, gen. sec'y. 



NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703), Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ, Life and Labor. 



PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSN. OF 
AMERICA — H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 Madison Ave., 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with War 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 



PUBLIC OWNERSHIP LEAGUE OF AMERICA 

— Organized to secure the public ownership and 
operation of railroads and other public utili- 
ties and natural resources. Inquiries solicited. 
Address Albert M. Todd, pres., Westory Building, 
14th and F Sts., Washington, D. C. 



RED CROSS INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND 
DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir.; 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Makes studies of re-education 
for disabled soldiers and industrial cripples. Pub- 
lishes reports on reconstruction work at home and 
abroad, and carries on propaganda to inculcate 
a sound attitude on the part of the public toward 
the physically handicapped. 



RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
dir.; 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys 
and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, Southern 
Highland Division. 



SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Childs, sec'y; 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. Clearing house for in- 
formation on short ballot, commission gov't, city 
manager plan, county gov't. Pamphlets free. 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.— Robert W. de 
Forest, pres. ; Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y; publishers 
of the Survey; Paul U. Kellogg, editor; Edward 
T. Devine, Graham Taylor, Jane Addams, associate 
editors; departments: Civics, Graham R. Taylor; 
Industry, John A. Fitch; Health, Alice Hamilton, 
M.D., Gertrude Seymour; Education, Crime, Win- 
throp D. Lane; Foreign Service, Bruno Lasker, 
112 East 19 St., New York. 



TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment in race 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; fur- 
nishes information on all phases of the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 



CHARLES FRANCIS PRESS, NEW YORK 



What lies back of the 
brilliance of a MAZDA 
lamp ? All the facilities 
of the world's greatest 
lamp - makers, support- 
ing the standards set by 
MAZDA Service. 

MAZDA 

' Not the name of a thing, 
but the mark of a service" 

The Meaning of MAZDA 




MAZDA is the trademark of a world-wide service to certain 
lamp manufacturers. Its purpose is to collect and select 
scientific and practical information concerning progress and 
developments in the art of incandescent lamp manufactur- 
ing and to distribute this information to the companies 
entitled to receive this Service. MAZDA Service is cen- 
tered in the Research Laboratories of the General Electric 
Company at Schenectady, New York. The mark MAZDA 
can appear only on lamps which meet the standards of 
MAZDA Service. It is thus an assurance of quality. This 
trademark is the property of the General Electric Company. 



RESEARCH LABORATORIES OF 
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 



a \i 






3 3 




NOTICE TO READER. 
When you finish reading this magazine, 
place a one-cent stamp on this notice, 
mail the magazine, and it will be placed 
in the hands of our soldiers or sailors 
destined to proceed overseas. 

NO WRAPPING— NO ADDRESS. 



A. S, Burleson, Postmaster General. 



SOTWE9" 




CIVIC CLEANLINESS IS NEXT TO PATRIOTISM IN 1918 (SEE PAGE 45) 



JOY IN THE STOCKYARDS 
SERVING THE ARMY'S MORALE 



CHILD WELFARE IN GERMANY 
ROCKEFELLER PLAN IN NEW JERSEY 



April 13, 1918 



Price 10 Cents 



With the promptness of journalism — 

With the insight and sure- footedness of economic research — 

With the graphic quality of social exhibits and 
photography — 

THE Survey interprets the social background of the week's news. The Survey was the first American 
journal to bring out the real significance of the British labor offensive. Editorials in the liberal Manchester 
Guardian and the conservative London Times bear out Paul U. Kellogg 's estimates of the movement of the 
English workers as a force for endurance and coherence as well as for democracy in the present crisis. Here is the 
greatest and freest organized movement in Europe today supporting the principles which America stands for and 
which President Wilson has enunciated — -the principles which, in the words of an English newspaper man, were 
worth "twelve army corps and a regiment of angels" to the forces for democracy in western Europe. 



\ 



The Huts 
By Arthur Gleason 

OF THE AMERICAN Y. M. C A. IN FRANCE 

f~> LEASON has known the war from the outset, when he 
^* was a stretcher-bearer in Belgium — the only American 
quoted by the Bryce commission on Belgian atrocities. He 
knows the work and the workers under the Red Triangle 
of the English Y. M. C. A. He knows American social 
work as an investigator and journalist. He knows the 
Y. M. C. A. in France with an authenticity, an intimate 
acquaintance with every part of the field, and a discrimi- 
nation which will make his article a constructive contribu- 
tion to American effort and understanding. Mr. Gleason 
was in a vessel torpedoed off the coast of Ireland in mid- 
winter. He lost everything — socks and manuscripts in- 
cluded. But he has set out again, bringing this story with 
him. 

Twice Devastated 
By Mary Ross 

OF THE AMERICAN RED CROSS 

D ATTERIES of camions, loaded with blankets, clothing, 

food and medicine, were made ready in Paris as early 

as January by the American Red Cross to rush to the source 

of any fresh stream of refugees. Warehouses, district 

agents, canteens, relief workers, were waiting to serve the 

old, the feeble, the sick, and the children, now once again 

dispossessed by the great German drive. A story, 

\ with photographs, of the "twice refugees" is on the 

v way to the Survey in response to a cable. The 

author is a member of the headquarters staff 

\ of the Civil Affairs Department of the Ameri- 

\ can Red Cross. 



\ 



The War-Folk of Picardy 
By Mary Masters Needham 

OF THE AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR DEVASTATED FRANCE 

TT7"HAT has happened to the sinistres — the people left 
" * behind in the "liberated area'' when the Germans 
fell back last spring? And to the emigres — those who came 
back? What of the American agencies that worked with 
them — the Quakers, the Smith College Unit, the American 
Fund for French Wounded (the American Committee for 
Devastated France), the American Red Cross and the 
rest? Mrs. Needham returned recently from Blerancourt, 
near the great battleground of the western front, and tells 
from first-hand experience. 

Two More Articles on the British Labor 

Movement 

By Paul U. Kellogg 

EDITOR OF THE SURVEY 

THE ENGLAND THEY ARE FIGHTING FOR.— An 
Interpretation of the Domestic Program of the English 
Labour Party. — The Labour Party has stretched its tent- 
ropes to include workers "with brain" as well as "with 
hand." It will run candidates in a hundred, two hundred 
constituencies, perhaps more, under the leadership of 
Arthur Henderson. The cooperative movement has entered 
politics and made common sense with the labor party 

WORKERS .CONTROL.— The New Movement for Self- 
government in English Industry. — Who are the shop 
stewards and why? The revolution in industrial organiza- 
tion promoted by the government in line with the Whitley 
commission; the Guild Socialists; the women workers 
Programs of far-sighted employers and the activity of the 
new Ministry of Reconstruction. 



Survey 

Associates, Inc., 
112 East 19th St., 
New York 



\ 



T 



HESE ARTICLES will be published in early issues of the St rvky. Make them the 
means of acquainting friends of yours with the SURVEY. A dollar will get these issues 
in a five months' trial subscription. If friends of the Survey will lend a hand this 



Enclosed is a dollar , 
bill. Send me a five 
months' trial subscription, 
beginning now. 

Maine 

Address 



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way to build up our circle of readers and circulation income, we can make every issue 

strong in such first-hand material, distinctive in that social insight which makes 

the Survey' what it is — an adventure in cooperative journalism in which the 

^ social workers of America share with each other the things which make up 

\ the life and labor of the times. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., 112 E. 19th St., New York 



\ 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 




Packington Steps Forward 

The Gist and the Spirit of Judge Alschuler's Decision in the 

Chicago Packing Cases 

By IVilliam L. Chenery 



EDITORIAL WRITER CHICAGO HERALD 



THE packing industries of America took their longest 
forward stride on Saturday, March 24, when before a 
curious audience of the rich and the very poor, the 
socially great and the humble, a federal jurist at Chi- 
cago read a document of great importance to the future of this 
country. An adjudication of certain differences between the 
five great packing houses and the hundred thousand men and 
women employed by them in eleven cities was announced. 
Significant as was such a settlement, the underlying, un- 
heralded event was much greater. In reality the basis of life 
for the man and- woman lowest down was being elevated. A 
new minimum standard of living was being established for 
the nation's unskilled workers and for their families. For 
the profound changes which were accepted by the packers 
cannot be bounded by their industry. "Common" labor in 
competitive trades will enjoy the benefits conferred directly 
upon their fellows in the packing cities. Unskilled labor 
generally has acquired a new status. 

A compact and eager crowd greeted Judge Samuel 
Alschuler as he unostentatiously entered the federal court 
room. The ordinary pomp contributed by sonorous bailiffs 
at the matutinal arrival of a United States judge was lack- 
ing. For the jurist had laid off his metaphorical robes and 
as a simple administrator, appointed in pursuance of an agree- 
ment contrived last December by the President's mediation 
commission, Judge Alschuler took his place. He read quickly 
in a low monotone. The audience pushed forward. From the 
rear seats the stock yards contingent pressed eagerly toward 
the bench. Their fate was being decided and they knew it. 
If the arbitrament was such that the vast army of workers 
would be satisfied, all might be well. But if in the techni- 
calities of procedure the substance of relief had been lost, 
those eager-eyed, stern-faced men pondered on the reports of 
unrest here and there among the newly organized locals. 

In the hush which came over the assemblage the general 
trend of the administrator's argument was soon perceptible. 
With obvious relief the labor men guessed first that the eight- 
hour day had been granted. Then came comforting sur- 



mises of increased wages. A victory was in sight. B> the 
determination of one man the progress which other genera- 
tions of packing-house workers had won and lost was to be 
restored. In lieu of the old sense of bitter helplessness there 
was created a new realization that difficulties had been relieved 
by the use of a democratic method. The defeats of the past 
were rolled back. Thirty-two years had passed since the 
Knights of Labor had wrested the eight-hour day from the 
unwilling hands of the masters of the stock yards. That 
illusory triumph which so swiftly was succeeded by the 
destruction of the union had been regained. All that had 
been lost in the ill-fated strike of 1904 was being returned. 
The taboo on unionism which had been enforced during the 
weary years after the rebellions of 1886 and 1904 had been 
effectually repealed. For the first time in its long and 
tumultuous history the packing industry was accepting condi- 
tions in which the inherent human dignity of the bulk of its 
workers would be recognized. It was a great day for 
Packington. 

Yet the Poles and Bohemians and Slovaks who, with their 
comrades widely collected from the races of Europe and the 
older settlers in America, were benefited by Judge Alschuler's 
award, might trace some of the advantage they attained to the 
Archduke Frederic Ferdinand. For Sarajevo and its war, 
quite as much as any other factor, contributed to this prog- 
ress. Through the ending of immigration the law of "supply 
and demand," cited by the packers in 1904 as their justifica- 
tion for lowering the poor wages of the unskilled, operated 
in favor of the workers. The reservoir of the unemployed had 
been too nearly drained. Labor had a scarcity value. 

During two years and more the stock -yards have been 
annoyed by successive small strikes. Most of these were too 
unimportant, too spontaneous, too local to -be called strikes. 
Yet they were industrial disturbances. In Chicago's Pack- 
ington, it is said, foremen, exasperated by these unending out- 
breaks, would say: "My God, if these are open shop condi- 
tions, give us a union. It would be better than this." Fol- 
lowing hard upon the momentary unorganized strikes were 



The Survey, April 13, 1918, Volume 40, No. 2. 112 East 19 street, New York city 



35 



36 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 13, 1 9 1 8 



successive wage increases. Yet, previously during the twelve 
years immediately following the disastrous strike of 1904, 
there had been no increase, despite the mounting cost of liv- 
ing; in fact, the wages paid the unskilled workers had been 
lowered. Between March, 1916, and September, 1917, wages 
had been repeatedly increased until the common laborers were 
being paid twenty-seven and a half cents an hour for a some- 
what hypothetical ten-hour day, which showed the packer's 
understanding of the state of the labor market. That rate 
was utilized by Judge Alschuler as the starting point for his 
determinations. 

The President's mediation commission had first dealt with 
packing-house troubles. During December last a strike was 
reported to be imminent. Quietly the men and women in 
many departments had been organized. The menace of such 
an outbreak to the proper provisioning of this country and 
of our allies was obvious. The exceedingly able commission 
seemed to have little trouble in inducing the packers to agree 
to the necessity of a new labor policy. That policy did not 
include a recognition of the union, but it was based upon a 
pledge not to discriminate against union workers and upon 
an agreement to observe certain forms of collective bargain- 
ing in dealing with matters of interest to the workers. In 
pursuance of this preliminary agreement, achieved as a war 
measure by the President's mediation commission, John E. 
Williams, fuel administrator for Illinois and well known as 
a just and skilful mediator in industrial controversies, was 
chosen to arbitrate matters still in dispute. When Mr. 
Williams found his two tasks too heavy to be borne safely, 
Judge Samuel Alschuler was chosen administrator to keep the 
peace. 

For weeks Judge Alschuler heard testimony offered by both 
sides. The workers were represented directly by a stock 
yards labor council which was in constant consultation with 
the Chicago Federation of Labor. In fact, it would be fair 
to say that in contrast with the union of 1903, which was 
established on the inside, the present unions are the result of 
outside trade union organization and that the real leader has 
been Pres. John Fitzpatrick of the Chicago federation. The 
packing employes had thus experienced union generalship and 
unusually able legal representation in the person of Frank 
P. Walsh, chairman of the late United States Commission 
on Industrial Relations. In truth, one of the picturesque 
features of the sharply contested hearing was the obvious and 
easy equality which the workers enjoyed in their possession 
of the attorney. Too often in legal hearings the poor are 
not defended as adroitly as are the rich. For once, the hum- 
ble day laborers who exist in the slums of Packington had 
counsel quite as adroit as that which their multimillionaire 
employers had been able to acquire. 

Judge Alschuler's award dealt with six of the eighteen 
questions which had been submitted to the administrator's 
arbitration. Twelve other questions had been directly set- 
tled by the packers and the representatives of their employes. 
The six issues, constituting the demands of the workers, were 
briefly as follows: 

1. The eight-hour basic workday, the workday to be completed 
insofar as possible within nine consecutive hours. 

2. Overtime to be paid for at double rates on Sundays and holi- 
days and at time and a half during the week. 

3. Twenty minutes lunch time with pay where eight-hour shifts 
obtain. 

4. A dollar a day wage increase. 

5. Equal pay for men and women doing the same class of work. 

6. No change in the guaranteed time in effect November 30, 1917. 

From February 11 to March 7 the hearings continued. The 



leading packers testified. J. Ogden Armour said on the wit- 
ness stand that he believed in equal wages for women doing 
men's work and that he wanted the workers in his plants to 
be paid wages sufficient to assure them and their families 
decent living. Others of the owners of the industry and of 
the higher officials of the company were led to make similar 
statements. Attorney Walsh seemed moreover to show that 
the increases sought by the workers would add less than a 
cent to the cost of meat. The freedom from competition, 
which handicaps so many progressive employers, as, for 
example, in the garment trades, was also clearly an aid to a 
just settlement. Armour & Company, the Cudahy Packing 
Company, Morris & Company, Swift & Company, together 
with Wilson & Company, were obviously not hampered by 
the possibility of unfair competition from rivals whose labor 
costs were lower. In a very real sense, therefore, the con- 
clusions reached by the administrator were limited only by his 
sense of what constituted sound public policy. 

Judge Alschuler's award was as satisfactory as his argu- 
ments were interesting. Reversing possibly the logical order 
of events here is his award in full : 

1. Beginning May 5, 1918, and continuing thereafter, eight hours 
shall constitute a basic workday, and such workday shall be com- 
pleted, insofar as is possible, within a period of not more than nine 
consecutive hours. 

Those operations which are continuous during the twenty-four 
hours shall on and after said date be conducted by three shifts ot 
eight hours each. 

2. Overtime work shall be paid for at the following rates: Double 
time for all time worked on Sundays and holidays, including New 
Year's day, Memorial day, Independence day, Labor day, Thanks- 
giving day and Christmas day, or the days legally celebrated in 
lieu thereof. Where the operation is necessarily and generally 
carried on for seven days of the week, provision may be made by 
relief gangs or otherwise, so that employes in such operations may 
be relieved from duty on some day of the week, and in case of such 
relief on any other day in the week, double time shall not be allowed 
for work on Sunday of such week. 

On and after the induction of the basic eight-hour day as above 
provided, the weekly overtime pay (not including any day for which 
double time is paid) shall be at the rate of time and one-fourth for 
the first two hours in excess of the regular eight-hour day on each 
such day, and at the rate of time and one-half for all time there- 
after on each such day. For the time commencing on and intervening 
between January 14, 1918, and until such induction of the basic eight- 
hour day as above provided such week day overtime shall be at the 
rate of time and a half for all time in excess of ten hours on any 
such day and Sundays double time. 

3. Where plants or any parts thereof are operated on three eight- 
hour shifts daily employes shall be allowed twenty minutes off for 
lunch with pay. 

4. Wages shall be increased as follows: Predicated on the hourly 
wages rate in force December 31, 1917, four and one-half cents per 
hour to such employes as were then being paid at the rate of thirty 
cents and under per hour; four cents per hour to such employes as 
were then being paid from thirty cents up to and including forty 
cents per hour; and three and one-half cents per hour to such em- 
ployes then being paid at the rate of over forty cents per hour. For 
all piece workers there shall be a percentage of increase equal to that 
applied to hourly rates in the same classification. All these increases 
shall be effective as of January 14, 1918. Upon the induction of the 
basic eight-hour day as aforesaid, the houi'y wage rate shall be 
readjusted so that thenceforth the compensation for a full eight-hour 
workday shall be equal to the compensation immediately theretofore 
for a full ten-hour workday at the increased wage rates fixed; and 
piece work rates shall be proportionately readjusted in accordance 
with the same principle. 

5. Wage rates shall be the same for male and female employes 
doing the same class of work. 

6. There shall be no change made in the guaranteed time in effect 
November 30, 1917, except that the weekly guaranteed time in the 
plant of Swift and Company shall be forty hours, the same as in all 
other plants; and except also in those weeks wherein any of the 
above named holidays occur the guaranteed time of such employes 
as do not work on such holiday shall for such week be thirty-three 
and one-half hours. 

John O'Hern, superintendent of Armour & Company, said 
the changes involved would cost <7 \ 000,000 annually. Pel 



THE SURF EY FOR APRIL 13, ig 1 



37 



haps that is an overestimate. It may well be that the shorter 
work day and the higher pay will bring about a compensating 
increase in productive efficiency which Mr. O'Hern did not 
take into account. At any rate the public and not the packers 
will pay whatever greater costs may be entailed by raising 
the standard of living for this great section of the population. 

Judge Alschuler's own reactions toward the industrial ques- 
tions upon which he passed were not the least significant 
aspects of the award. In an introductory statement he dis- 
cussed the issues upon which he had reached such pregnant 
conclusions and accidentally drew attention to some phases 
of this industry whose social results have been too long ignored 
by those able to make effectual decisions. Mr. O'Hern had 
admitted, for example, that for two-thirds of the year the 
packing plants have not been worked at more than 50 per 
cent, of their capacity. Again, considerably more than half 
of the employes are "common laborers." The conditions of 
life forced on these men hitherto employed eight months in 
the year on practically a half time basis and paid during the 
twelve years prior to 1916 eighteen cents and less an hour wa^ 
not too mildly pictured in The Jungle. And yet not until a 
catastrophic war has desolated civilization and exhausted the 
supply of workers has the American conscience turned to the 
plight of these wretched people. 

The packing industry in Judge Alschuler's reckoning has 
been upon a crude ten-hour basis, but he said "eleven, twelve, 
and thirteen hours daily are exceedingly common, and four- 
teen and fifteen and even more hours daily for a number of 
days not unusual and Sunday work very frequent." Again 
he paused to say that "the employers could consult their own 
convenience in the matter of overtime, since there has been 
no advanced rate for time beyond ten hours save in those few 
employments wherein they have made trade union agree- 
ments." 

The efficacy of the shorter working day in maintaining 
large production over a long period of time admittedly influ- 
enced Judge Alschuler's thinking. Thus he said: 

It is of prime importance that there be no diminution in this out- 
put. . . . We must therefore look forward not to spasmodic and 
temporary spurts of larger production but to the long and steady 
pull under the strain of which the strength and spirit and efficiency 
of the workers will likewise be continuously assured and the pro- 
ductivity of the industry steadily and reliably maintained. 

Economists, sociologists, philanthropists and publicists are quite 
generally favorable to the eight-hour work day as being the most 
conducive to the welfare of employers, employes and the community. 

He asserted that it was no longer necessary to argue the 
propositions that longer hours in most factory employments 
tend to induce undue strain and fatigue, to reduce the vitality 
of the employes, with tendency to irritability, listlessness and 
carelessness and to diminution of industrial efficiency and 
consequently less productivity, not only for the "overtime 
worked but for the succeeding days"; nor "that the work- 
man, strained and fatigued by too long hours of work, is prone 
to seek comfort in the excessive use of stimulants and other 
harmful indulgences." Judge Alschuler expressed the belief 
that the desirability of the eight-hour day tends moreover 
to "better living conditions, larger conceptions of our institu- 
tions, particularly on the part of the non-English-speaking 
foreign-born employes, fitting all for better citizenship and 
a higher appreciation of its privileges and duties. 

Finally in his judgment the eight-hour day has become a 
part of the public policy of the country. The legislation of 
many states and of Congress and particularly the President's 
message to Congress in August, 1916, when he said "It seemed 
to me that the whole spirit of the time and the preponderance 



of evidence in recent economic experience spoke in favor of 
the eight-hour day," gave to Judge Alschuler a present im- 
pelling sanction to the principle of the shorter working day. 
It is not too much to add that the administrator's own award 
in this great controversy has itself added invaluable momentum 
to the tendency he observed. 

He applied the basic eight-hour day as being elastic. The 
higher wage rates for overtime were in his judgment neces- 
sary to give the proper stimulus to the employers to make 
those readjustments in organization without which an eight- 
hour day might be distorted into a sixteen-hour day three 
days a week. For that reason overtime by virtue of the award 
is to be calculated by the day instead of by the week. An 
actual eight-hour day is the goal in view. 

Judge Alschuler was not convinced that any fixed sum 
could be clearly taken as the minimum necessary for decent 
living in the United States. The budgets presented to him 
varied from $800 to $2,000. He was, albeit, persuaded that 
the ten-hour workers who received twenty-seven and a half 
cents an hour and who, if they had employment for three 
hundred full days, would earn $825 annually, do not have 
enough. This figure, not far away from the pre-war sum 
deemed sufficient for the mimimal needs of an American 
family, had in the judgment of the administrator to be 
"materially increased." The distinguishing mark of his 
award is furthermore to be found in the fact that the un- 
skilled, low paid workers obtained the largest advances. At 
the time of the last strike the packers were willing, for a 
time, to give the skilled minority wage increases. That may 
have been good industrial tactics, but it was certainly not 
sound social strategy. Judge Alschuler promptly reversed 
the emphasis, making the increase larger to those who are at 
the bottom. Not least revealing of the temper of the time 
was his decision as to equal pay for men and women em- 
ployed at the same tasks. This demand of the workers was 
quickly allowed because it was not controverted. He did 
report, however, that generally in the packing industry men 
and women do not perform the same duties. 

The general tone of the administrator's argument was per- 
haps best summed up in his final paragraph which is in part 
as follows: 

On argument it was earnestly insisted that if a basic day shorter 
than ten hours were fixed upon, it should have application only to 
those in the skilled trades and occupations, the assigned reason being 
that in some of the operations, particularly on the killing floors, 
the laboring men must of necessity serve after many of the skilled 
workers have completed their day's tasks, in order to complete the 
work. ... It seems to me that the embarrassment incident to such 
a situation would be slight compared with that which would result 
from the great dissatisfaction which would undoubtedly follow if the 
major part of the men were excepted from the application and benefits 
of the shorter day. It is these common laborers who stand most in 
need of it. It is these who in Chicago largely live in great numbers 
in that unlivable section of the city known as "back of the yards," 
many of them in habitations and in conditions in which human beings 
should not be allowed to remain. Whether this is of choice or of 
necessity, the shorter workday will have a tendency to elevate the 
choice and relieve the necessity. I do not believe it would be just 
or wise to make the exception. 

When the award was read John Fitzpatrick formally 
accepted it in behalf of the unions, saying in part : 

"From the inspiration which we have felt as a result of 
your honor's decision the harvest will be reaped in the indus- 
tries throughout the nation, where, as a consequence the war 
for democracy, liberty and brotherhood will receive a new 
impetus. We are gratified by the decision and will do all in 
our power as laborers to abide by it wholeheartedly." 

The temper of one of the packers was indicated by J. Ogden 
Armour who said, "I am satisfied with, the decision and I hope 



.i8 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 13. 191 



the men are." Louis F. Swift declared that his corporation 
favored the shorter work day and expressed the opinion that 
Liberty bonds and war savings stamps would offer the workers 
excellent opportunities for investing their increased earnings. 
Judge Alschuler in reply to words of appreciation directed 
toward him vouchsafed the hope that the packers would begin 
to deal directly with their employes. 

An approach to that was made in the agreement arrived at 
by the union and the packers while Judge Alschuler was arbi- 
trating other questions. This provided that employes may 
seek redress for grievances through the mediation of commit- 
tees. These committees must not, however, be permanent. No 
employe may be demoted or dismissed without just and suf- 
ficient cause and trade union membership and activity must 
not be considered grounds for discrimination. Thirty days 
continuous employment will accordingly be deemed prima 



facie evidence of competence and any employe dismissed after 
such a term of service must be informed of the specific acts 
alleged to show incompetence. Piece rate schedules must 
further be open to continuous inspection and in the future 
employes must not be compelled to join company sick and 
death benefit associations. The terms of this supplemental 
agreement display fairly something of the state of opinion 
among the packing house workers. 

The award and the agreement affect the packing plants in 
Chicago, Kansas City, Sioux City, St. Joseph, St. Louis, East 
St. Louis, Denver, Oklahoma City, St. Paul, Omaha and Fort 
Worth. In this wide area — the great middle West — new 
standards have been created, a higher civilization has been ac- 
cepted, by a dominant industry. For the packing employes 
now the war has increased the world's total of democracy. 
The benefits are bound to spread to other and wide fields. 



Easter Day After the Decision 



By Mary E. McDowell 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO SETTLEMENT 



EASTER-DAY was an epoch-making day in the stock- 
yards district. For the first time, labor was having 
a mass meeting in the small park back-of-the-yards. 
The "speaker's stand" was the front steps of the 
field house. The Packing Trades Council, representatives of 
skilled and unskilled labor in the packing houses, were there 
in seats of honor — plain, hard-working men. Sitting among 
them were several historic figures, men who were in the eight- 
hour strike of '86, the railroad strike of '93 (when, a few 
blocks away, blood was shed in a struggle with the regular 
army) and in the 1905 strike that was lost after six weeks 
of holding out for the two and a half cents an hour that had 
been secured for the unskilled workers. 

With this background of struggle and suffering and seeming 
defeat in every decade since '86, it seemed incredible that to- 
day labor should be hospitably received in a city park, listening 
unafraid to their officials. The great crowd ; the men in 
Sunday clothes and new hats and the women with new Easter 
handkerchiefs, listened patiently and courteously to English 
speakers whose language they did not understand. The pres- 
ence of the men who had organized them and who had cham- 
pioned their cause before the President of the United States, 
the secretary of war and the secretary of labor, was 
recognized by the clapping of hands, though very few words 
were understood. When John Fitzpatrick, the president of 
the Chicago Federation of Labor, Mas presented, they clapped 
their hands because he personified to them the struggle and the 
victory. 

Mr. Fitzpatrick said, "It's a new day, and out in God's 
sunshine, you men and you women, black and white, have not 
only an eight-hour day but you are on an equality. If women 
do men's work, they are to be paid men's wages, and that's 
good for men as well as for women." 

Thirty years ago, it was English-Scotch and Irish workers 
led by the Knights of Labor who fought for the right to leisure 
and lost. Today we have Slavs, Armenians, Greeks, Turks, 
Mexicans and Negroes, the Poles largely outnumbering, show- 
ing that the right to leisure is felt and struggled for bj all 
people of all languages. It was indeed a new day and a sig- 



nificant day when, by a peaceful method of negotiation, this 
right to leisure was won. 

The patient, swaying crowd of Polish men and women 
ceased to be a mass of non English-speaking Poles and became 
humanized and responsive as soon as the great news was made 
clear to them in a language they understood when the Polish 
organizer addressed them. After he had made clear to them 
the administrator's decision, he spoke of the government and 
of President Wilson. Hats were lifted and a cheer rent the 
air. At his question, "How many will put some of the over- 
time pay into Liberty bonds and stand by the President?" — 
thousands of hands that are preparing the food for the army 
were lifted in the Easter sunshine and again a spontaneous 
cheer filled the air. 

We who knew the background of this historic moment 
longed for the power to make the world of English-speaking 
citizens see the significance of this response. Here was the 
kind of Americanization that leaves no bitterness. Here was 
the intimation of the democracy that will keep our industrial 
communities safe through this trying time and lay a foundation 
for a better industrial and social structure after the war. To 
those of us who for the past 25 years have watched the ebb 
and flow of courage and manliness and have sometimes been 
discouraged over the numbness of the workers, the meeting of 
yesterday became the hope of fulfillment of a long age of 
struggle for a human right. 

These verses of Mr. Higginson's might have been written 
at the close of this Easter day meeting in Davis Square: 

From street and square, from hill ami glen, 

Of this vast world beyond my door, 
I hear the tread of marching men, 

The patient armies of the poor. 

The peasant brain shall yet be wise, 

The untamed pulse -row calm and Mill 
The blind shall see, tin lowly rise, 

And work in peace time's wondrous will. 

Some day, without a trumpet's call 

This news will o'er the world be blown 

"The heritage conns back to all! 
The myriad monarch; take their own." 



War Orphans and Child Welfare in 

Germany 



By Ernest Flagg Henderson 

AUTHOR OF A SHORT HISTORY 01 GERMANY AND OTHER WORKS 



w 



FHERE are now the silly wiseacres who tried 
to persuade us at the beginning of the war 
that we Germans had always eaten too well 
in times of peace? The greater part of the 
poor people have always met this silly twaddle, fortified as it 
was with the deceptive stamp of so-called scientific recognition, 
with justifiable great anger. Aside from the moneyed class, 
who even now in wartime are in a position to put away their 
fill, there are millions of poor folk in Germany, who, even 
before the war, were unable to get the nourishment they need- 
ed to maintain themselves in good health." 

The Volksstimme, a Socialist newspaper of Chemnitz in 
Saxony, includes this scathing paragraph in an article pub- 
lished in January which, translated by the Committee on Pub- 
lic Information, has been widely distributed in this country. 
Its concluding sentence, "on the battlefield and at home, the 
war kills and wounds alike," is borne out by many facts in 
it concerning the present condition of Germany's child popu- 
lation. Two medical authorities, the city physician of Stutt- 
gart and the school physician, Professor Thiele, are quoted 
in evidence of the statement that under the impoverished diet 
of the war years, the physical condition of the children has 
seriously worsened. Even supplementary food allowances 
made last year failed to arrest a marked deterioration. The 
children of teachers and other poorly paid officials have shown 
the greatest falling off in weight. 

Dr. Thiele strongly recommends that all physical exercises, 
playing of games and walking trips should be given up. But 
even so he seems to think that only by the sending of city 
children to the country on an unprecedented scale this sum- 
mer, thus making up in fresh air what is lacking in food, can 
a rapid increase in child sickness and mortality be prevented. 
He gives the following figures to show the alarming progress 
of tuberculosis : 

1913 1916 1917 

F.NTERINC SCHOOL PER CENT PER CENT PER CENT 

Anaemic 22.48 22.90 28.50 

Tuberculous 1.07 2.10 2.35 

CANDIDATES FOR CONFIRMATION 

Anaemic 21.74 30.99 31.20 

Tuberculous 1.51 4.16 4.90 

"According to this table," says the Volksstimme, "tuber- 
culosis has doubled among children entering school and 
trebled among candidates for confirmation. It is hardly pos- 
sible to calculate the increase in misery and want that this 
signifies." 

The seriousness of this situation in Germany only shows in 
an accentuated form the visible effect of the wartime food 
shortage upon childhood the world over. The popular interest 
which it has aroused makes, perhaps, especially timely an ac- 
count of some of the measures for the welfare of children 
taken in Germany during the progress of the war. 

In some way or other a pamphlet entitled War Orphans 
and Child Welfare in Germany and dated 1917 has reached 



this country from Germany. Better than the Volkstimme it 
gives us a glimpse of how conditions are in that beleaguered 
land 1 . Nothing very new in the way of child welfare en- 
deavors seem to have been started but it must be remembered 
that the event of war had already been provided for in the laws 
regarding survivors of soldiers passed in 1907 and by the 
>ocial insurance laws. 

According to the report of the Imperial Insurance Office, 
there were insured in 1913, 37,774 families with orphans 
(averaging two and one-half orphans, i.e., children without 
cither one or both of the parents, to the family), and in 1915, 
167,752 such families. The number for 1915 is less than one 
would have expected, for it includes families where there are 
no fighters. Apart from the insurance, the government allows 
168 marks a child as yearly pension if the mother is drawing 
;. pension as widow of a soldier, otherwise 240 marks. Illegiti- 
mate children and adopted children are excluded from the 
grant, but are temporarily provided for by a law of August 
4, 1914. As the sums are so inadequate, further temporary 
grants, revocable each year, are made on the basis of the 
former wages received by the father, and special provision is 
made for families witli small incomes where there are more 
than five children. Even these measures do not preclude the 
necessity of the mother going out to work, and the Bundesrat 
and Reichstag have been asked to authorize still further 
grants on the part of communities in the guise of "care- 
money," which would be like our own widows' pensions and 
tend to keep the family together. The children's pensions 
from the imperial insurance fund are absurdly small (from 
two and one-half marks to three and one-half marks a 
month), but include an outfit on completion of the fifteenth 
year. 

Besides these regular sources of income, war-orphans are 
helped by great voluntary organizations, by cities, by busi- 
ness firms and by individuals. The carriers of the old-age 
and survivor insurance, for instance, distributed in so-called 
"honorary gifts" to families more than 3.660,000 marks in 
1915 alone, while a number of large cities made wide distribu- 
tion of savings-bank books with an initial deposit on their own 
part, but with the condition that the money saved should not 
be drawn out until the time of leaving school or of beginning 
vocational training. 

Child-welfare work was proceeding in Germany at fever 
heat even before the war. Since 1904 there is a special institu- 
tion for the whole empire (the Kaiserin Augusta Victoria 
Haus at Charlottenburg) with the special purpose of investi- 
gating and combatting the high rate of infant mortality. The 
governments of the twenty-five different states, too, have been 



1 Kriegswaisen und Jugendfiirsorgc, fiiuftes Heft, Schriften des 
Arbeitsausscliusscs der Kriegswittwen- und Waisenjiirsoryc. Herausgegeben 
• m Auftrage des Hauptausschusses in Verbindung mit der Nationalstiftung fiir 
die Hinterbliebenen der im Kriege Gefallenen. Carl Heymann's Verlag, 
Berlin, 1917. This pamphlet may be seen in the library of the Russell Sage 
Foundation, New York city. Other bulletins published under the same 
auspices are on Vocations for Women and War Widows; Experience in the 
Care of War Widows and Orphans; The Theory and Practice of Care for War 
Widows and Orphans; The Land Problem and the War Widows. Among 
other books brought out by the same publishers last year are one on 
Patriotic Education in Juvenile Clubs and one on The Girls' Club. — Editor. 

39 



40 



THE SURJ'EY FOR APRIL 13. 191 



very active through their various ministries in rousing interest 
and spreading knowledge in the matter. These ministerial 
decrees are usually addressed to the government officials who 
have the supervision over the cities in their respective terri- 
torial districts and are often mandatory in character. In this 
way, a uniformity in the welfare work of municipalities is 
secured to which we in this country have no parallel, since our 
reforms have to wait for spontaneous combustion on the part 
of public opinion. 

The German ministerial decrees often go into matters with 
a, to us, amusing detail. In one case the district presidents, 
big bugs as they are, are told that they must join central 
societies for the protection of infants, and that they must 
subscribe to a periodical which is mentioned by name. Again 
it is a poster on infant mortality, or even a special make of 
baby-bottle that has aroused the minister's interest, and his 
views on the subject are ordered to be brought by the district 
presidents to the attention of burgomasters of the cities to be 
discussed by them with their city councils and boards. A 
Saxe-Weimar decree prescribes that physicians be told the 
exact manner and method of distributing government rewards 
to midwives who induce their patients to nurse their own 
infants, while in the duchy of Oldenburg the government 
finances a competition between midwives in this regard, giv- 
ing to the one who persuades the most mothers a prize of 
fifty marks. 

There is no bar to city initiative either ; only where an ex- 
periment has proved a success, the minister (be he of health. 
of the interior or of education) trumpets it abroad in the 
manner just described. 

Charlottenburg, in 1906, started taking prospective mothers 
into its free hospital on the understanding that they should 
do such light work as their strength would permit. It also 
gives aid (usually in the form of a good nourishing meal daily 
for four weeks before confinement) to pregnant women who 
will agree to nurse their infants when they arrive. In Nurem- 
berg, the aid takes the form of better lodgings if they are 
needed. 

We have baby consultation stations in some of our large 
cities but, owing to the efforts of the ministries, the institu- 
tion is more uniform in Germany. The station at Magde- 
burg is one of the best organized in the world. The town is 
divided for the purpose into eight districts, and in each is held 
a weekly consultation at which two physicians, a nurse and a 
clerk are present. The nurse, who in the interval has been 
busy in the homes, attends to weighing the infant and relates 
what she knows about its home surroundings. It is at these 
consultations that the chief physician hands out the rewards 
to nursing mothers which, even before the war, were offered 
by so many city governments. In 1913, no less than 152 com- 
munities gave money (Berlin's outlay for that year totalled 
180,000 marks) and 171 some kind of aid like free milk for 
the mother's own use. Such mothers must report regularly, 
with their infants if possible, at the station. 

The value of breast-feeding was irrefutably established by 
an investigation in Berlin in 1906 which showed that among 
the poorest class of the population five bottle babies died to 
every one that had been fed at the breast. In 1911, Berlin 
assumed the care and guardianship of all its orphans and 
stretched the term orphans to include all unprotected chil- 
dren. There are more than 13,000 of them, and their care in 
1912 cost 2,339,591 marks. For its infants it employs wet- 
nurses, but allows them to give the breast only to their own 
infants, the surplus product alone going to the orphans. 
Charlottenburg has a somewhat similar method. It hi 



special nursery for mothers who have to wean their infants in 
order to go to work. They nurse their infants morning and 
evening, but in the interval that duty is performed for them 
by one of the servants (who are chosen accordingly), or they 
are furnished with human milk in bottles. This is bought 
from women who have an excess of that commodity, and if 
the infants in the nursery do not consume it all the remnant 
is sold to the public. 

Not only Berlin but also Dresden, Nuremberg and Breslau 
have had themselves constituted guardians of all their illegiti- 
mate children, while in every city there is some form of public 
guardianship (and often a guardianship court) for such waifs. 
The guardian looks after the welfare of the child in many 
ways, but his chief and immediate duty is to go after the father 
and compel him to pay for the child's support, and city de- 
partments do much more effective work than can voluntary 
organizations such as we have in this country. Charlotten- 
burg in 1911 had 1,561 illegitimate children under care of 
its guardian and collected 96,034.04 marks from fathers. An 
English student of these matters, W. H. Dawson, gives us 
to understand that the fathers are growing restive, and that 
an association of them has been formed to resist excessive or 
unjust demands. Surely the Germans are wonderful at 
organizing! 

To return to our report concerning war-orphans, an in- 
vestigation among forty-five cities conducted in May and 
June, 1916, showed that the cost of caring for them in institu- 
tions or in families had not risen during the war to any great 
extent. Indeed, five reported no change at all, and the 
changes noted in the others averaged (at a rough estimate) 
about three marks per child per month. 

What has been done on a large scale is to increase the re- 
sources and scope of welfare organizations and movements, 
such as the breast-feeding propaganda I have described, the day 
nurseries and infants' homes, the school meals and diet 
kitchens, etc. Vocational guidance, especially for girls, since 
so many of them must now enter the industrial field, is being 
given more attention than ever before. The pamphlet recom 
mends more "fostering of joy in life," both for girls and boys 
more games, more theatrical representations, more music and 
more outings of every kind. 

In connection with school meals some investigations made 
by Dr. Gastpar, city physician of Stuttgart, are of particular 
interest to us who are wondering at the effect the blockade of 
Germany is having on the health of its inhabitants. I can not 
do better than quote Dr. Gastpar's own words: 

In Stuttgart I undertook in February, 1916, to tabulate the weights 
and the heights of all school children and compare them with the 
records kept before the war. The general conclusion was that for 
all children, public school and high school, boys and girls, the age 
divisions as to size and weight which are clearly marked in peace 
time have become less distinct; in other words, that children until 
about their twelfth year are somewhat heavier than before the wai, 
but in the succeeding years are quite appreciably thinner. Especialh 
the oldest classes of boys, in public and high school alike, slum an 
average decrease in weight but an average increase in height. How 
ever, as no harm to health could be noted, no increase in the amount 
nt anemia, scrofula, rickets, heart and lung troubles as compared 
with the years before the war, it is safe to ascribe the decrease in 
weight less to want of nourishment than to greater bodily activity 
whether in working harder or through belonging to the different 
■ rganizations for youth. 

\ repetition of the investigation in 1916-17 gi\e- the satisfactory 
results for the public schools that no further decrease eith( 
weight or of height can be noted. In the high schools, on the othei 
hand, such decrease of weight is marked. The good result in the 
public schools is primarily to be ascribed to the considerabh 
ti nsion of our diet kitchens for children. At the outbreak of the 
war, the need for such extension quickly became apparent. In Stmt - 
gait we had at once to increase the three existing kitchens to ten 
Before the war, the number of > early meals was about 60,000; this 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 13, 191 



41 



increase in 1914 to 200,000 and in 1915 to 730,000, which meant 
more than ten times as many. Counting the 500 or so of children 
who are fed by private philanthropists in their homes we have 
approximately 3,000 school children who are being fed daily 
in Stuttgart, about 12 per cent of all Stuttgart children between 
seven and fourteen years old. This may seem rather few at 
first glance, but besides the diet kitchens a number of other or- 
ganizations, such as of day nurseries and war orphans' homes, have 
been started. . . . 

Covering the costs is about the least of the difficulties. It is a law 
of the empire that of all outlays of communities for taking care of 
those affected by the war the state will repay 50 per cent. Thus, 
what the communities advance to associations or expend themselves 
if they run their own kitchens can be charged, to the extent of one- 
half, to the state. ... In Stuttgart, the meal is reckoned (in 1917!) 
to come to ten pfennige a portion, whereas in 1915 the cost of the 
portion came to 14.4 pfennige. 

This last remark is so worded that it does not exclude the 
possibility that the cost-price in 1917 was as great (or greater) 
as in 1915, even though the price asked was only 10 pfennings, 
but there is no indication in the pamphlet that such was the 
case. There is a recommendation that in the case of the warm 
bread-and-milk breakfasts the bread be not wasted, although 
there could scarcely be a question of that now, but that the 
bread should be broken up in the milk-soup. The usual quan- 
tity of milk allowed just now is a quarter of a liter (about 
half a pint). "The question is somewhat complicated," says 
Dr. Gastpar, "by the fact that in the large cities there is 
going to be a shortage of milk which has made it necessary 
to divide up the daily amount according to the numbers of the 
population and to age." 

The report on war orphans reveals that public guardian- 
ship, adoption and a new arrangement which we may call god- 
mothering (Kriegspatenschaft) are being pushed with the 
utmost system and vigor. Of extreme interest to any one who 
has followed the frantic attempts to Germanize the former 
Polish provinces of Posen and West Prussia is the propaganda 
of the Royal Settlement Commission to have war orphans 
adopted by German parents in those regions. There, broad, 



fertile lands are to be found, and the shortage of labor is so 
great that Russians and Poles were employed in great num- 
bers before the war. In a proclamation dated April, 1916, 
the president of the Royal Settlement Commission expresses 
himself as follows (he is addressing more particularly the 
guardians and widows of the West) : 

Confide to us your wards and children. You can do it with a clear 
conscience and may be sure you are doing the children a service. 
We will do our best to see that they become strong, healthy and 
joyous men and women. Country children and such as come of 
country parents are the most desired ; but healthy city children will 
be welcome too. 

It is an ill wind that blows nobody any good, and the 
agrarians in this way are likely to get good workers at a 
minimum cost and can pose as benefactors besides. The "war- 
godparenting" lays stress on the christening present that every 
well-brought-up godparent is expected to make. The custom 
has developed during this war of making the present in the 
form of an insurance policy, to mature when the child finishes 
his public school course and goes to work or trains for a voca- 
tion. The god-parent pays all the premiums either in a lump 
sum or year by year. There is an association of public life- 
insurance companies in Germany that concerns itself with the 
matter, but the new type of insurance has been so popular that 
private companies have everywhere taken it up. The Ham- 
burg-Mannheim Life Insurance Company had already issued 
25,000 such policies. There are three forms which provide 
respectively for the death of the god-parent, of the mother 
and of the child. No medical examination is required. As 
an example of what may be expected let me state that if a 
mother aged thirty insures herself (or has charitable per- 
sons do it for her) in favor of her one-year-old son, and 
pays one mark a month until the completion of his seven- 
teenth year (when he enters military service), he will then 
have at his disposal the sum of 211 marks. 



HOME SERVICE 

The WORK of the AMERICAN RED CROSS in the 

UNITED STATES 

W. Frank Persons, Editor 



DIRECTOR GENERAL CIVILIAN RELIEF 



HOME SERVICE AND THE COMMON TOUCH 

THE following article was contributed by one who 
until recently was to be classed as a layman in matters 
pertaining to social service, but who through his asso- 
ciation with the Home Service work of the Red 
Cross has come to feel deeply the significance of this field of 
social effort. The writer's attitude characterizes that of a 
rapidly growing body of men and women whose perception of 
the possibilities of human helpfulness through Home Service 
is undoubtedly allying them permanently with the forces of 
social construction of the nation. 

SOMEWHERE in Kipling's poems there is a fine phrase 
which describes vividly the democratic, friendly contact 
of man with his fellow man — Kipling calls it "the common 
touch." At no hour in the history of the republic has there 



been a more pressing need for this common touch, for realizing 
responsibility to our fellow man, than now, when the very 
existence of democracy is at stake. Everyone is now under 
moral obligation to do his share toward winning the war. 
The contribution need not be spectacular or romantic to be a 
real war service. Some of the most valuable and vital work 
is being done quietly and humbly, recorded chiefly in the grate- 
ful memories of those whom it has helped to "carry on." Its 
largest satisfaction lies in the sense of duty done and humanity 
served, in the realization that the common touch has not been 
lost and that the ranks of democracy have not been broken. 

It is this quiet work that will count heavily in the final 
totals of the war and determine in no small measure whether 
the war has been really lost or won. It is above all the quiet 
work that is done at home to anticipate and check the social 
consequences of the war that will determine how actual and 



42 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i 3j 1918 



vital our democracy is and what path its future is to take. 
Home Service has undertaken precisely this kind of work 
and is endeavoring to go about it in precisely this way. It 
depends for its very effectiveness upon keeping the common 
touch, upon giving friendly, neighborly, democratic service in 
a quiet, kindly way. There is little of glamour about it, but 
there is everything of humanness. It is not strikingly roman- 
tic, but if you have a genuinely humanitarian impulse, if you 
believe in democracy, above all if you want to do a vital war 
work, then Home Service has a great deal to offer you. It 
takes you straight to the hearts of the people who are suffer- 
ing the most to help win the war — the families who are giving 
husbands, brothers or sons to the national service. It is an 
essential means of helping to keep the morale of the country 
unbroken. It is not by any means dull or routine, for there 
is not a day that passes for any Home Service section that is 
without its own special events of interest and value. This is 
revealed strikingly by the incidents — not selected, but typical 
— which follow. 



A Volunteer's Wife in Need 

- came of refined people, an old family that had 



Mrs. S — 

always been respected in the small, country town in which 

they lived. Mr. S was from a big city and his wife had 

gone there with him to live after their marriage. He was just 
establishing himself in his trade when the war came. His 
father had been a soldier in the Civil war and the call of the 
blood could not be resisted. He enlisted as a private in the 
regular army and was soon on his way to France. When 

Mrs. S came to the attention of the Home Service section, 

things were in a bad way at home. Allotment and allowance 
were overdue and there was no money in the house for food 
or fuel. The mother was expecting a baby within a few 
months and her boy of three looked pinched and wan. The 
Home Service section provided for the necessaries of life 
against the coming of the allotments. A visitor went home 
with her to plan for the days to come and this visitor returned 
often to cheer and encourage the lonely family. There was a 
nurse in attendance some time before the expected child ar- 
rived, and there was afterward a room at the hospital in which 

to bid the newcomer welcome. Mrs. S 's letter to the 

Home Service section would make very interesting reading — 
but she didn't intend it for publication, so we cannot repro- 
duce it here. 

In another city not far from the Canadian boundary, the 
wife of a soldier in the British army — a woman of education 
and ability who had always depended upon her husband to 
transact the business of the household — got into an awkward 
business tangle because of her unfamiliarity with business 
methods and commercial law. She was distracted by worry, 
when a friend told her about the local Home Service section 
of the American Red Cross. She called at the office with 
reluctance and obvious embarrassment. Her story told, a 
telephone conversation with a leading merchant of the city, 
who was a member of the Home Service section, and with an 
attorney, also a member, brought valuable suggestions for ways 
out of the tangle. Within a week the entire matter had been 
cleared up very happily for all concerned. Other things de- 
veloped meanwhile. The woman was inclined to melancholy 
and needed to be brought out of herself. She was a stranger 
in the city, as she and her husband had moved there only a 
little while before the outbreak of the war. The Home Serv- 
ice section interested her in the work of her own church, that 
was doing a great deal in the way of entertainment for the 
soldiers in a nearby camp. Within a month she was a changed 
woman, bright, energetic, and as happy as separation from her 



husband would permit her to be. A month or so ago she was 
recalling the whole affair with the secretary of the Home 
Service section who had first befriended her. Tears stood in 
her eyes as she said with pathetic dignity, "I hope you will 
never need to come to a place like this. If you do, you will 
know what it means to be comforted." 

Then there was the case of the old lady up in the mountains 
of one of the southern states. The youngest of her children 
was twenty-one last April — he didn't wait to be drafted — he 
volunteered. He had gone to school and was able to write a 
really interesting letter because he had the gift of imagination. 
He wrote home regularly all the time that he was in camp in 
this country. The postman who used to carry the letters to 
the old lady happened to notice that she never sent any back, 
and one day he mentioned it casually to the Home Service 
worker in the small country town where his post office was. 
It gave her the suggestion of an opportunity for service, and 
one afternoon she drove out to the old lady's cabin. It didn't 
take long to start a conversation about the soldier son in camp, 
and in a few minutes tears came into the old lady's eyes as 
she confessed that she had a big bundle of letters from him 
which she couldn't read ! 'As a little girl I didn't have a 
chance to go to school," she said, "and I never learned to read 
or write. It makes me wretched not to be able to see what 
Johnny says. There are so many things I want to tell him 
and I know that he will be anxious to hear from me." A 
letter went out that afternoon— in the visitor's handwriting. 
She has a conspiracy now with the postman and she drops in, 
just accidentally, every time a letter comes. 

In the steel mill district of one of our largest cities there 
is a boy in the sixth grade of public school who was noted for 
bad behavior. His teacher talked of him, one night, with a 
friend who was a Home Service worker, because she was per- 
plexed and wanted advice. Stephen had been a model boy in 
class until he had had an attack of measles. About this time 
his father went away with his regiment. Since Stephen re- 
turned to school he had been nervous, irritable and disobedient. 
The Home Service worker called at his home. She found 
that Stephen's mother had noticed he had to hold his books 
very close to his eyes while studying. The Home Service 
worker took him to an oculist and Stephen no longer causes 
trouble at home or at school. He is now planning a war 
garden in the cottage back yard. 

Sought Her Husband's Discharge 

The other day there came a letter from the Home Service 
man at Camp Z , containing his week's report. Op- 
posite Friday he had made the following entry: "Received a 

call from Corporal M , Company A, Artillery. This 

man is only twenty-one years of age, and before coming to 

Camp Z had married a girl who is barely seventeen and 

is about to become a mother. This man saw me about ten 
days ago and was in such a desperate frame of mind that it 
would have taken very little to have caused him to desm. 
He showed me a letter from his wife imploring him to come 
home at once, as she was very sick and had made no prepara- 
tion for the child. She is living with her folks who are poor 
and quite unable to provide proper care for her. She had 
even in her wretchedness gone so far as to secure the services 
of a lawyer in an attempt to get a discharge for her husband. 

I immediately wired Corporal M 's home chapter and 

three days later received a letter stating that they had removed 
the girl to a hospital. She was now being given proper care 

and attention. M came to me today with another letter 

which he had received from his wife, quite different in tone 
from the former one. She stated that she was happy and well 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 13, 191 



43 



cared for, and that the ladies of the Red Cross were sewing 

for her and the baby. Since receiving this letter, M has 

had a different outlook on life. He is an infinitely better 
soldier. He had obtained a furlough and some of his com- 
rades had taken up a collection to pay his fare back home. He 
returned the furlough to his captain and told his comrades 
he was not going home, for he felt that his wife was getting 
the very best of attention and there was nothing now that he 
could do for her." 

And here in its entirety is a letter from a courageous but 
lonely woman who lives just outside a well-known town in 
a southern state. All the names and places are changed, but 
everything else is copied faithfully from the original letter — 
including the phonetic spelling. 

Rookey, Christmas Eve, 1917. 
Dear Husband: — 

I will try to write you a few lines to let you hear from us. I 
am well but tired. I have been in hog-killing all daye. the babies 
have been sick sence you went away with cold Mary had ihe cronp 
friday knight the worst she ever had it me and Charlie set up till 
twelve o'clock with her but she is better now, except her cough is 
bad now I have not had a knight sleep since you went away I mist 
you so bad to help me with her but Charlie was good to help me 
with her. She is taking it better about you being gon than I thought 
she would she is coughing bad tonight she said awhile ago when 
she woke up she said she did not see Popper and cried the habie all 
so ask why poper dont come and bring my hamer. I told him they 



wont let you come home charlie taken him up and he told charlie 
they wont let my popper come home santy claus will bring him 
a little tool chest to knight with saw and hammer nails so you can 
imagion what he will be doing to morrow I told you I was in the 
hog killing to day we kill the hogs to' day one went 185 lbs and 
the other 155. I did not hear from you until today I looked for a 
letter from you Saturday but did not get it till to day I was so 
glad to hear from you but sorry you had no place to ly down and 
rest but I hope you have a bead by this time I would be so glad 
that you was home withe us to night we are so lonley without you. 
Mr. and Mrs. Overstreet has moved in with us and is company 
for us but your chair is vacant and that Makes me lonley it 
seams like you ought come when night comes god bless you I do 
pray be a good boy and god will bless you dont forget to trust 
in Jesus for he is your best friend When you are tempted to do 
wrong always think of Jesus and he will help you to do wright 
I am praying for you everday and hopeing you will soon be home 
with us again Charlie is going to unkle Jimes to morrow and will 
be gon two or three days Well I guess I had better close as it is 
getting late it likes 10 minits of 12 o'clock ever one is a sleep but 
me but I could write a nother hour but I know I need some rest 
and I do hope and trust you will soon be home with us. Dont you 
think I will ever forget you I never will forget you so long as 
I live and you do pray for me and the babies may god bless you is 
my pray for Jesus sake amen be a good boy. 
Your loving wife, 

Mary Pirkle 
Write as often as you can Mary says howdy dear poper. 
*Mary marked here *Babie marked here 

The things that the Home Service section of this city did 
in behalf of the writer of this letter will not be set down 
here. Suffice it to say that they are "all in the day's work." 




MODERN EDUCATION FOR THE 
CHILDREN OF ALASKA 

ON the Yukon, the Kobuk and Kuskokwim Rivers, at Nome, Kana- 
kanak and Kotzebue, and at many other points in Alaska, Uncle 
Sam is providing modem school rooms and education for native children. 
It is hard to get the children to come to school regularly, because the 
adults have a long-established habit of taking their children with them 
on hunting and trapping trips. Nevertheless the field force of the United 
State Bureau of Education consisted last year of four superintendents, 
one acting superintendent, in teachers, five physicians and ten nurses. 
Sixty-eight schools were maintained, with an enrollment of 3,600. Sew- 
ing (on sewing machines), cooking, carpentry, gardening and other 
matters are taught. There are many missionary schools also. The 
picture above, reproduced by courtesy of the United States Bureau of 
Education, shows a familiar kindergarten game. 



OMKCO: 




SM 



WAR AND PLAGUE IN 
RUMANIA 

THE American Red Cross Commis- 
sion to Rumania has just pre- 
sented to the Red Cross a report on 
medical conditions in that country, pre- 
pared by Drs. H. Gideon Wells and 
Roger G. Perkins. The first fact em- 
phasized is terrible overcrowding: 

In Moldavia, a territory not much larger 
than the state of Massachusetts, were gath- 
ered much of its normal population of 2,- 
800,000 and from half a million to a million 
refugees from Wallachia, nearly half a mil- 
lion Rumanian soldiers, and approximately 
a million Russians. All this added popula- 
tion came in with little or no supplies of 
food or clothing, and under the mental col- 
lapse that results from overwhelming de- 
feat, loss of home and property, and the 
depression of flight and privation. The 
transportation was so inadequate that a 
large part of the refugees came on foot, 
many walking for twenty or thirty days. 

The lack of hospital equipment, of 
fuel and finally of food, created condi- 
tions most favorable for the development 
of various infections. The first disease to 
make its appearance was pellagra. Of 
this disease there have been estimated 
from 60,000 to 80,000 chronic cases even 
before the war, and the famine and pri- 
vations of war had both exterminated 
the earlier cases and developed many 
more. 

An epidemic of cholera seems to have 
caused but slight excitement because 
the known methods of control were 
promptly applied and immediately effec- 
tive. But as winter came on the more 
dreaded foe, typhus, appeared and from 
February to May continued with very 
great mortality: 

And now arose a situation that can only 
be compared to the descriptions in Defoe's 
Journal of the Plague Year. The stricken 
population fled hither and thither to escape 
infection, or to find food, warmth and shel- 
ter, and so they spread the disease until it 
is probable that nearly a million were in- 
fected in a population, including the armies, 
of something less than 5,000,000. Stories 
are told of horrors piled on horrors — of 
trains stagnating on congested tracks, while 
in box cars the people were packed so closely 
together that those who died could not fall, 
and were removed only when at last the cars 

44 



were emptied. The shortage of beds was 
so great that usually two beds were placed 
together to hold three patients across them, 
while often two more patients were laid 
on the floor underneath. 

Only a few of the physicians sus- 
pected typhus, and those who did tried, 
as one man said, "to convince themselves 
that it was only grippe," so ghastly did 
the project appear in view of the truth. 

At the time of the commission's de- 
parture, late in 1917, a few cases of ty- 
phus still lingered here and there, a fact 
which caused physicians no small anxiety 
as it proved that the epidemic was not 
extinct but merely quiescent, smoldering, 
ready to break forth in winter condi- 
tions. "Famine dropsy" attacked espe- 
cially the little children ; tuberculosis 
seems to have increased throughout the 
country, although it was said not to have 
been a serious plague in Rumania before 
the war. It is the deficiency diseases, 
pellagra, dropsy, etc., and typhus, which 
the commission believe to be the coun- 
try's chief menace at this time, and they 
recommend that a number, at least 100, 
competent Rumanian physicians be de- 
tached from military service in order to 
reorganize the civil sanitary service and 
maintain it until the end of the war. 
The commission hoped that arrange- 
ments which at the time of their report 
were being made with the American Red 
Cross Commission in America to supply 
food and clothing, might be successful 
in diverting the serious and immediate 
consequences of deficiency diseases. 



April 13, 1918 



Vol. 40, No. 2 



THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street, New York 

Robert W . de Forest, president; Paul 
U. Kellogg, editor; Arthur P. Kellogg, 
secretary; Frank Tucker, treasurer. 
10 cents a copy; $3 a year; foreign 
postage, $1.50; Canadian, 75 cents. 
Copyright, 1918, by Survey Associates, 
Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 
25, 1909, at the post office at New York, 
N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



THE WAR ANNIVERSARY 
MESSAGE 

IN a sense, President Wilson's state 
papers, since the United States en- 
tered the war, fall into two groups — 
those in which he has made a ringing 
call to arms against Prussian aggression, 
and those in which he has set forth the 
principles which "would be our own 
in the final settlement." To a remarka- 
ble degree the two were blended in his 
address at Baltimore in behalf of the 
Liberty loan. 

He yields no ground to those who 
have criticized his moral and political 
offensive. Still less does he yield ground 
to the German thrust at Amiens. 
Rather, he accepts the latter challenge 
and throws it back. In doing so, he 
shows that instead of confusing the is- 
sues, his moral and political offensive, 
grounded as it is on his remarkable un- 
derstanding of the psychology of democ- 
racy, has made those issues clear as never 
before. 

On the one hand, he throws over the 
motivation of hate — that recourse of the 
German autocrats which has found an 
echo from not a few of our own lesser 
spokesmen. "I should be ashamed," he 
says, "in the presence of affairs so grave, 
so fraught with the destinies of mankind 
throughout all the world, to speak with 
truculence, to use the weak language oi 
hatred or vindictive purpose." Rather, 
his is an appeal to reason. His basic con- 
fidence is in the ability of thinking 
Americans to make up their minds. 
"The man who knows least," he says, 
"can now see plainly how the cause of 
justice stands, and what the imperisha- 
ble thing he is asked to invest in." 

He reviews the exchanges which have 
helped bring this about, and in doing 
so reaffirms the unimperialistic princi- 
ples America stands for — in a way which 
is an answer to such organs as the Gior- 
nale d'llalia. which has doggedly clung 
to the commitments of the allies to Italy ; 
or the London Globe, which before the 
ink was fairly dry on the statement put 
out by Premier Lloyd George and Presi- 
dent Wilson at New Year's urged their 
recall on the ground, apparently, that 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 13, 19 18 



45 



German conquests in the East should be 
met by the prospect of counter conquests. 
As against those who pin their faith on 
dark threats of punishment to weaken 
enemy resistance and to build up the 
righting spirit at home, President Wilson 
affirms his principles and alternative pro- 
cedure : 

. . . I have sought to learn the objects 
Germany has in this war from the mouths of 
her own spokesmen, and to deal as frankly 
with them as I wished them to deal with 
me. . . . 

We have ourselves proposed no injustice, 
no aggression. We are ready, whenever the 
final reckoning is made, to be just to the 
German people, deal fairly with the German 
power, as with all others. There can be no 
difference between peoples in the final judg- 
ment, if it is indeed to be a righteous judg- 
ment. To propose anything but justice, even- 
handed and dispassionate justice, to Ger- 
many at any time, whatever the outcome of 
the war, would be to renounce and dishonor 
our own cause, for we ask nothing that we 
are not willing to accord. 

He goes further and reopens the door 
which the German commanders in Rus- 
sia clanged shut "when we proposed 
such a peace." 

For myself, I am ready, ready still, ready 
even now, to discuss a fair and just and 
honest peace at any time that it is sincerely 
purposed — a peace in which the strong and 
the weak shall fare alike. 

Here, then, are the main elements in 
President Wilson's moral and political 
offensive. Here, also, they become the 
main elements of his military offensive. 
And in making this clear he once more 
speaks over the heads of the German gen- 
eral staff to the civilians of the central 
empires at the same time that he musters 
the Americans afresh to their task : 

It has been with this thought that I have 
sought to learn from those who spoke for 
Germany whether it was justice or dominion 
and the execution of their own will upon the 
other nations of the world that the German 
leaders were seeking. They have answered 
— answered in unmistakable terms. They 
have avowed that it was not justice, but do- 
minion and the unhindered execution of their 
own will. The avowal has not come from 
Germany's statesmen. It has come from her 
military leaders, who are her real rulers. 

How these "military masters" over- 
rode the German civilian delegates at 
Brest-Litovsk, how in Russia, in Fin- 
land, in Ukraine and Rumania they have 
sought to "impose their power and ex- 
ploit everything for their own use and 
aggrandizement," how they would do 
the same thing on the western front if 
they had the chance, how they may be 
willing to promote a false peace in the 
West if they can have a free hand in 
making the Slavic peoples, the Baltic 
peninsula and Turkey "subject to their 
will and ambition, and build upon that 
dominion an empire of force upon which 
they fancy that they can then erect an 
empire of gain and commercial suprem- 
acy," are set forth as so many elements 




in a program in which "our ideals of jus- 
tice and humanity and liberty, the prin- 
ciple of free self-determination of na- 
tions; upon which all the modern world 
insists, can play no part." 

That program once carried out, America 
and all who care or dare to stand with her 
must arm and prepare themselves to con- 
test the mastery of the world — a mastery in 
which the rights of common men, the rights 
of women and of all who are weak, must 
for the time being be trodden under foot 
and disregarded and the old, age-long strug- 
gle for freedom and right begin again at its 
beginning. 

And in conclusion : 

. . . Germany has once more said that 
force, and force alone, shall decide whether 
justice and peace shall reign in the affairs of 
men, whether right as America conceives it 
or dominion as she conceives it shall deter- 
mine the destinies of mankind. There is, 
therefore, but one response possible from us: 
Force, force to the utmost, force without stint 
or limit, the righteous and triumphant force 
which shall make right the law of the world 
and cast every selfish dominion down in the 
dust. 

CLEANLINESS IS NEXT TO 
PATRIOTISM 

WITH the country at war and the 
conservation of our resources a 
matter of national preservation, new ar- 
guments have been supplied to the advo- 
cates of smokeless and dustless cities. 
For a city to be clean is now one way 
to show its patriotism. 

The Smoke and Dust Abatement 
League of Pittsburgh is making effective 
use of this argument. During February 
it conducted a competition to secure pos- 
ter designs showing the relation of smoke 
abatement to fuel conservation. The 
prizes were of an amount to attract stu- 
dents rather than successful artists, and 
the winner of the first award, $50, was 
Lawrence Kritcher, a first-year student 



at the School of Applied Design, Car- 
negie Institute of Technology. The 
poster on the cover of this issue of the 
Survey secured a fourth prize and the 
one on this page a fifth prize. The lat- 
ter shows the use made of the patriotic 
motive. 

The league published the following 
statement: 

During 1917 some 500,000,000 tons of bi- 
tuminous coal were consumed in the United 
States. Of this amount about 20 per cent or 
100,000,000 tons were lost through imper- 
fect combustion — the visible sign of which is 
black smoke. 

Black smoke is an indicator of waste and 
inefficiency. A streamer of black smoke is 
the black flag of a pirate confiscating a part 
of the nation's resources. 

Black smoke in time of peace means a great 
waste and a pollution of the atmosphere, 
which destroys building materials, retards 
the growth of vegetation, cuts off sunlight 
and daylight, prolongs fogs, is injurious to 
comfort and health, and is costly both to the 
smoke maker and to the public. In time of 
war it means all of that and more. Coal is 
a sinew of war. Coal is food for fighters, 
and he who unnecessarily reduces the coun- 
try's available supply curtails the nation's 
energy in the great industrial conflict. 

THE HOUSING OF WAR 
WORKERS 

GOVERNMENT clerks in Wash- 
ington who now have to pay ex- 
cessive room rents owing to the conges- 
tion of the capital have been remembered 
in the housing bill of the Department 
of Labor at last passed by Congress af- 
ter long delays. In addition to $50,- 
000,000 provided for the construction of 
houses for workers in industrial plants 
engaged in war work — other than ship- 
yards, which have already been provided 
for separately — the act authorizes the 
expenditure of $10,000,000 to construct 
government houses and hotels for the 
accommodation of government clerks. 

The Department of Labor, which re- 
cently appointed Otto M. Eidlitz, of 
New York, as housing administrator, is 
empowered to do almost anything to get 
the houses built where they are needed, 
from acquisition of land by condemna- 
tion to loans to private contractors. 

Seeing that it takes $10,000,000 to 
provide additional housing for govern- 
ment clerks in one city, no one pretends 
that an appropriation of five times that 
amount is enough to house the war 
workers now living in overcrowded 
dwellings or miles away from their 
work. This merely supplements a great 
deal of housing enterprise on the part of 
the employers themselves which is al- 
ready under way. 

Meanwhile, a report just issued by 
Maj. Z. L. Potter, chief of the hous- 
ing and health division of the War De- 
partment, declares that housing facilities 
in Washington will be exhausted by 
May 1 unless the government comes to 
the rescue. Major Potter estimates that 
under present conditions about 9,500 



46 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 13, 191S 



more people can be housed in that city. 
Estimates furnished, by different depart- 
ments as to the number of clerks and 
officers that will be needed indicate that 
between now and the first of July the 
population of Washington will have to 
be increased by 18,500 persons; and be- 
fore the end of the year nearly 13,000 
in addition to this number will be re- 
quired. 

THE ROCKEFELLER PLAN IN 
NEW JERSEY 

HEREAFTER there is to be peace in 
Bayonne, N. J., seat of the 
principal refinery of the Standard Oil 
Company of New Jersey. There is to 
be no more shooting in the streets, no 
more wrecking of trolley cars or saloons, 
no more "raids" under Inspector Cady, 
no more sorties led by Sheriff Kinkaid. 
All that belongs to an era that has end- 
ed. Last week representatives of the em- 
ployes from all of the plants of the com- 
pany in New Jersey sat down to dinner 
with the officers of the company at 26 
Broadway, New York city, and agreed 
on a plan of "labor relationship." At 
the same time an announcement was 
made of a 10 per cent increase in wages 
and a plan of service annuities and sick- 
ness and death benefits. 

On March 25, a notice was posted in 
the Bayonne, Bayway and Eagle plants 
of the company, inviting the employes 
to elect representatives from their num- 
ber on the basis of one representative 
for every 150 employes. The persons 
thus selected were to be the "duly ac- 
credited" representatives of the employes 
at the dinner mentioned, which was de- 
clared to be "for the purpose of getting 
better acquainted and of discussing mat- 
ters of mutual concern." The announce- 
ment also stated that these same persons 
were to be "the accredited representa- 
tives of the employes at all subsequent 
meetings and in all matters of coopera- 
tion between the company and its em- 
ployes until the employes shall designate 
some other person to represent them." 

The election was held on March 27, 
and according to reports 92 per cent of 
the employes participated. The dinner 
was held five days later, and a scheme 
of "labor relationship" presented by the 
company was formally adopted. This 
scheme provides that joint conferences 
between employes' representatives and 
those of the company shall be held at 
each of the works at least quarterly, "to 
discuss any matters of mutual interest." 
A joint conference of all employes' rep- 
resentatives and all company representa- 
tives is to be held annually at the call of 
the president. That there may be other 
conferences is implied by the rule 
adopted that "future wage adjustments 
shall be made in joint conferences be- 
tween the employes' representatives in 
the divisions affected and representatives 
of the company." 



There is no elaborate machinery such 
as was set up under the Rockefeller 
Plan in Colorado, but any employe who 
feels that he has been unjustly treated 
"has the right of appeal to the general 
superintendent and the higher officials 
of the company, provided that he shall 
first seek to have the matter adjusted 
by conference in person or through his 
regularly elected representative with the 
foreman of the employment depart- 
ment." 

The scheme includes the organization 
of an employment department at each of 
the works, which will take over the busi- 
ness of hiring and firing formerly in the 
hands of the foreman. One of the rules 
under which employes are to be selected 
is the following: "No discrimination to 
be made on account of membership or 
non-membership in any church, society, 
fraternity or union." A list of fifteen 
offenses is included for which an employe 
may be suspended or dismissed without 
further notice, including violations of 
the law or the safety rules and a num- 
ber of other major offenses. For of- 
fenses that are not on the list, the em- 
ploye is not to be discharged without 
having received a warning against a 
repetition of the offense. 

Under the system of annuities and 
benefits announced at the dinner, male 
employes who have reached the age of 
sixty-five years and who have been 
twenty years in the service are to be re- 
tired on a pension. This is equal 2 
per cent of their salary for each year of 
service, with a minimum of $300 per 
year and a maximum of 75 per cent of 
the salary. In individual cases, it the 
employe makes a request for deferring 
his retirement, it may be done by a vote 
of the Board of Directors. 

After one year of service employes are 
to be eligible to death benefits in case of 
death resulting from sickness or irjm 
accident when off duty. The benefit is 
to range from three months full pay 
after one year of service to twelve 
months' full pay after five years or more, 
and there is to be a minimum benefit of 
$500 and a maximum of $2,000. Deaths 
from accident, while on duty, are to be 
paid in accordance with the workmen's 
compensation law. 

There is a provision also for sickness 
benefits involving disability of more than 
seven days due either to sickness or to 
accidental injury occurring when off 
duty. This, too, is payable to employes 
who have been at least a year in the ser- 
vice and amounts to 50 per cent of the 
wages. The benefits are to be paid for 
six weeks if the disability lasts that long, 
in the case of an employe one year in 
the service. From this point the dura- 
tion of payments increases with length 
of service until the limit of ten years is 
reached. For employes who have been 
ten years or longer in the service the pay- 
ments are continued for fiftv-two 



weeks. In the case of the latter, where 
the disability is total and permanent, the 
benefits will be continued for an addi- 
tional twenty-six weeks. 

The plan declares that the board re- 
serves the right to modify or withdraw 
the plan at any time, but it "guarantees 
that such changes will not affect sickness 
or death benefits already accrued, or the 
payment during the life of an annuitant 
of an annuity already granted as a 
regular allowance." 

It is stated that in the near tuture 
plans will be worked out extending the 
scope of the representation plan. In the 
announcement of it posted at the various 
works, the company declared its object 
to be to bring about "a closer coopei ition 
and more definite unity of interest be- 
tween the company and its employes, 
whereby workmen will always have a 
ready means of bringing their views to 
the definite attention of the officers of the 
company." Hope was expressed that the 
plan "will open up a direct line of con- 
tact between the chairman and the presi- 
dent of the company and the least skilled 
laborer." 

The announcement concludes with 
the statement that "the basis of the whole 
scheme lies in the idea of cooperation. 
It aims to bring all the employes of the 
company into a relationship with the 
officers, not unlike that which existed in 
the old days, when the individual em- 
ployer, with a small group of employes, 
took a personal interest in the welfare of 
each member of his business family." 

EXTENDING HOME SERVICE 
TO FRANCE 

FOR those who read the account, pub- 
lished on page 41 of this issue, of 
the work now being done in this countrv 
by the Home Service department of the 
American Red Cross, it will not be 
necessary to add anything to bring home 
the military, as well as the humane, im- 
portance of this work. The morale of 
our army depends upon the ease of mind 
of the individual soldier. He cannot 
have ease of mind if he is devasi\-Ued by 
frequent worries concerning the family 
and dependents that he has left behind. 
What difference does it make, for ex- 
ample, if Mrs. S , an expectant 

mother without food or fuel in the 
house, is being tenderly cared for by 
neighbors or the Red Cross, if Mr. 

S , somewhere in the trendies. 

does not know it? Or what difference 

if the young wife of Corporal M . 

almost beside herself with worry and 
hiring a lawyer to get her husband dis- 
charged from the army so that he can 
be with her in her need, is surrounded bv 
the best of hospital attendance, if her 
lover-husband thinks of her as friend- 
less and alone? 

The English and French soldiers, and 
those of many other nationalities, arc 
frequently re-created by furloughs home: 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 13, 191 



47 



they see for themselves the condition of 
those who are normally dependent upon 
them. For the American soldier there 
can be no furlough home. He departs, 
except in exceptional cases, "for the du- 
ration of the war." The news of his 
family, if he is to get it, must be taken 
to him. 

For this reason, the American Red 
Cross is extending its Home Service 
work to France. It intends to main- 
tain, close behind the battle line and 
wherever American soldiers are found, 
a personnel and service that will keep 
the individual soldier informed and re- 
assured concerning those at home to 
whom his thoughts will most often re- 
vert. The first contingent of this unique 
accompaniment of modern war sailed 
within the past fortnight — twenty busi- 
ness and professional men from all parts 
of the United States, accompanied by 
W. Frank Persons, director general of 
civilian relief, who went to aid in the 
inauguration of the service. 

The Red Cross is already maintaining 
at each camp and cantonment in this 
country at least one Home Service agent 
to perform a task similar to that planned 
for abroad. This agent is charged with 
getting to the soldier who may be in 
need of them the fact about the care 
that his family is receiving. Perhaps the 
soldier has not heard from his family for 
some time, perhaps he has heard bad 
news that he wants to communicate to 
somebody who can lend a hand, perhaps 
he has remembered some important mat- 
ter that he failed to attend to before 
leaving home and that may now be caus- 
ing discomfort there — any of these things 
may be weighing upon his mind. It does 
not take much, under the circumstances 
in which a recruit finds himself in camp, 
to cause moodiness or even worse ; in- 
deed, occasional cases of a close approach 
to insanity have shown the value of this 
kind of cooperation. 

The job of the Home Service agent 
is to find these things out — to act, in a 
word, as the intermediary between the 
Home Service section in the man's own 
town and the man himself. He must, 
first, give information and reassurance 
and, second, discover what additional 
steps can be taken to increase the wel- 
fare at home. 

If this service is needed in the camps, 
it is needed to an even greater extent 
once the man leaves the country. It is 
when he boards the transport that he is 
for the first time cut off from communi- 
cation with his family. He realizes then 
if not before that he is sailing away 
for months, possibly for years. More- 
over, he begins to face real danger, the 
danger of the voyage and that of actual 
fighting. The thought of his family 
comes home at such a time with especial 
force. 

Every transport will, therefore, carry 
a Home Service worker from now on. 



White Dress Cotton 
Fabrics for 1918 

at 





Reg. Trade-Mark 



The demand for White Fabrics indicates their popu- 
larity for the coming season. We have on hand every 
conceivable weave and weight for Blouses, Dresses, and 
Separate Skirts, as follows : 

Imported Dimities, 28 and 30 in. wide, 25c to 75 yard. 
Imported Dotted Swiss, 30 and 40 in. wide, 75c to $1.50 yard. 
Imported Batiste, 40 in. wide, $1.25 to 2.00 yard. 
Imported Voiles, 40 to 45 in. wide, 50c to $1.50 yard. 
Imported Piques,"% in. wide, 50c to $1.25 yard. 
Imported Madras, 32 in. wide, 35c to 75 yard. 
Imported Eponge, 54 in. wide, $1.00 to 1.25 yard. 
Novelty Skirtings,36 in. wide, 75c. 85, $1.00 to 1.75 yard. 
Novelty Voiles and Crepes, 36 to 45 in. wide, 50c to $2.50 yard. 
Poplin and Repp, 36 in. wide, 50c, 75 to $1 00 yard. 
Japanese ^Crepes, 30 in. wide, 40c to 75 yard. 

Also French Lawns, Batiste, Transparent Organdies, 
French Nainsook, Ecru Batiste, India and Persian Lawns, 
Sylva Lawns, English Nainsook, Long Cloths, French 
I Percales, Handkerchief Linens, Linen Cambrics, and 
| the heavier Linens in all the various weaves, widths, 
| and qualities to meet all requirements. 

Samples of any of the above materials, not bordered ma- 
terials, will be sent on request. Please state name and 
price of material desired and purpose for which intended. 

| James McCutcheon & Co. I 

1 Fifth Avenue, 34th & 33d Streets, New York 



The job of the worker will be to explain 
to each man leaving America just how 
the Home Service plans to care for the 
families of soldiers, and to find out if 
there is anything the soldier would like 
to have the Red Cross in his town look 
into. The work on transports is under 
the direction of E. D. Brandegee, of 
Boston, a well-known business man and 
regent of Harvard University. 

There remains the army in France. 
Here is the point at which a good morale 
is most important. The Home Service 
work abroad will be under the direction 



of R. G. Hutchins, Jr., first vice-pres- 
ident of the National Bank of Com- 
merce, New York city. The nucleus of 
men who have sailed with Mr. Hutchins 
and Mr. Persons will attach themselves 
to the army regiments, and will perform 
the service that is already being per- 
formed at camps and cantonments in 
this country. They will have the rank 
and status of commissioned officers, and 
will be added to as the need tor their 
service grows. An army of a million 
men will, it is expected, require 5,000 
Home Service workers abroad. 



48 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 13, 191 




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The accuracy and 
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the guarantee that 
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buyers of over 50 
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WATERBURY Radiolite $4.50 

(in Canada $4.50) 
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ROBT. H. INGERSOLL 
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New York Boston Chicago 

San Francisco Montreal 





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AN IMPORTANT BOOK ON THE 
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 



Russia's Agony 



By Robert Wilton. 8vo. With Illustra- 
tions and Maps. $4.80 Net. 

"Mr. Wilton was THE TIMES Correspond- 
ent at Petrograd, and he has here given us 
what is probably the best account yet written 
in English of the Russian Government and 
Army immediately before the Revolution, of 
that amazing event itself, and of the outlook in 
Russia as it appeared to him at the end of last 
year." — The Times (.London). 



The Control of the Drink Trade 

A Contribution to National Efficiency f 
1915-1917 

By Henry Carter, a Member of the Cen- 
tral Control Board (Liquor Traffic). With 
a Preface by Lord D'Abernon, Chairman 
of the Board. With diagrams and illustra- 
tions. 8vo. $2.50 net. 
"It is a s,plendid record of one of the greatest 

social experiments ever tried in the United 

Kingdom." — British Weekly. 



LONGMANS, GREEN & COMPANY, Publishers 

Fourth Avenue and Thirtieth Street - New York 



The men who have already gone are 
business and professional men of large 
standing. Among them are James D. 
Ayres, first vice-president of the Bank 
of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh; Frank M. 
Sullivan, a retired business man of Seat- 
tle, Wash. ; Frederic Winthrop, Boston, 
George B. Stephenson, connected with 
Armour & Co., Chicago; and Fred 
Spafford, vice-president of the First and 
Security National Bank, Minneapolis. 
These men are volunteering their ser- 
vices. They have enlisted for what seems 
to them one of the most important tasks 
to be performed in maintaining an effi- 
cient army. 

WAGES RAISED IN THE 
STEEL INDUSTRY 

BEGINNING next Monday com- 
mon labor in the steel industry will 
begin to tread close on the heels of 
Henry Ford's workers, so far as wages 
are concerned. A 15 per cent advance is 
to go into effect in the United States 
Steel Corporation and many independ- 
ent mills throughout the country. This 
is the sixth advance in the mills of the 
steel corporation since 1916, and makes 
an aggregate advance to common labor 
since that time of 85 per cent. This 
means that a common laborer will get 
thirty-eight cents an hour. If he works 
twelve hours a day, as many of them 
do, his daily wage will be $4.56 or 44 
cents less than what Henry Ford's 
men get for eight hours. 

In the steel mills, eight-hour labor- 
ers, if any exist, will get $3.04. In an- 
nouncing the advance in wages Judge 
E. H. Gary, chairman of the Board of 
Directors said: "It is rumored that some 
employers of labor have been discussing 
the adoption of an eight-hour per day 
basis, and in view of this fact we have 
given careful consideration to this ques- 
tion and have decided against it." 

TUBERCULOSIS AND THE 
FRENCH ARMY 

COL. GEO. E. BUSHNELL, 
United States army, into whose 
charge was given the administration of 
the tuberculosis problem among our 
troops, reports that of the nearly 800,000 



Critical Opinions of 

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Social Service Books 



RE-EDUCATION 

By 
George Edward Barton 

"A sane, vigorous and most readable 
analysis of the Institutional System of the 
United States, by the president of the Na- 
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pational Therapy. . . . Mr. Barton feels 
that the present European war will push 
this country with all others beyond the 
point where any country can afford to sup- 
port its institutional inmates without having 
them contribute as much as possible toward 
their own maintenance. . . . The interest- 
ing statistics, the many practical suggestions 
and the general business-like tone of this 
book will make it useful both to the pro- 
fession and the laity." — Eunice Burton Arm- 
strong in the American Journal of Public 
Health. 

$1.00 net 

A NEW BASIS 

FOR SOCIAL 

PROGRESS 



By 

William C. White 

and 

Louis J. Heath 



"A novel attempt to relate the university 
to the community in the development of a 
homogeneous population unit as a basis 
for educational and social administration. 
Based on a survey made by the University 
of Pittsburgh. Invaluable to those interested 
in community education." — Social 5. ■ 
Bulletin. 

"Social workers everywhere will find 
many new and helpful ideas in this book." 
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$1.25 net, at all bookstores 



HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO. 

Boston and New York 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 13, 1 9 1 8 



49 



Crime Prevention 
By Arthur Woods 

Patrol and detective work; self-protection by 
the public; more radical methods needed; 
mental defectives; drinks and drugs; con- 
victs; juvenile delinquency. $1 net; by 
mail, $1.06. 

Financing the War 
By A. Barton Hepburn 

A brief, discriminating study. Boards, 50 
cents net; by mail, 54 cents. 

Postal Savings 

The A B C of the Federal Reserve System 
By Edwin Walter Kemmerer 

Each $1.25 net; by mail, $1.30. 

Cooperative Marketing 
By W. W. Cumberland 

$1.50 net; by mail, $1.58. 




National Strength and 
International Duty 
By Theodore Roosevelt 

With its vigor and fearlessness, this book, far 
from discouraging, inspires and stimulates, the 
reader. $1 net; by mail, $1.06. 

The World Peril 

By members of the Faculty of 
Princeton University 

American rights; democracy; international 
law; world balance of power; South America; 
the Far East; world peace. $1 net; by 
mail, $1.06. 



The President's Control 

of Foreign Relations 

By Edward S. Corwin 

A clear, straightforward review of the long 
struggle between the Executive and the legis- 
lature for power in this field. $1.50 net; 
by mail, $1.58. 



Write for complete catalogue 



Above the French Lines 

Letters of Stuart Walcott, Princeton; '17- 
who flew and fell in France. $1 net; by 
mail, $1.06. 

England and Germany, 
1740-1914 

By Bemadotte Everly Schmitt 

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The Mikado: Institu- 
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By William Elliot Griffis 

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The Balkan Wars 

By Jacob Gould Schurman 

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Protestantism in Germany 
By Kerr D. Macmillan 

President of Wells College 

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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS 



PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 



men of all American armies examined 
for tuberculosis less than 1 per cent have 
been found infected. 

Colonel Bushnell mentions a dispatch 
from Colonel Dercle, of the French 
army, attached to the surgeon general's 
office, reporting that less than 50 per 
cent of the original number of French 
soldiers discharged on the diagnosis of 
tuberculosis were actually found in- 
fected. The mistake in diagnosis, Col- 
onel Dercle savs, is to be explained on 
two grounds. In 1914, 3,000,000 men 
were suddenly mobilized against a rap- 
idly advancing enemy. Any man able 
to bear arms at all was wanted at the 
front, sick or well, and it is said that 
"many a consumptive welcomed the op- 
portunity to lay down his life for his 
country on the field of battle rather than 
die an inglorious and lingering death in 
bed." It is not remarkable that under 
these circumstances many cases of tuber- 
culosis were later found among the 
troops as many cases of other infections 
were found. 

The second cause of the mistakes was 
that when the army had time to begin 
the examination of its soldiers, few phy- 
sicians making the diagnosis were spe- 
cialists in tuberculosis. Hence the slight- 
est ground for suspicion was accepted by 
the anxious and frequently self-dis- 
trustful physicians who wanted to take 
no risks. The heroic task of reversing 
findings when necessary was assigned to 



Maj. Edouard Rist of the medical de- 
partment of the French army, who ex- 
amined various groups of men sent back 
from the front with diagnosis of tuber- 
culosis. Major Rist found in these 
troops a percentage of about twenty of 
unmistakable tuberculosis. 

The conclusion from this reversed 
verdict is two-fold. It proves the diffi- 
culty of adequate diagnosis for this dis- 
ease, and therefore the importance of en- 
trusting the task of diagnosis to the best 
trained specialists available. Even then, 
Colonel Bushnell recognizes that there 
will be among the men certain ones 
whose low resistance and feeble reaction 



cannot be measured in advance. Per- 
haps two cases per 1,000 of this kind 
are, he thinks, to be expected. The sec- 
ond conclusion is, that great relief 
should follow the proof that certain va- 
riations from what has been considered 
normal in the lungs are not necessarily 
the signs of impending doom. "No 
army," concludes Colonel Bushnell, "has 
ever been so thoroughly examined as 
ours, and has been so carefully watched 
over by experts of many kinds. The 
confidence, therefore, among the troops 
and in the minds of those at home is 
abundantly justified and is an imme- 
diate duty of the times." 



Communications 



i 



EQUALITY OF TRADE 

To the Editor: I would like to 
have President Wilson make a more defi- 
nite statement of paragraph 3 of his 
war aims proclaimed January 8 before 
Congress, as follows: "The removal 
as far as possible of all economic barriers 
and the establishment of an equality of 
trade conditions among all the nations 
consenting to the peace and associating 
themselves for its maintenance." If 



this means what I think it does, it will 
have a wonderful effect to hasten an 
understanding and agreement between 
nations. 

To me it means the establishment of 
free trade, without any tariffs for pro- 
tection or revenue. It means that labor 
will depend for protection on the equal- 
ity of trade — the purchase by each na- 
tion of products (not resources or obli- 
gations) equal in value to what it sells 



50 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 13, 191 




TOOLS ane 
BENCHES 

Our 30 years experience 
in equipping Schools and 
Institutions throughout 
the country is at your 
service. 

Our hobby since 1848 has been 
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best. Send for our special circular No. 123 of 
Manual Training Outfits. 



Hammacher, Schlemmer & Co. 

HARDWARE, TOOLS AND SUPPLIES 

New York since 1848 4th Avenue and 13th Street 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MAN- 
AGEMENT. CIRCULATION, ETC., REQUIRED 
BY THE ACT OF CONGRESS OF AUGUST 24, 
1912, of the Survey, published weekly at New 
York, N. Y., for April 1, 1918. 

State of New York, County of New York, ss. 
Before me, a notary public in and for the State 
and county aforesaid, personally appeared Arthur 
P. Kellogg, who, having been duly sworn accord- 
ing to law, deposes and says that he is the secre- 
tary of Survey Associates, Inc., publishers of the 
Survey, and that the following is, to the best of 
his knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management (and if a daily paper, the 
circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publication for 
the date shown in the above caption, required by 
the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied in section 
443, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the 
reverse of this form, to wit: . 

1. That the names and addresses of the pub- 
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business man- 
agers are: Publisher, Survey Associates, Inc., 
112 East 19 St., New York city; editor, Paul U. 
Kellogg, 112 East 19 St., New York city; manag- 
ing editor, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 19 St., 
New York city; business manager, none. 

2. That the owners are: (Give names and ad- 
dresses of individual owners, or, if a corporation, 
give its name and the names and addresses of 
stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent or more 
of the total amount of stock.) Survey Associates, 
Inc., a non-commercial 'corporation under the laws 
of the State of New York with over 1,000 mem- 
bers. It has no stock or bonds. President, Robert 
W de Forest, 30 Broad St., New York city; vice- 
president, John M. Glenn, 130 East 22 St., New 
York city; treasurer, Frank Tucker, 346 Fourth 
Ave., New York city; secretary, Arthur P. Kel- 
logg, 112 East 19 St., New York city. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and 
other security holders owning or holding 1 per 
cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, 
or other securities are: (If there are none, so 
state.) None. 

4. That the two papagraphs next above giving 
the names of the owners, stockholders, and security 
holders, if any, contain not only the list of stock- 
holders and security holders as they appear upon 
the books of the company but also, in cases where 
the stockholder or security holder appears upon 
the books of the company as trustee or in any 
other fiduciary relation, the name of the person 
or corporation for whom such trustee, is acting, is 
given; also that the said two paragraphs contain 
statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and 
belief as to the circumstances and conditions under 
which stockholders and security holders who do 
not appear upon the books of the company as 
trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity 
other than that of a bona fide owner; and this 
affiant has not reason to believe that any other 
person, association, or corporation has any interest 
direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other 
securities than as so stated by him. 

5. That the average number of copies of each 
issue of this publication sold or distributed, through 
the mails or otherwise, to paid subscribers during 
the six months preceding the date shown above 
is — -. (This information is required from daily 
publications only.) [Signed] Arthur P. KELLOGG, 
Sec'y Survey Associates, Inc. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 22nd 
day of March, 1918. Fanny D. Marks, Notary 
Public, New York County. (Mv commission ex- 
pires March 30, 1919.) Form 3526.— Ed. 1916. 

Note. — This statement must be made in duplicate 
and both copies delivered by the publisher to the 
postmaster, who shall send one copy to the Third 
Assistant Postmaster General (Division of Classi- 
fication), Washington, D. C, and retain the other 
in the tiles of the post office. The publisher must 
publish a copy of this statement in the second 
issue printed next after its filing. 



BIGGINS' 



Drawing Inks 
Eternal Writing Ink 
Engrossing Ink 
Taurine Mucilage 
Photo Mounter Paste 
Drawing Board Paste 
Liquid Paste 
Office Paste 
Vegetable Glue, ete. 

Are the Finest and Best Inks 
and Adhesive* 

Emancipate yourself from corrosive 
and ill-smelling inks and adhesives 
and adopt the Higgins' Inks and 
Adhesives. They will be a revela- 
tion to you, they are sosweet, clean, 
well put up, and withal so efficient. 

AT DEALERS 
CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO., Manufacturers » 
Branches: Chicago, London 
271 Ninth Street Brooklyn, N. T. 




to other nations. It means the prohi- 
bition of all alien investments which 
function to disturb the equality of trade. 
It means that there shall be no debtor 
and no creditor nations. It means that 
henceforth there will be no clash of na- 
tional interests in alien nations to breed 
hatred and provoke war. It means that 
each nation will be economically free, 
which it needs as much as political free- 
dom for normal self-expression and self- 
determination. 

If this is what President Wilson 
means there is nothing that he can do 
more likely to win the confidence of all 
peoples than to state it plainly in his 
own inimitable way. 

Detroit. Moses Franklin. 

YOUTHFUL NEWSBOYS 

To the Editor: I was very glad to 
see in the Survey of March 16 a com- 
munication anent our Seattle newsboys. 

I am not very familiar with conditions 
in cities outside of New York and 
Seattle, but in Seattle, where I live, it is 
perfectly true that very youthful news- 
boys are on the streets until quite late at 
night, selling papers. 

During the daytime I have seen news- 
boys of from five to seven years of age 
selling papers. The police do not seem 
to interfere with these tots. It is 
lamentably true that in Seattle the chief 



pursuit of the people, young as well as 
old, seems to be a whole-souled chase of 
the elusive dollar (or penny, in the case 
of the newsboys). Apropos of this, a 
number of cases have come under my 
personal observation of nice-appearing 
little girls asking passers-by for pennies. 

The worst feature of selling news- 
papers here in Seattle is the Sunday sale. 
The Sabbath quiet of the city is broken 
by newsboys shouting in the streets all 
Sunday forenoon. This Sunday selling 
of newspapers is altogether wrong. It 
is all the more inexcusable in Seattle 
from the fact that the Seattle Sunday 
newspapers are off the presses Saturday 
night, and the boys begin selling them on 
the streets about 8 o'clock p.m. 

If conditions in other cities are similar 
to those in Seattle, the Survey will ren- 
der a public service by printing this let- 
ter, and following up the matter on its 
own initiative. 

Charles Hooper. 

Seattle, Wash. 

DISTRICT COMMITTEES 

To the Editor: In the London 
Charity Organisation Review for Febru- 
ary, I find a paragraph stating that they 
have received from the New York City 
Charity Organization Society a pam- 
phlet in regard to the work of a district 
committee which their correspondent 
describes as "the first attempt in twenty- 
five years to formulate the reasons for 
district committees and the functions q\ 
these committees." 

In correction of this I enclose a copy 
of the third edition, just issued, of The 
Wheels of Organized Charity: or The 
Work of a District Committee. The 
first edition was published not twenty- 
five years but nine years ago, by a cum 
mittee composed of Roy Smith Wallace, 
chairman, John R. Howard, Jr., Jean 
Laverack (Mrs. W. Russell Bowie). 
Porter R. Lee, and Mabel Wilcox, 
nearly all of whom now have a na- 
tional reputation in social work. 

This pamphlet aims to give a succinct, 
terse statement of the organization and 
methods of a district committee with 
considerably more detail than is given 
in the New York pamphlet. 

Frederic Ai mv 
[Secretary Charity Organization 
Society.] 

Buffalo. 

SAID OF THE SURVEY 

To the Editor: It is a pleasure to 
renew my subscription to the SURVEY, 
It augurs well for the future of con- 
structive social effort in this country, 
and particularly for American progress 
in educational sociology, an urvtilled 
field, to note from week to week how 
successfully the Survey is adjusting it< 
machinery to the interpretation of the 
practical philosophy of the inevitable re- 
\Continurd on page 52) 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 13, ' 9 18 



51 




KeepThe Home fires Burning 



q^ONIGHT there will be American 
-1 boys in lonely listening posts far out 
in the desolation of No Man's Land, 
American boys in the darkness and the 
mud and cold of the trenches under the 
ceaseless thunder of guns and the scream 
of shells, American boys tramping 
along the pitch-black, shell-torn roads. 



Through the long, dreary hours, as they 
wait and watch in the dark, their 
thoughts turn to the homes they have 
left behind, homes on distant farms, in 
little scattered villages, in great cities, 
and they see in imagination the pleas- 
ant home lights shining out into the 
night. 



They are fighting 
to keep those home fires burning 



You, back here in the peace and safety 
of the homes they love, can help in the 
bitter struggle that our boys must face 
tonight, and tomorrow night, and every 
day, and every night, until the final 
VICTORY is won. You, too, must 
work to keep the home fires burning-- 
for our sons in France. 

They need guns and more guns, shells 
and more shells, thev need tanks and 



transports and airplanes, good food 
and warm clothes and medicines and 
hospital supplies — an ever increasing 
abundance of all the vital materials of 
war, if they are to drive the ruthless 
German invaders back within their 
own borders, and establish for all time 
the sacredness of American liberty and 
the safety of America's homes — their 
homes, our homes. 



For these lads that are fighting and dying for you — do your share to send them 

to VICTORY. Invest today in Bonds of the Third Liberty Loan — ALL 

the bonds you can. Keep the home fires burning. 



LIBERTY LOAN COMMITTEE 
Second Federal Reserve District 
120 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



IS 



52 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 13, 19, 



CHICAGO SCHOOL OF CIVICS AND PHILANTHROPY 

1918 SUMMER SESSION, JUNE 19— JULY 26 
General Course for Social Workers 

Five Credit Courses : (I) Principles of Case Work ; (2) Problems of Social 
Work in War Time ; (3) The Law and the Courts in relation to Social 
Work ; (4) The Organization and Conduct of a Statistical Inquiry ; (5) 
Modern Radicalism. 

Field Work with one of the Social Agencies in Chicago 

Visits of Inspection to the Important Institutions in or near Chicago. 
Special Course for Playground Workers 

Folk Dancing, Gymnastics, Games, Story-telling and other technical classes 

held at Hull-House. 



Sixteenth Year Opens October 1, 1918 

For information, address The Dean, 2559 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 



FOR RENT OR SALE 

Staten Island 

Small modern farm, near New Dorp. 
Situated on high land in centre of island ; 
14 acres, 3-story stone house, completely 
furnished, 12 rooms, 2 baths, 3 toilets, ver- 
anda enclosed with glass. Telephone. 

Good barn, with cement cellar and gar- 
dener's living quarters above. City water in 
house and barn. Good kitchen garden. Fine 
orchard. 10 minutes from trolley. Has been 
occupied as a Home for Girls. For further 
information, apply to 
Mrs. P. Mali, 8 Fifth Avenue, 37 Spring 




All the objections to prohibition answered in a tiny 
booklet that will go into an envelope. 10 cents apiece; 
$1 a dozen; $30 per 1.000. Just the thing for dry 
campaigns. Address E. Tif.ton, 11 Mason Street, 

Cambrhm-.e, Mass. 



The Intellectual Aristocrat 
of American Publications 

That is what a prominent educator calls "THE 
NATION." His enthusiastic tribute is typical of many 
which the editors are constantly receiving. 

To provide the mentally alert with that food for 
thought which is as necessary to them as bodily food is to 
the athlete, is the function of "THE NATION." the 

weekly journal of information and suggestion. 

In politics, statecraft, science, economics, sociology. 

education, literature, art, "THE NATION" is not only an 
uthority, but it presents the facts and its own interpre- 
ationof them in such a way that its readers look forward to 

its weekly arrival as an event of importance and pleasure. 

If you think you and "THE NATION" have 
similar tastes and ideals, try an experimental sub- 
scription. Clip the coupon. 



The Nation 

20 Vesey Street, New York City 




> * * ■ 






{Continued from page 50) 
construction of the democracy during 
the war and after. 

That every social agency must be 
made to bend its efforts in the direction 
of producing individual and social effi- 
ciency is by no means a war discovery, 
but the war with all its terrible costs 
is hammering home a fundamental truth. 

The chief aim of education today 
should be the development in the indi- 
vidual of sensitiveness to the dishar- 
monies of the prevailing social organiza- 
tion, and the clue to educational method 
is found in the principle of schooling in 
life, not schooling for life. Genuine ed- 
ucation must provide the individual with 
instruments, intellectual and emotional, 
for complete adaptation to an environ- 
ment which refuses to stay put — which 
is as mobile and changing as it is com- 
plex. I believe that in the greatly stim- 
ulated and energized Survey will be 
found one of these implements. 

David Rosenstein. 
[Bureau of Research] 

Washington, D. C. 



To the Editor: The Scientific 
Spirit and Social Work [the Survey 
for February 2] is a distinct contribu- 
tion in these times when "war need," 
so called, is the excuse for breaking 
down all standards. The standards of 
social work have been hard won and 
such an article at these times is invalu- 
able. Every citizen should get that 
viewpoint. The Survey deserves great- 
er circulation for the high standards it 
sets itself and keeps. 

Mrs. Bert Schlesinger. 

San Francisco. 



JOTTINGS 



( NDER the auspices of the League to En- 
force Peace, there will be held a "win the 
war for permanent peace" convention at 
Philadelphia May 16 to 18. 



IN CELEBRATING its tenth anniversary, 
the Charity Organization Society of Youngs- 
town, Ohio, recently changed its name to 
Community Service Society. In recognition 
of its work a group of prominent business 
men pledged a working fund of $100,000 
for it. This sum, it is expected, will be fol- 
lowed by an endowment fund. The working 
fund will be used to provide a home for 
colored men and one for colored girls, and 
to establish a boarding home in connection 
with a training school for semi-expert 
nurses in order to make up for the defi- 
ciency of nurses caused by the war. Joseph 
\[. Hanson has been secretary of the society 
since its beginning. 



1 I' WAS stated in the Survey for Deccmbet 
29, 1<M7. that New Hampshire was one of 
four states which last year "gave to some 
official or commission the power to relax 
the child labor law during the war." From 
this statement the inference has been drawn 
that the child labor law in New Hampshire 
has actually been weakened or placed in 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 13, 1 918 



53 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travels, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various 
headings "Situations Wanted," "Help Wanted," 
etc., five cents each word or initial, including 
the address, for each insertion. Address 
Advertising Department, The Survey, 112 East 
19 St., New York City. 



WORKERS WANTED 

OSHKOSH, Wisconsin, Associated 
Charities, wants competent secretary. 

BOY for office work. 16 years, $7. Ad- 
dress 2744 Survey. 



JEWESS wanted as resident assistant in 
Philadelphia Settlement. Address 2749 
Survey. 



WANTED — Supervisor (male) for boys 
from 12 to 15 years of age in Protestant 
institution. Address 2754 Survey. 



WANTED — General superintendent for 
Welfare Board of St. Joseph, Missouri. 
State age, education, experience and salary 
wanted. Address William E. Stringfel- 
low, President. 



WANTED — Experienced headworker 
(Jewish) for Abraham Lincoln House, 
Milwaukee. Address Secretary, 531 Ter- 
race Avenue, Milwaukee, Wis. 

WANTED — Case worker for position of 
Assistant Secretary in Charity Organiza- 
tion Society in rapidly growing New Eng- 
land Coast City. Salary $900 to $1000. 
Address 2750 Survey. 



WANTED — An intelligent Jewish young 
woman with college or high school educa- 
tion to supervise girls in an orphanage. 
Salary $40 per month and maintenance. 
Home for Jewish Children, Canterbury 
Street, Boston, Mass. 

WAR WORK OPPORTUNITIES. 
Wanted — Four Protective Officers : have 
police power : largely night work, in or near 
New York City. Thirty to forty-five years 
of age. Experience with delinquent girls de- 
sirable. Salary $100 a month. Also volun- 
teers desired who will give two evenings 
a week to this work. Apply to National 
Social Workers' Exchange, 130 East 22d 
Street, New York City. 



jeopardy. The Survey is in receipt of a 
communication from R. W. Husband, sec- 
retary of the New Hampshire Committee on 
Public Safety, calling our attention to the 
fact that the action taken by New Hampshire 
was not directed specifically at the child 
labor law, but at "the labor laws of the 
state," and declaring further that no dis- 
pensation suspending these laws has been 
granted to any manufacturer and none will 
be granted "except in case of extreme neces- 
sity." The legislature of 1917 actually re- 
duced by one hour the number of hours per 
week that women or minors under eighteen 
years of age could work. 

DR. KRISTINE MANN has been placed 
in charge of a newly created health de- 
partment in the women's division of the In- 
dustrial Service Section of the Ordnance De- 
partment of the United States army. The 
purpose of this department is to look after 
the health of women employed in the ar- 
senals and other ordnance plants. Dr. Mann 
has been director of the health clinic for 
industrial women in New York city and 
lecturer on hygiene at Smith College. 



GIRLS' nursing matron desires position 
child-caring institution. Progressive exec- 
utive, understands housekeeping, balanced 
ration, infants' care. Address 2756 Survey. 

MAN, 34, married. Present employed, 
Child Welfare work. Experienced in fam- 
ily courts, medical social service., child pro- 
tective case work. Position desired 
executive capacity. Address 2757 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE — Jewish young man, Uni- 
versity and Philanthropy school graduate, 
experienced in reliei, research and Ameri- 
canization work, seeks position as head of 
philanthropic organization. Well qualified 
and highly recommended. Ready May 15. 
Address 2758 Survey. 



CULTURED woman seeks position as 
agricultural director. Address 2759 Survey. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



CRIMINAL SLANG. Complete underworld language dic- 
tionary. Paper. 30 pp. 2fi cents, stamps or silver. Sent, 
postpaid, receipt of price. Underworld Publishing Co.. 
ISO Washington St.. Boston, Mass. 



TO RENT — Front room near Columbia 
University; business or professional woman 
preferred. $7 weekly. Sprague, 434 West 
120 street, New York. 

WHEATLESS-MEATLESS MEALS 

84 menus, 124 recipea, directions, lood valure, substitutes, timei? simzestlona, eto. 
lOo. or FREE for two namts interested in Damestfc -ciencc. 

Am. School of Home Economics, 519 W. 69th St., Chicago, II 



PERIODICALS 



Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

American Physical Education Review; nine issues 
(October to June) ; $3; official organ for the Amer- 
ican Physical Education Association. Original 
articles of scientific and practical value, news 
notes, bibliographies and book reviews. Amer- 
ican Physical Education Association, 93 West- 
ford Avenue, Springfield, Mass. 

The Child Labor Bulletin; quarterly; $2 a year; 
National Child Labor Committee, New York. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; published 
by The National Committee for Mental Hy- 
giene. 50 Union Square, New York. 

The Negro Year Book; published under the aus- 
pices of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.; an 
annual; 35c. postpaid; permanent record of cur- 
rent events. An encyclopedia of 450 pages of 
historical and sociological facts relating to the 
Negro. General and special bibliographies; full 
index. 

Public Health Nurse; quarterly; $1 a year; na- 
tional organ for Public Health Nursing, 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. 

Scientific Temperance Journal; quarterly ; 64 pages; 
$1 per year; a magazine for serious students of 
alcohol question; practical articles; educational 
methods; world temperance progress notes; re- 
views. Free to members. Scientific Temper- 
ance Federation, 36 Bromfield St., Boston. 

Southern Workman, illustrated monthly; $1 for 
700 pages on race relations here and abroad; 
Hampton Institute, Va. Sample copy free. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Work With Boys; 10 times a year; $1.50. How to 
reach the working boy and his younger brother 
through boys' clubs, etc. William McCormick, 
publisher, Reading, Pa. 



CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly insertions, 
copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Order pamphlets from publishers. 

Consumers' Co-operation During the War. Al- 
bert Sonnicbsen. 5 cents. Co-operative League 
of America, 2 West 13 St., New York. 

Girls and Khaki. Winthrop D. Lane. Reprinted 
from the Survey. 10 cts. Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Helping Hoover. A Business Man's Synopsis of 
Food Values, Food Combinations and Simplified 
Dietetics. Free on request from Richard Mayer, 
200 Summer St., Boston. 

Immigration Literature distributed by National 
Liberal Immigration League, P. O. Box 1261, 
New York. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

You Should Know About Credit Unions. A 
manual furnished gratis upon request. Massa- 
chusetts Credit Union Association, 78 Devon- 
shire Street, Boston. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



SOCIAL worker desires position as in- 
vestigator or visitor, long experience in 
child placing. Address 2748 Survey. 



YOUNG MAN, Social Settlement Work- 
er with boys, desires position along same 
lines. Experience. Best references. Ad- 
dress 2755 Survey. 

SOCIAL worker, teacher of Montes- 
sori Method and Manual Training, desires 
situation. Emma Y. Elliott, East Green- 
wich, R. I. 



"Why the Nations Rage" 

iuJ other Unitarian publications sent free. Addreti FIRST 
TUTtCH. Cor. Marlborough and Berkeley 8U. , Beaton. Man 



VICTORIAN ORDER OF NURSES: 

Post-Graduate course in District Nursing, 
four months, is given at the four training 
centres of the Order at Ottawa, Montreal, 
Toronto and Vancouver. Salary during the 
course and good openings after successful 
terminations. For full information apply to 
the Chief Superintendent, 578 Somerset St., 
Ottawa. 



COMING MEETINGS 



(.Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month.) 

American Physical Education Association. 
Annual convention Philadelphia, April 10-13. 
A preconvention schedule of visitation of schools 
and colleges has been arranged for April 8, 9 
and 10, 93 Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 

Charities and Corrections, Tennessee State 
Conference. Memphis, May 12, 13, 14. Sec'y, 
Mary Russell, Associated Charities, Memphis. 

Public Health Nursing, National Organiza- 
tion for. Hotel Hollenden, Cleveland, May 
6-11. Sec'y, Ella Phillips Crandall, 156 Fifth 
avenue, New York city. 



ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



SoRVBY 




Associates 
Inc. 



KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you want to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply) and 
pamphlets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



'IT 



WARTIME SERF ICE 
T OW the Survey can serve" 

was the subject of an infor- 
mal conference held early in the war, 
in our library, to which we asked the 
executives of perhaps twenty national 
social service organizations. The con- 
ference was a unit in feeling that as a 
link between organized efforts, as a 
means for letting people throughout 
the country know promptly of needs 
and national programs — how, when 
and where they can count locally — the 
Survey was at the threshold of an 
opportunity for service such as has 
seldom come to an educational enter- 
prise. 

The development of this directory is 
one of several steps in carrying out 
this commission. The executives of 
these organizations will answer ques- 
tions or offer counsel to individuals 
and local organizations in adjusting 
their work to emergent wartime de- 
mands. 



Listings $3 a month for card of five lines (in- 
cluding one listing in SUBJECT INDEX by full 
name and three by initials), fifty cents a month 
for each additional line. No contracts for less 
than three months. Additional charge of $1 for 
each change of copy during three-month period. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Animals. Amer. Humane Education Soc. 
Birth Registration, Aaspim. 
Blindness, Ncpb. 
Cancer, Ascc. 
Charities, Ncsw. 



CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Seo. 

CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Child Welf. Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept of Child Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Praa. 

CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 
Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Bureau of Municipal Research 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Commission Government, Sbo. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 
Correction, Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 

COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca. 
County Ywca. 

Credit Unions, Mass. Credit Union Assn. 

Crime Sa. 

Cripples, Red Cross Inst, for Crippled and 

Disabled Men. 
Disfranchisement, Naacp. 



EDUCATION 

Amer. Humane Education Soc. 
Amer. Physical Education Assn. 
Cooperative League of America. 
Natl. Board of the Ywca. 
Public Ownership League of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 
Survey Associates, Ed. Dept, Hi. 

Efficiency Work. Bmr. 

Electoral Reform, Ti, Aprl. 

Employment. Natl. Social Workers' Exchange 

Eugenics, Er. 

Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb. 

Feeblemindedness. Ncmh. 



FOUNDATIONS 

Russell Sage Foundation. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Amer. Red Cross. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl. Ore. for Public Health Nursing. 

Ncsw, Ncwa. 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
Home Economics, Ahea. 
Home Work, Nclc. 
Hospitals, Naspt. 
Humane Education. Ahes. 
Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca, Apea. 

IMMIGRATION 

Im. Aid, Council of Jewish Worn. 
International Institute for Foreign-born Women 

of the Ywca. 
Industrial Education, Rcicdm. 

INDUSTRY 
Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 
Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 
Natl. Child Labor Com. 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 
c, "-vey Associates, Ind. Dept. 
Ncsw, Ncwa, Nlws. 

Insanity, Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Anti-Imperialist League. 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 

Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
f.sbor Laws. Aai.l., Nclc. 
Legislative Reform, Atrl. 



LIBRARIES 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 

Mental Hygiene, Cpfm, Ncmh. 

Mountain Whites, Rsf. 

Municipal Government, Aprl, Nfs. 

Negro Training, Hi, Ti. 

Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 

Nursing, Apha, Nophn. 

Open Air Schools, Naspt. 

Peace, Ail. 

Peonage, Naacp. 

Playgrounds, Praa. 

Physical Training, Apea, Praa. 

Prostitution. Asha. 

Protection Women Workers. Ntas. 

Public Health, Nophn. 



RACE PROBLEMS 
Er, Ail. 

Hampton Institute. 
Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop 
Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 
Tuskegee Institute. 

Reconstruction, Ncsw. 



RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 
Nbywca, Nwwcymca, Apea. 



REMEDIAL LOANS 
Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans. Mcva. 

Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Savings, Mcua. 
Self-Government, Nlww, Ail. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Nat. Fed. of Settlements. 

Sex Education, Asha. 
Schools. Ahea. Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Social Hygiene, Asha. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca. 
Nwwcymca, Pola. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work 
Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 
Bureau of Municipal Research. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 
Ncmh, Praa, Ncwa. 

Thrift, Mcua. 

TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers Aid Society. 
Iacjw. 

Tuberculosis Naspt. 

Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 

Unemployment, Aall. 

WAR RELIEF 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of Ywca 
Nwwcymca, Rcicdu. 

WOMEN 
Amer. Home Economics Assn. 
Natl. Board of the Y. W. C. A. 
Natl. League for Woman's Service . 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Work for Soldiers, Natl. War Work Counci' 

Y M C. Assns. of U. S. 
Working Girls. Iactw, Ntas, Nlww. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St.. 
New York. For national employment service for 
mobilizing and demobilizing war workers: main- 
taining labor standards; workmen's compensation: 
health insurance; efficient law enforcement. 



AMERICAN ASSN. FOR STUDY AND PEE 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 
B. Knipp, exec, sec'v; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature. Exhibits. Urges prenatal in- 
struction; adequate obstetrical care; birth registra- 
tion; maternal nursing: in fant welfare consultations 



[ADVERTISEMENT 



3'6 



S 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 

— Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y, Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
tions in home, school, institution and community. 
Publishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN HUMANE EDUCATION SOCIETY 

—Founded by Geo. T. Angell. To promote kindness 
to animals through schools, press, and societies for 
young and old. Organ, Our Dumb Animals. Free 
literature. 180 Longwood Ave., Boston. 

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION— William Burdick, M.D., pres., McCoy 
Hall, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Persis B. McCurdy, 
acting sec'y, 93 Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 
Object to awaken a wider and more intelligent 
interest in physical education. Annual member- 
ship fee $3 includes magazine. 

AMERICAN PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TION LEAGUE — C. G. Hoag, sec'y; 802 Franklin 
Bank Building, Philadelphia. Advocates a rational 
and fundamental reform in electing representatives. 
Literature free. Membership $1. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION— William F. Snow, M.D., gen. sec'y; 
105 W. 40 St., New York. For the repression 

of prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotion of sound sex education; pam- 
phlets upon request; membership $5; sustaining 
$10. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 

OF CANCER— Miss Marion H. Mapelsden, acting 
exec, sec'y; 25 W. 45 St., New York. To dissemi- 
nate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free on 
request. Annual membership dues, $3. 

ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE— Founded Nov. 
19, 1898. Moorfield Storey, pres. (first pres., 
George S. Boutwell); David Greene Haskins, Jr., 
treas., 10 Tremont St., Boston; Erving Winslow, 
sec'y. Object: To protest and agitate against ex- 
tension of sovereignty over peoples, without their 
own consent. 

BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH— 261 

Broadway, New York. Has a department of field 
work to make surveys of governments and institu- 
tions anywhere at cost. Efficiency systems in- 
stalled. Twelve years' experience. Estimates fur- 
nished. 

COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St., New York. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice concerning all phases of 
consumers' cooperation. Annual membership, $1, 
includes monthly, Cooperative Consumer. 

IMMIGRANT AID, COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL)— Headquarters, 242 East 
Broadway, New York. Helen Winkler, ch'n. 
Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. Has international system of safeguarding. 
Conducts National Americanization program. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic pos- 
sibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
gen'l sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service; 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Rev 
Clyde F. Armitage, asso. sec'y; Herbert M. 
Shenton, special sec'y; Miss Grace M. Sims, 
office sec'y. 

Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 

Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 
Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life; Rev. 
Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Campaign for the Conservation of Human Life; 
Charles Stelzle, sec'y. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal- 
elect; G. P. Phenix, viceprin.; F. K. Rogers, 
treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State 
nor a Government school. Free illus. literature. 



MASSACHUSETTS CREDIT UNION ASSOCIA- 
TION — J. C. Bills, Jr., managing dir.; 78 
Devonshire St., Boston. Gives information con- 
cerning credit unions, and assists in their organ- 
ization and development. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Moor- 
field Storey, pres.; John R. Shillady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave.. New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American citizen- 
ship. Furnishes information regarding race dis- 
crimination, lynching, etc. Membership, 10,000. 
with 100 branches. Membership, $1 upwards. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY 
AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS — 
( harles ]. Hatfield, M.D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph.D., ass't sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New 
York. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational methods. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOM- 
EN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexing- 
ton Ave., New York. To advance physical, social, 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county centers; 
physical education; camps; rest-rooms, lunch-rooms 
and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; 
Bible study; secretarial training school; foreign 
work; war work councils. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'yf 105 East 22 St., New 
York, 35 state branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration: education: delinquency: health; recrea- 
tion; children's codes. Publishes quarterly Child 
Labor Bulletin. Photographs, slides and exhibits. 



NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION 
— Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Cooperates with hundreds of social 
agencies. Headquarters for child welfare mate- 
rials, exhibits, literature, etc. Inquiries invited. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq., 
New York. Pamphlets on mental hygiene, mental 
disorders, feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, 
criminology, war neuroses and re-education, social 
service, backward children, surveys, state societies. 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director; Gordon L. Berry, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22 St., 
New York. Objects: To furnish information, ex- 
hibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish literature 
of movement — samples free, quantities at cost. In- 
cludes New York State Committee. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 

— Robert A. Woods, pres., Boston; William T. 
Cross, gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago. 
General organization to discuss principles of hu- 
manitarian effort and increase efficiency of agencies. 
Publishes proceedings annual meetings, monthly 
bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information bureau. Mem- 
bership, $3. 45th annual meeting Kansas City, 
May 15-22, 1918. Main divisions and chairmen: 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Mrs. Jessie D. 

Hodder. 
Health. 
Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 

Johnstone. 
The Family, Gertrude Vaile. 
Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 

Florence Kelley. 
The Local Community, Charles C. Cooper. 
Mental Hygiene, Frankwood E. Williams, M.D. 
Organization of Social Forces, Allen T. Burns. 
Social Problems of the War and Reconstruction, 

Prof. George H. Mead. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
— Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state, and na- 
tion, for meeting the fundamental problems dis- 
closed by settlement work; seeks the higher and 
more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR WOMAN'S SERVICE 

— Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'n; 257 Madison Ave., 
New York. To mobilize and train the volunteer 
woman power of the country for specific emer- 
gency service; supplemental to the Red Cross; co- 
operating with government agencies. 



NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS— 
Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New York. 
Evening clubs for girls; recreation and instruction 
in self-governing and supporting groups for girls 
of working age. Magazine, The Club Worker, 
monthly, 30 cents a year. 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING — Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Object: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of technique; 
to maintain a central bureau »f informati«». Bul- 
letins sent to members. 



NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 

—Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22 St., 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations with 
trained workers. 



NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil- 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y; rooms 20-21, 465 Lexington Ave., 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of travel- 
ers, especially women and girls. Non-sectarian. 



NATIONAL WAR WORK COUNCIL OF THE 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS 
OF THE UNITED STATES— 347 Madison Ave., 
New York. To promote the physical, social, in- 
tellectual, moral and spiritual interests of men in 
uniform. Wm. Sloane, ch'n; Cleveland H. Dodge, 
treas.; John R. Mott, gen. sec'y. 



NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703J, Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ, Life and Labor. 



PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSN. OF 
&MERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 Madison Ave., 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with War 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 



PUBLIC OWNERSHIP LEAGUE OF AMERICA 

— Organized to secure the public ownership and 
operation of railroads and other public utili- 
ties and natural resources. Inquiries solicited. 
Address Albert M. Todd, pres., Westory Building, 
14th and F Sts., Washington, D. C. 



RED CROSS INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND 
DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir.; 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Makes studies of re-education 
for disabled soldiers and industrial cripples. Pub- 
lishes reports on reconstruction work at home and 
abroad, and carries on propaganda to inculcate 
a sound attitude on the part of the public toward 
the physically handicapped. 



RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
dir.; 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys 
and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, Southern 
Highland Division. 



SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Childs, sec'y; 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. Clearing house for in- 
formation on short ballot, commission gov't, city 
manager plan, county gov't. Pamphlets free. 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.— Robert W. de 
Forest, pres.; Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y; publishers 
of the Survey; Paul U. Kellogg, editor; Edward 
T. Devine, Graham Taylor, Jane Addams, associate 
editors; departments: Civics, Graham R. Taylor; 
Industry, John A. Fitch; Health, Alice Hamilton, 
M.D., Gertrude Seymour; Education, Crime, Win- 
throp D. Lane; Foreign Service, Brum Lasker, 
112 East 19 St., New York. 



TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— A« institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment in race 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; fur- 
nishes information on all phases of the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warrea Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, AJa. 



CHARLES FRANCIS PRESS, NEW YORK 



Service to the Nation 
Through Social Work 



©HE NEW YORK SCHOOL Ls PHILAN- 
THROPY offers a six weeks Summer School, 
beginning July 8th, designed to familiarize work- 
ers — actual and prospective- -with the essentials 
of effective social service. The curriculum is in no sense 
popular, but represents the highest standard of training 
which can at present be formulated in this field concen- 
trated into a brief period of time. 

The Summer School should be of especial value to college seniors, 
students in medical, theological and other professional schools, and those 
choosing a profession ; teachers, clergymen and nurses desiring to study 
the social implications of their professional work ; and social workers 
who wish to reinforce their equipment for the emergency tasks of the war. 

The Curriculum: 

The Method of Social Case Work - - - - Miss Margaret Leal 

Child Welfare ----------- Mr. Henry W. Thurston 

Industrial Conditions -------- Mr. John A. Fitch 

Community Organization ------- Mr. Walter W. Pettit 

Supervision of Play — Games, Story-telling, etc. - Miss Madeline L. Stevens 
Crime and Punishment ------- Mr. George W. Kirchwey 

Social Psycho-Pathology ------- Dr. Bernard Glueck 

Excursions ------------ Mrs. Mary Grace Worthington 

Public Administration -------- Mr. Charles A. Beard 

Field Work ------------ Mrs. Mary Grace Worthington 

Six JVeeks — July 8 to August 16 

For detailed announcement, application blank and other information, address 

The New York School of Philanthropy 

Porter R. Lee, Director 
105 East Twenty-second Street, New York City. 



rv 




$ 



NOTICE TO READER. 
When you finish reading this magazine, 
place a one-cent stamp on this notice, 
mail the magazine, and it will be placed 
in the hands of our soldiers or sailors 
destined to proceed overseas. 

NO WRAPPING— NO ADDRESS. 



A. S. Burleson, Postmaster General. 



SUT&&7- 




ENGLISH WOMEN HELPING TO WIN THE WAR 

For two years this poster has met the eye everywhere in England — from billboards, in the underground railways, from fences. 
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for women in this country. It is organised for states, districts and units by the Woman's Land .-Iriny of America, 32 Fifth 

Avenue, New York City 



Massachusetts Ratifies 

By Robert A. Woods 



Organizing the Labor Market 

By William M. Leiserson 



April 20, 1918 



Price 10 Cents 



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Massachusetts Ratifies 

By Robert A. fVoods 

SOUTH END HOUSE, BOSTON, CHAIRMAN STATE COUNCIL FOR NATIONAL PROHIBITION" 



NOT a few of the well-informed were satisfied that 
Massachusetts would oppose the prohibition 
amendment. The two United States senators 
were confident last June in voting against it that 
they were representing their constituency. When the matter 
came before the national house in December, there were some 
clear evidences of a rising favorable sentiment in the state 
but not enough to secure a majority in the congressional dele- 
gation. It is an interesting fact that up to the moment when 
the legislature had acted on the amendment the officers of the 
National Anti-Saloon League could not be convinced that 
Massachusetts was going to ratify. It may be said in the 
beginning that the very solidity of this judgment as held by 
many different persons from various points of view was one 
of the causes leading to the favorable action of the legislature. 
It was set before the people of the state as unthinkable that 
the great tradition of moral leadership on the part of the old 
Commonwealth in the past should be negatived and it be 
simply coerced by the South and West into the new order of 
things. 

However, observers who had not carefully followed the 
tendency of the state with regard to the liquor question were 
radically misinformed. The essence of their mistake lay in 
the belief that the local option system, good as far as it went, 
was accepted by the state as a definite alternative to any really 
thorough-going proposal for the elimination of the liquor busi- 
ness. As a matter of fact, the last ten years has brought about 
on the one hand an effective statewide organization of work 
for no-license in the towns and smaller cities, and on the 
other hand, a persistent, continuous movement for bringing 
the total no-license sentiment of the state to bear upon the 
legislature for further progressive temperance legislation. The 
two-fold object in this endeavor was to protect the no-license 
communities in an increasing degree from illicit selling and 
from the evils of drunkenness foisted upon them by the nearby 
license cities, and to reduce the harm done by the sale of 
liquor in license territory. 

This tendency got its momentum from an insistent emphasis 
upon the problem of drunkenness. The work of the Foxboro, 
now Norfolk, State Hospital for Inebriates, with its out- 
patient service covering the entire state, has been distinctly 

The Survey, April 20, 1918. Volume 40, 



educational in this respect. It was this point of view that 
was strongly expressed in the so-called bar and bottle bill, 
sometimes called the social workers' temperance bill, which 
was specifically directed at the constant increase in the amount 
of drunkenness produced by the business of the saloons. It 
took four years of hard fighting to place this bill on the sta- 
tutes, but all this effort much more than justified itself by the 
results gained in organizing the state for the support of ag- 
gressive temperance legislation. The tangible results gained 
by the law were the blotting out of 250 saloons, the elimina- 
tion from all the remaining saloons of the sale of bottled 
whiskey and of the sale of beer by the pitcher to women coming 
in by the back door, the disappearance of the worst grade of 
saloons and the placing of the business as a whole in more 
responsible hands. 

This four years' campaign developed knowledge and ex- 
perience as to the intricate detail of the liquor business in 
its internal operation, in its community relations and its bear- 
ing upon politics. It showed how most of the legislative con- 
stituencies in the state could be effectively organized, and it 
developed a method by which, when public sentiment had 
gathered a strong and broad force, responsible political leader- 
ship could be induced to brush aside what remained of under- 
standings created between the liquor interests and political 
elements of the baser sort. 

This legislative success was followed by an effort to pre- 
vent the opening of saloons until eight o'clock in the morning. 
The idea was that in this way the entire labor force would 
reach its work without running the gamut of the open bar. 
This undertaking was not successful, but later proposals to 
protect the no-license communities from deliveries by d'-alers 
or expressmen were placed upon the statute book. These 
and other less important measures were strongly pushed as 
the result of an agreement among the various temperance 
organizations to concentrate all their forces on one thing at 
a time. The discipline thus secured has done much to elimi- 
nate the intemperance so often shown by temperance advo- 
cates — a result strikingly manifest in the ratification campaign. 

Successful or not, each stage in this continuous program has 

registered gain in the growth of public sentiment, and has 

developed a coherent and logical sense and method through 

No. 3. 112 East 19 street, New York city 59 



60 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 191 



which steadily increasing momentum has come about. The 
important watchword in legislation in Massachusetts has come 
to be, "It is all part of a system." This sense for intelligent 
and deliberate organization of thought and purpose in meeting 
the liquor problem has gradually taken possession of a great 
proportion of the churches of the state ; and, in a quiet but 
pervasive way, it has been profoundly re-enforced by the atti- 
tude of the social worker. The Associated Charities of Bos- 
ton has made an important contribution through its committee 
on the alcohol problem, which was formed precisely after the 
analogy of the attack upon tuberculosis as originally organized 
by the New York Charity Organization Society. It was in 
this connection that Elizabeth Tilton, so well known to Sur- 
vey readers, began her intelligent and spirited work which has 
been continued effectively down to the present. The general 
tendency thus represented has had a significant recent develop- 
ment, as a contribution to the campaign for ratification, in a 
pamphlet issued by the League for Preventive Work, gather- 
ing up the testimony of many of our best social agencies as to 
the part which alcoholism plays in creating their problems. 

The other important direction in which social workers have 
tendered a specific and characteristic service has been in their 
following up of vice conditions. It was the result of thorough- 
going inquiries under public and private auspices that led to 
the pressure on the part of the social workers for the appoint- 
ment of one of their number to the Boston Licensing Board, 
with the result that for two years and a half there was a 
steadily increasing tendency in the policy of that board toward 
the elimination of prostitution and the negotiations preliminary 
to it from licensed cafes and hotels, and also for systematic 
interference with the sale of liquor to men already beginning 
to be intoxicated. The overthrow of this board through 
influence with the state administration on the part of the 
liquor interests was a grievous disappointment, but the power- 
ful widespread revulsion of feeling thus brought about through 
the length and breadth of the state represented perhaps the 
most important single gain in the way of preparing for the 
conclusive action which has now come about. 

The next chapter in the story has to do with Billy Sunday 
and the campaign for no-license in Boston. Whatever view 
one may have about Billy Sunday in general it cannot be 
doubted that his "booze sermon" is a remarkably effective pro- 
duction. Nor is there any question that his continual attacks 
upon the liquor business, given much attention by all the news- 
papers for weeks in succession, had a profound psychological 
effect upon the whole population of eastern Massachusetts. 
The no-license campaign was not undertaken witli any defi- 
nite hope that Boston would go dry, though this was con- 
sidered not impossible on account of a considerable shift in 
the vote against the liquor interests the year before, resulting 
from some of the political trades that went with the over- 
throw of the previous licensing board. Boston remained in 
the license column by a large majority ; but, as one of the 
police captains pointed out to his friends in the liquor business, 
that campaign showed that a solid third of the voters of Bos- 
ton were so irrevocably against the sale of liquor that they 
were for no-license in spite of all the serious practical obstacles 
which confronted them in a city like Boston. It is sufficient 
to say that a most impressive front was created of permanent, 
conservative citizens who declared that in their judgment, 
even under Boston conditions, the time was ripe for the ending 
of the license system. 

Soon after the United States entered the war. with the 
looming of the food problem, the proposal of war prohibition 
met quick response from many unexpected sources. It was 



viewed in the light of an obvious appeal to patriotism, and 
there is no question that if Massachusetts could have had its 
way war prohibition would have been in force by midsummer. 
In fact, it was the intense and determined attitude upon this 
phase of the question that prepared the state so largely for 
the action of the national Senate in supporting by a two-third 
vote the constitutional amendment in favor of complete and 
final prohibition. It is a significant fact that an attorney of 
high standing who prepared the list of signers in opposition 
to no-license for Boston became an advocate of war prohibi- 
tion and was thus naturally borne forward into support of 
the national amendment. He was one of many practical, con- 
servative citizens who with the past failures of Maine in view 
would never have supported state prohibition, who would not 
vote for no-license in the larger cities of the state, but have 
come to recognize clearly the feasibility of prohibition applied 
by and for the nation at large. 

Early in the summer there was organized a Council for Na- 
tional Prohibition affiliated with the Anti-Saloon League but 
more broadly representative than that organization. In par- 
ticular, the council w r as brought responsibly into touch with 
men representing many of the large business interests of the 
state. The preliminary work of the council had to do with 
endeavoring to secure the support of congressmen for the na- 
tional amendment, an effort which resulted in a creditable 
showing — when the vote came in the national house. 

As soon as the question was referred to the legislatures, 
a force of some thirty experienced people was organized, many 
of them being placed at different points throughout the state 
so as to watch the situation closely in every legislative con- 
stituency and to bring about solid and continuous action among 
all available local forces. There has probably never been so 
detailed and so exhaustive an undertaking in connection with 
any piece of social legislation in Massachusetts. The response 
of the churches has been remarkable in its effectiveness. Very 
impressive has been the definite, intelligent work undertaken 
by thousands of individuals everywhere throughout the state 
acting under a general sense of the situation, both with and 
without immediate guidance. Aside from all that has been 
said at the regular church services, hundreds of special meet- 
ings have been held throughout the state. 

In this connection a unique and telling influence has been 
a joint debate in which Messrs. Lawton and Weyand of the 
staff have threshed out the arguments pro and con for na- 
tional prohibition, setting them forth with dramatic and hu- 
morous pungency, and with an outcome not unfavorable to 
the great end. This dialogue was in such demand that it was 
scheduled nightly for many weeks in succession. One Sunday 
it was given in connection with regular morning, afternoon 
and evening services at different churches. In each case a 
collection was taken up for the expenses of the campaign. On 
a week-day evening in the south end of Boston when the 
auditors numbering about 200 were principally lodging house- 
keepers and women in domestic service, at the close of the 
debate the sum of $417 was pledged. Thus, while the cam- 
paign had the support of good-sized and even large donations 
from business men, at least a third of the amount necessary 
was contributed in small sums by the rank and hie of the 
people. 

The amendment was strongly urged by physicians. At the 
first hearing, after a ten days' canvass, a petition was pre- 
sented in favor of national prohibition signed by 650 doctors 
from 125 cities and towns. An impressive number of college 
faculty members, with Harvard strongly represented, 1 
tered themselves favorably. The lawyers very largelj held 




THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 191 

^ fit* V 



61 




IS JOHN BARLEYCORN NEAR THE END OF HIS TRAIL? 

Yes, answers Murphy in the San Francisco Call-Post. The other cartoon is issued by the publicity department of the 
National Association of Distillers and Wholesale Dealers, which says that "strong drink is necessary for the boys who go 
to France and fight for liberty." Marr Murray in his book, Drink and the War, shows by quotations from the highest 
military authorities that troops who have no liquor hit harder, shoot straighter, stand more work and recover more quickly 

from wounds than their drinking comrades. 



aloof. A small fraction of the profession actively opposed the 
amendment on the ground that it included subject matter not 
proper for the constitution and that it represented a surrender 
of state rights. In fact the leading argument for the liquor 
interests made by one of the most honored attorneys of the 
state might perfectly well have been an oration by John C. 
Calhoun sixty or seventy years ago. The legal group in 
active opposition was, however, fully balanced by attorneys and 
law-school professors who saw the whole matter in a different 
perspective. 

Organized labor was definitely opposed, but it was not dif- 
ficult to perceive in the expression of its opposition a degree 
of insecurity and ineffectualness that registered an underlying 
change of sentiment which, taking the country over, is coming 
about within their ranks. Indeed, one of the distinctive fea- 
tures of the campaign was the fiery utterances of Ignatius 
McNulty, of the building trades council, in his unqualified 
attack upon the liquor interests. 

The endless complications of the campaign were kept 
strongly and steadily in hand by Arthur J. Davis, who entered 
the services of the state Anti-Saloon League eight years ago 
and ere long became its executive secretary. Much in con- 
ference with him were Robert N. Turner, the leader in the 
bar and bottle fight, who secured a ten to one vote in favor 
of ratification among the 300 progressive manufacturers in the 
Allied Industries, of which he is now secretary, and the present 
writer who has informally represented the interest of social 
workers throughout this general course of events. 

At the very beginning of the struggle in the legislature the 
issue was effectively clouded by the introduction of the so- 
called referendum. It seemed most plausible, in a state so 
deeply pledged to local option and at present undergoing a 
constitutional change that will undoubtedly make the refer- 
endum one of its permanent institutions, that this matter 



should be laid before the general electorate. It appeared at 
once, however, that this was not a referendum in any real 
sense. The national constitution prescribes that the legisla- 
tors and they alone shall be the means through which amend- 
ments to it shall be ratified. The so-called referendum could 
be at best only a straw vote. Even as such, a legislator could 
go by the phase of its result which pleased him. It soon ap- 
peared that this proposal was regarded as a fraud by the lead- 
ing advocates of the referendum policy before the state con- 
stitutional convention. The original proponent of the public 
opinion law also disavowed this resolve as a fair or sound 
measure for testing public sentiment. When it appeared that 
the proposal was being brought forward with mechanical regu- 
larity in all the other states, and as the main action of the 
liquor interests was being directed not against the amendment 
but in favor of the referendum, it became quite clear that this 
device was their chosen instrument throughout the country, 
through which the amendment might be delayed, side-tracked 
and possibly carried behind the seven-year time limit which, 
whether with or without proper authority, had been set by 
congress for the ratification process. 

Members of the legislature who at first in some cases were 
honestly drawn to the idea of securing a popular vote, and in 
many more cases saw an easy opportunity for avoiding the 
issue, began to hear strong expressions from their constituency 
against the so-called referendum as being fully identified with 
the liquor interests. The result was that by throwing the 
whole energy of the campaign, for the time being, into the 
characterization of the referendum in the light of the real 
motive behind it, it was pretty effectively disposed of. By the 
time the hearings on the referendum and the main issue — at- 
tended in each case by great throngs of people from all parts 
of the state — had been concluded, there was not much left of 
this at first quite baffling piece of strategy. 



62 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 191 



Meanwhile the growing volume of the public demand, or- 
ganized and expressed by individual constituencies, had become 
so clear and broad that it was possible to lay before some of 
the most responsible political leaders of the state a situation 
that required their consideration as a capital issue. Aside from 
the inherent merits of the subject matter, and of the surging 
moral sentiment behind it — and one is glad to say that these 
considerations by no means failed of recognition — there was a 
question as to forcing the prohibition issue into the next state 
campaign where it could cause very serious embarrassment 
in many directions, particularly as it would mean bringing 
the resources and the methods of the national liquor organiza- 
tions into both local and general contests throughout the state. 
These considerations were effective in securing decisions that 
gave the final momentum to the cause of the national amend- 
ment. Apart from this phase it is altogether likely that rati- 
fication would have fallen short by several votes in the state 
senate, been delayed for another year, and brought about in 
the end only after efforts that must have been ten-times 
greater than those actually expended. 

It is a reassuring fact that some of the considerations 
broached by the reform forces as having important practical po- 
litical bearings were recognized by the political leaders as 
sound. It was contended that legislators supporting the amend- 
ment need not fear thereafter the power of the liquor interests, 
because ratification — so far as the legislature was concerned — 
would not only defeat but destroy the noxious power of the 
liquor interests in politics, so that they would not be able, after 
the vote for ratification, to gather together sufficient resources 
with which to seek revenge. Another such consideration was 
that national prohibition was certainly coming, that for the 
next two years the alignment in its favor would include the 



states which would have a strong front in the national coun- 
sels, and that Massachusetts must not deliberately out-class 
itself in the midst of the present epochal situation. 

The final vote of 145 to 91 in the house and 27 to 12 
in the senate, while of course made more impressive by those 
who climbed into the "band wagon," indicates the great trend 
of sentiment in Massachusetts and suggests the tendency that 
must be at work in the other great industrial states. There is 
not much doubt that a popular vote would have registered a 
majority in favor of the national amendment considerably 
greater than the normal no-license majority of 10,000 for the 
state. The more significant fact, in the long run, is that those 
who favor the amendment were strongly in favor of it, while 
no great proportion of those opposed were or are in a recalci- 
trant state of mind with. regard to it. There can be no question 
that when national prohibition comes, the people of Massa- 
chusetts, with negligible exceptions, will adapt themselves to 
it as calmly as morning follows night. 

One of the strongest incitements in the minds of many who 
had a share in securing the result — including members of the 
legislature who did their disinterested and effectual part, and 
many sincerely interested newspaper men — was in the consid- 
eration that Massachusetts might give the pivotal turn to the 
action of the northeastern section of the country upon the 
amendment. As the first of the great industrial and cosmopoli- 
tan states to support national prohibition, and that unhesita- 
tingly, it must give powerful assurance that the necessary 
quota of license states will soon be made up. Certainly, a long 
and effective step has been taken in what is perhaps the most 
far-reaching movement for economic and moral well-being 
ever carried through by the deliberate action of a free 
people. 



The Red Cross at La Courneuve 

A Minor Emergency Which Preceded the Greater One Created 

by the German Drive 

By Mary Ross 



TWENTY minutes after the explosion of a munitions 
factory at La Courneuve, outside Paris, had splin- 
tered plate glass windows in the center of the city 
and convinced the more timid that a daytime raid 
of the German planes had begun, American Red Cross doc- 
tors and nurses were at work in a dispensary close to the 
scene of the disaster. Red Cross officials were the first to 
arrive, and were organizing a search of the wrecked houses. 
Before nightfall, eighty more beds had been set up and made 
in a hotel which the Red Cross was equipping for persons 
made homeless by air raids; and seventy-seven persons, the 
majority of them children, were fed and housed there. The 
next night 163 were sheltered. 

"We shall never forget the admirable — I was about to say 
the patriotic — devotion of the American Red Cross in caring 
for the wounded at La Courneuve," wrote Alfred Capus of 
the French Academy in the next day's Figaro. Our new 
Allies again have shown the spirit of fraternity — the spirit 
which unites France and the United States. In such a fra- 
ternity there is something new and something strong — a 
common protestation against the people which has broken the 
pact of civilization." 



"We knew you would come," said the mayor of one of the 
suburbs which suffered the most, when Homer Folks, director 
of the Department of Civil Affairs, Edward T. Devine, who 
was in charge of emergency relief work at the time of the 
San Francisco earthquake and the Dayton flood and now is 
chief of the Bureau of Refugees and Relief, and Margaret 
Curtis, associate chief, called to offer aid the afternoon of 
the explosion. "We always expect America to be first." Other 
similar tributes came from press and officials alike, from the 
President of the French Republic down to the Paris policemen. 

To the Red Cross personnel who dressed the wounds of 
the injured on the spot, or transported food or scrubbed floors 
and made beds (a volunteer corps of stenographers and chauf- 
feurs did emergency duty quite unconnected with their ordi- 
nary occupations) French recognition of the spirit of this as 
of other Red Cross work was satisfying. To have had the 
opportunity and ability to prove American readiness to cope 
with an emergency and deserve this recognition, was even 
more satisfying. La Courneuve gave the organization a 
chance to demonstrate on a small scale the general kind of 
work which is going on more slowly and less dramatically 
in a large way all over France. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 1918 



63 



When the first emergency work of carrying away the 
severely injured and dressing the wounds of the hundreds cut 
by flying glass was done — and done under conditions not dis- 
similar to those of a battlefield, since there was a constant 
hail of exploding shrapnel and grenades — the American Red 
Cross had a constructive program to offer. The mayor or his 
representative in each of the four wrecked villages was visited 
the afternoon of the explosion and the resources of the Red 
Cross — housing, food, clothing — were put at his disposal. It 
was by good luck that the use of the hotel for homeless victims 
of air raids had just been obtained — but it was hard work and 
good organization, not luck, that made it possible to get eighty 
beds and bedding from the warehouses, and make ready addi- 
tional shelter on a few hours' notice. Among the seventy- 
seven who arrived the first night was a family of eight chil- 
dren — the eldest ten years old — whose mother had been 
severely injured and taken away to a hospital — what hospital 
they did not know. 

Shelter is a difficult thing to obtain in Paris — where refu- 
gees and workers in the war industries have greatly increased 
the population while building is at a standstill, and the second 
night brought 163 homeless victims from La Courneuve to 
the hotel. Hotel meals had not been part of the hastily made 
plans of the Red Cross — but everyone was hungry and many 
were without money. A quick trip to restaurants in the 
neighborhood resulted in enough soup, and neighbors heard 
of the need and brought in plates of sausage, bread and other 
edibles from all sides. Other refugees from the wrecked 
suburbs had been housed by the authorities in the disused 
stables of a race track — and to them were sent tinned beef, 



chocolate, prunes, biscuits and marmalade, and condensed 
milk, at the request of the mayor. 

In proportion to the regular medical work of the Red Cross 
for civilians which each month reaches 5,000 children in one 
frontier department alone, and examines medically 500 or 600 
repatriate children each day at Evian, or to the work of the 
whole Department of Civil Affairs whose counted bene- 
ficiaries in a month now pass the hundred thousand mark — and 
whose uncounted beneficiaries would number many more if 
statistics for them were available — the work at La Courneuve 
was only a slight and passing affair. In its revelation of 
American spirit to the Parisians it meant as much as any 
American deed since the United States entered the war. 

"No reports, no statistics, no conferences, however exact 
and admirable they may be, will equal in effect the sight of 
the fast ambulances of the American Red Cross rushing to 
receive the dying, to care for the wounded, to carry away the 
survivors," wrote Jacques Bainville in the Temps three days 
after the explosion. "These things seen by all, greeted with 
eager welcome in the wrecked street, rumored to the four 
corners of Paris, were all the more moving because they rep- 
resented an entirely spontaneous act of human sympathy ; they 
cement, indeed, the union of two wills, two hopes, two beliefs, 
in the keen and sensitive spirit of the Parisians. The days to 
come will make it possible for our people to appreciate how 
much of bravery and genius has been put at the service of our 
cause by our Allies, as we have honored already the courage of 
their soldiers individually ; but no one in Paris will forget 
under what circumstances their capable aid first made itself 
seen and felt." 



The Service and Plight of the New 
York Health Department 



By Ira S. IVile, M. D. 



THE general principle of municipal economy always 
meets with favor. When economy involves results 
which may lead to the neglect of communal health 
. and welfare it may be regarded as false and meddle- 
some extravagance sugar-coated with the economy idea. This 
state of affairs now exists in connection with proposed altera- 
tions of the Health Department of the City of New York. 

Mayor Hylan has discovered that the charter of the city 
provides that there shall be two bureaus, one to be presided 
over by a sanitary superintendent, the other by a registrar of 
records. On the basis of this charter provision, Mayor Hylan 
has demanded that Health Commissioner Amster dismiss the 
directors of all other bureaus in the department, with a view 
to abolishing the bureaus and dividing the work up among the 
assistant sanitary superintendents. In other words, by de- 
manding that the health department be reorganized, he would 
effectually bring about the disorganization of the health activi- 
ties of the city. Section 1181 of the charter empowers the 
Board of Health to establish any additional offices "it shall 
deem necessary for the proper discharge of the duties and 
powers of the health department in the several bureaus." 

Dr. Amster, recognizing that the maintenance of the high 
standard of health work requires the retention of the various 
bureaus thus threatened, has refused to carry out the man- 
date of the Mayor and has expressed his belief that the present 



directors of the various bureaus are protected by civil service 
regulations. His meritorious refusal to participate in the 
crippling of the health department has resulted in an investi- 
gation under the auspices of the Civil Service Commission and 
the commissioner of accounts. In a series of star chamber 
proceedings held to be a "private inquiry," an attempt is 
being made to demonstrate the illegality of the appointments 
of the various directors and the needlessness of their existence. 
Accusations of civil service law violations or allegations of 
graft cannot be deemed matters of "private inquiry"; they are 
of the utmost concern to the citizens who must properly de- 
mand public hearings in the interest of justice and fair play. 

It is fair to assume, as the health commissioner appreciates, 
that the institution of the various bureaus during the admin- 
istration of Mayors Gaynor and McClellan was based upon 
a demonstration of their necessity and justifying opinions by 
the corporation counsels. The health commissioner is de- 
termined that he will not be a party to a gross injustice to 
the community and is demanding another opinion from the 
corporation counsel to follow upon the report of the present 
investigation committee. 

The proposed reorganization, or rather dismemberment, of 
the health department would result in reducing the efficiency 
of the department to a plane below that of twenty years ago. 
It would place the department below the standards adopted 



64 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 191 



by all the progressive cities of the United States. The whole- 
sale upheaval would be accompanied by a few petty savings 
in money, more than counter-balanced by the probable wastage 
of human life incidental to inadequate powers of administra- 
tion. 

The mayor demands the head of the director of the Bureau 
of Child Hygiene, which for seventeen years has been indus- 
triously engaged in caring for the health and welfare of in- 
fants and children and has achieved an international reputa- 
tion for the high standard of its work and the excellence of 
its organization. The recently established Bureau of Public 
Health Education is potentially of the utmost importance in 
the field of popularizing information on the conservation of 
health and is not rivalled in achievement by similar work in 
any part of the country. The Bureau of Preventable Dis- 
eases, which has supervision of the treatment of infectious 
diseases, tuberculosis clinics, industrial hygiene, and similar 
matters relating to public safety is threatened with extinction. 
The most excellent Bureau of Laboratories which deals with 
the production of antitoxins and vaccines and the numerous 
chemical and bacteriological examinations and research work 
required in a properly organized municipal health plant is to 
be disorganized in so far as effective leadership is concerned. 
The Bureau of Food and Drugs, charged with the responsi- 
bility of supervising and inspecting the production, manu- 
facture and sale of foods and drugs, is to be disregarded as 
a factor in safeguarding public health. The Bureau of Hos- 
pitals, which has the care of all patients in city institutions 
including those suffering from tuberculosis and contagious 
diseases, except those being treated in institutions under the 
charge of the departments of public charities and corrections, 
is to be deprived of its most effective organization. 

The names of Dr. S. Josephine Baker, Dr. Charles Bol- 
duan, Dr. Louis Harris, Dr. William H. Park, Dr. Robert 
J. Wilson, and Dr. Lucius P. Brown are well known through- 
out the world ; their ability is unquestioned and their accom- 
plishments unchallenged. Is New York city to stand by with- 
out a word of protest against this attempt to prove that they 
are unnecessary adjuncts to the promotion of public health 
when the high standards and brilliant records of the New 
York city health department are largely attributable to their 
initiative, constructive ideas, and broad social vision, which 
have been responsible for the marked reduction in the morbid- 
ity and mortality of this community? 

Mayor Hylan in his campaign statements declared that he 
would remove the "experts" from the service of the city. He 
is indeed seeking to carry out his pre-election determination. 
Unfortunately, his efforts in this direction are destructive in 
effect and his projected action constitutes a menace to public 
health. He seeks to break down the centralization accom- 
plished through the bureaus, directed by most capable spe 
cialized experts in their particular fields, and to split up their 
various functions among the assistant sanitary superintendents. 



who are comparatively untrained and inexperienced in these 
various departments of health administration. The develop- 
ment of modern preventive medicine has demanded the effec- 
tive segregation of specific functions so as to provide the great- 
est certainty of success and operation. This, however, ap- 
pears to be immaterial to the mayor, who, with the slogan of 
"economy," would seek to save a few salaries regardless of 
the effect upon the welfare of the city. The abolition of these 
bureaus or the decapitation of their heads on trumped-up 
charges of illegality would jeopardize the usefulness and ef- 
ficiency of the health department, as has been appreciated by 
the health commissioner, himself an appointee of the mayor, 
who has evidenced wisdom and sanity in refusing to play any 
part in this wanton destruction of his capable administrative 
bureaus. 

The numerous health problems arising through war condi- 
tions are in themselves reasons for a continuance of the bu- 
reaus in their present form. It is not war conditions, however, 
which serve as the most profound reasons for the main- 
tenance of these effective units in health administration. Their 
constant and devoted service to the community, the results 
which they have attained, their essential character in modern 
health administration during war or peace proclaim their 
rights to existence, freed from the tampering of politicians or 
misinformed and narrow-minded pseudo-municipal econo- 
mists. 

Are the care and welfare of infants and children to be 
thrown back a decade or two at a time when the United 
States Children's Bureau is inaugurating a campaign for the 
saving of 100,000 lives? Is industrial hygiene for the super- 
vision of the health of employes to be interfered with when 
states and the Federal government are vying with each other 
to insure the safety of employes and to protect society from 
the unnecessary distress due to industrial accidents and dis- 
eases? Are the hospitals and laboratories to have their careful 
work hampered and crippled when the need for them is greater 
than has hitherto existed ? Is the community to be deprived 
of the closest inspection and supervision of its food supply 
when food questions form almost a dominant interest in na- 
tional affairs? Is New York city to be threatened with inca- 
pacity in the control of epidemics when contagious diseases 
as related to civil and military life assume the most significant 
proportions 5 Is the campaign for educational enlightenment 
on health matters to be halted when its need is most pressing? 
These are questions that the citizens of New York must 
answer. 

The City of New York can ill-afford to lose its trained 
administrators or suffer the slightest impairment of the ac- 
tivities and functions of these bureaus. The efficiency of the 
health department is at stake. The community must stand 
behind the wisdom of the health commissioner; the citizens 
must protest against the disorganization of their health de- 
partment. 



The Labor Shortage and the Organi- 
zation of the Labor Market 



By JVilliam M. Lets er son 

PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, TOLEDO UNIVERSITY 



WHEN the announcement was made that a sol- 
diers' cantonment was to be built in Ohio, at 
Chillicothe, and that some 20,000 workers would 
be needed to build the camp in the time allotted 
by the government contract, the state was ready with an or- 
ganization to handle the project. It had a double problem: 
first how to get the men, and then to make sure that the in- 
dustries of the state would not be dislocated by the withdrawal 
of such a large force for army work. 

Ohio's director of employment tackled both of these prob- 
lems with characteristic vigor. He went immediately to the 
military authorities and to the contractor who was to build 
the camp and offered the services of Ohio's employment sys- 
tem in securing the necessary help. He warned them of the 
dangers of promiscuous advertising for help, told them how 
it would endanger operations of other industries, how men 
might be led to the camp for whom there was no work at all, 
and how an over-supply of labor might be created at the camp 
while yet the particular kind of skill needed might not be 
there. The management, of course, wanted to be sure that 
it could get all the labor that would be necessary, and when 
the director of employment, who knows the labor market con- 
ditions of the state thoroughly, practically guaranteed to de- 
liver all the necessary labor, the contractor and the military 
authorities agreed to hire all their help through the employ- 
ment service of the state. All the men sent to work at the 
camp would be consigned to the public employment office 
located in Chillicothe and a branch office was established at 
the cantonment about two miles from town. 

As soon as the arrangement had been made and even before 
the work of building had been begun, the central office at 
Columbus sent instructions to all the twenty-one offices in 
the state explaining the method by which the labor force 
would be supplied, and listing the kinds of workers that would 
probably be needed. Each office was requested to begin 
registering men who would want to go to the camp to work. 
All those registered were to hold themselves in readiness to 
go to Chillicothe promptly when notified. To get men to 
register, labor unions of the various trades needed were com- 
municated with, notices were posted in the employment 
offices, and advertisements were inserted in newspapers, care- 
fully guarded to prevent men from going directly to the can- 
tonment and flooding the town before the work began. 

When the work was about to begin the builders of the 
camp notified the Chillicothe employment office that on a cer- 
tain day they would need so many hundred laborers and car- 
penters and gave the wages and other terms of employment. 
This information was immediately telephoned to the central 
office in Columbus, and the director went over the reports 
from his branches to see from what offices he could draw the 
necessary men to fill this order. To the superintendents of 
the employment offices which were in a position to supply the 
help he wired to begin sending laborers and carpenters, giving 
each his quota as to how many were wanted from his office 

*In an article in the Survey for March 30, Mr. Leiserson discussed The 
Shortage of Labor and the Waste of Labor. 



and asking each to report that same day how many were sent 
before the close of business. Within a few hours men were 
moving to Chillicothe in an orderly fashion, with definite 
assurances of work when they got there and of the terms on 
which they would be employed. And that same evening the 
central office in Columbus knew how many men had been 
sent by each office. In the morning the Chillicothe office re- 
ported as to how the men were arriving as well as the addi- 
tional needs of the camp management. The director was 
then in a position to notify the branch offices how many men 
they would each be expected to send that day. 

The first week about 300 men were sent to Chillicothe in 
this way. The second week, in response to increased demand, 
over 1,500 men were supplied. Then there was a lull in the 
work on account of lack of materials and the number of new 
men supplied was promptly cut down the following week to 
about 500. Then demand increased rapidly and the offices 
responded by sending 1,300 the next week, then 2,500, 2,800 
and 3,500. Reduced need, during the eighth week, was 
promptly met by reducing the supply to 1,800 and this was 
followed by a spurt to 3,500 the week after. So it went on, 
the state employment system keeping the supply of labor con- 
stantly under control and feeding it promptly in response to 
demand. In about twelve weeks over 17,000 men were in 
this way sent to work at the Chillicothe encampment from 
the state offices. 

It was not always possible to keep those who were hiring 
the men to abide by their agreement to employ labor only 
through the employment offices. They feared constantly that 
they would not get enough help. They were accustomed to 
advertising for thousands of men and getting a hundred, and 
they could not feel confidence in an organization that claimed 
ability to supply all labor as needed. Unknown to the em- 
ployment offices they sent agents out to try to get help. This 
confused matters for a while. But the number who came to 
work at the camp without going through the employment 
offices did not exceed one-fifth of the total employed. Then 
they feared they would not get the help fast enough, and they 
insisted on paying transportation for the men. In vain did 
the -director of employment assure them that all the men 
would be forthcoming, that plenty could be secured from 
within the state and that any workers who could not pay the 
two or three dollars to go to Chillicothe would not be much 
good and would not be steady employes. In all probability 
the nature of the contract — cost plus a percentage — had some- 
thing to do with the insistence on paying transportation 
charges. At any rate about $10,000 was spent in this way 
and as a result the "turn over" of labor was unnecessarily 
increased. The directors of Ohio's employment system were 
able to prevent paying fares for men to come from outside 
the state ; but within the state, carpenters, plumbers and other 
skilled men earning more than $6 a day as well as laborers, 
had their fare paid to the job. 

With all of these difficulties the Ohio employment system 
was nevertheless able to demonstrate the great saving and 
efficiency that might be secured by hiring labor through a 

65 



66 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 191 



centralized organization that could control the supply. The 
labor "turn over" was much smaller than on most jobs of the 
kind, the work did not suffer for lack of labor and no over- 
supply was attracted to the city. 

On a single day the employment offices sent over 1,200 men 
to Chillicothe. This was when the builders were particu- 
larly panicky, fearing they would be short. Every employ- 
ment office in the state was given a quota of men that it must 
supply and was told to put the men on the trains and wire the 
central office the number "shipped." In the evening all these 
trains were met at Columbus by agents of the central office 
and transferred to special cars going to the camp. No one 
who has not seen these gangs, varying from 15 to 150 and 
more, shipped and transferred, counted, ticketed, and some- 
times fed, can have any idea of what it means to supply labor 
in a systematic and organized manner in accordance with 
actual demand. 

But Ohio's employment service was not satisfied with all 
this. While it was still engaged in shipping men to the camp 
it began to work on plans for distributing that army of 20,000 
workers over the state when this work at the camp should be 
finished. Agents were sent to Chillicothe to register men 
as they were preparing to quit and instructions were issued to 
all the branch employment offices to visit employers in their 
communities, tell them of the classes of labor that would soon 
be released and get orders for help that could be supplied 
from Chillicothe. Lists of the men working at Chillicothe 
were made with their occupations and experience and sent to 
each of the employment offices. These offices learned the de- 
mand from employers in their cities for the various classes of 
labor, and made arrangements for getting the men from Chil- 
licothe. In this way the workers at the army camp are now 
being distributed in an orderly manner and all the idleness 
and waste that ordinarily follow the completion of a big 
project of this kind are eliminated. 

Contrast these business-like methods made possible by 
Ohio's employment organization with the senseless advertise- 
ments, deliberate misrepresentation and wild scurrying around 
the country for labor that we described in the preceding ar- 
ticle. It is this difference of method that insured the builders 
of the Ohio encampment an adequate labor supply and that 
causes other builders and other large employers of labor to 
complain of shortage of labor. 

The contrast as well as the position that Ohio's employment 
service has taken on the shortage of labor is well illustrated 
in the following circular: 

Ohio Branch 

Council of National Defense 

Labor and Industrial Relations Committee 

Columbus, October 5, 1917. 
Employment Office Superintendents: 

One of our offices has just called our attention to an order which 
has just been placed with them for workmen for the aviation field 
at Newport News. 

For fear this order has been placed in some of our other offices, 
I thought it best to advise that we have taken the stand that there 
are plenty of workmen of the type wanted in the neighborhood of 
Newport News, and if they will put forth the same effort in their 
neighborhood that we did in Ohio when we built the Chillicothe 
cantonment, it will not be necessary to take workmen out of Ohio 
to build this aviation field. 

The manufacturers and employers in Ohio want men badly, and 
as they were very patient when the men were taken from them for 
the Chillicothe job, we feel that it is our duty to send back as many 
men to them as possible., when this job is completed. 

C. H. M.WHUGH, 
Director of employment. 

Much more difficult than supplying 20,000 workers is the 
problem of securing labor for the thousands of small farmers 
who need a man or two apiece. In fact, the first problem 



that confronted Ohio's system of employment offices was to 
supply help to the farmers who were being urged on every 
hand to increase their crops. 

It was with no false hopes of raising a great "army of agri- 
cultural workers" that this task was undertaken. No system 
of employment offices can raise much of any army for farm 
work when industrial labor pays better, requires fewer work- 
ing hours and affords better conditions of employment. No 
amount of patriotic exhortation will lead any great number 
of men to accept $25 a month with board in the country for 
a work-day of twelve or fourteen hours when they can get 
$100 a month or more in the cities for a shorter day. Patriot- 
ism might lead men to make such sacrifices if the benefits went 
directly to the government. But as long as the farmer pockets 
the difference between the higher city wages and the pay he 
offers, we may expect few to be convinced by the patriotic 
appeal. 

Nevertheless, the managers of Ohio's employment service 
knew that a great many men did want to work on farms and 
were prevented from doing so by the lack of machinery for 
getting definite information about farm jobs and making con- 
nections with the better opportunities in the country. The 
employment offices, therefore, undertook the difficult task 
of supplying this need. Through the agricultural division of 
the State Council of Defense demand for labor on the farms 
was carefully canvassed. Fifty-three county agricultural 
agents employed by this division secured detailed information 
as to various kinds of crops planted, the amount and kind of 
labor needed, the wages paid, how long the help would be 
required, etc. Definite orders for help signed by the farmer 
were sent in to the employment offices, and these attempted to 
get the men that could fill the requirements. Farmers were 
encouraged to come to the offices to make their own bargains 
and the offices were kept open evenings for the purpose. 

When the handling of farm hands was thus undertaken in 
a systematic way it was surprising how much could be accom- 
plished toward meeting farmers' demands. In the six months 
since this work was begun over 7,200 farm hands were re- 
ferred to positions, and reports received showed that 5,000 of 
them were actually at work. 

It is only by work of this kind that the supply of farm 
workers can be effectively increased. Not an organization of 
an "agricultural army," but an organization of a centralized 
state system of employment bureaus gave the results. Supply- 
ing farm labor is primarily a matter of making thousands of 
individual labor bargains; for the average farm is small and 
the farmer needs but one or two men. This need can not be 
met by recruiting an agricultural army in the cities or by 
opening an office for correspondence with farmers and farm 
hands. It requires labor agents with experience, tact, skill 
and knowledge who know how to ask a host of personal ques- 
tions without giving offense and who by means of the informa- 
tion so derived can select men to fit into positions that require 
not only every variety of skill, but require also a man who 
has the character, habits and often the religion to enable him 
to take his place as a member of the farmer's household. 

With these illustrations of the methods that make it possible 
for a state to insure at least a fair supply of labor if not all 
that employers would like to have, we may proceed to look 
into the mechanism of the labor market organization which 
made the development of such methods possible. 

When the unprecedented demand for labor caused by the 
war was found to be accompanied by a large percentage of 
unemployment, the Ohio branch of the Council of National 
Defense determined to bring about a better adjustment be- 
tween labor demand and supply as a first step in increasing 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 1 9 1 8 



67 



production. It enlisted the cooperation of the industrial com- 
mission of Ohio, and the management of seven "state-city labor 
exchanges" operated by the commission was temporarily trans- 
ferred to the defense council. Then the state was divided 
into twenty-one districts, each containing from two to five 
counties. In the largest city of each district an employment 
office was planned for the purpose of registering and gathering 
together the supply of workers in the district and ascertaining 
the actual demand for labor. 

A conference was called of the mayors of the twenty-one 
cities and a plan discussed by which the localities should bear 
part of the expense of conducting the offices. In seven of the 
districts the old established "state-city labor exchanges" were 
already operating under a plan of joint maintenance by state 
and city, and it was agreed that fourteen new offices should be 
organized in the other districts under a similar arrangement. 
The cities should supply the quarters for the offices, pay for 
light, heat, janitor and telephone service and supply the equip- 
ment, while the Ohio defense council would employ superin- 
tendents and assistants, furnish record forms, stationery, post- 
age, etc., and pay for advertising and supervising the work of 
the offices. 

Another conference was called of representatives of organ- 
ized labor and employers' organizations. The plan was ex- 
plained to them, discussed and endorsed by them, and they 
pledged themselves to support and further the work of the 
employment offices throughout the state. 

The council of defense called to its assistance three experts 
in employment problems and these were sent over the state to 
get funds and quarters from the municipalities, organize the 
offices, select and "break in" the superintendents and clerks, 
install record systems and methods of management. These 
supervisors, as they were called, went into a town, saw the 
mayor and the board of control or the finance committee and 
made arrangements for getting quarters and equipment. 
Usually a room was found in the city hall ; otherwise the coun- 
cil rented outside quarters. Then the local chamber of com- 
merce and central labor body were visited to make sure of 
the cooperation of capital and labor in the enterprise. Some- 
times a committee with representatives from both sides was 
asked to recommend a superintendent for the office, but more 
often the supervisor scurried around the town interviewing all 
the men whose names he could get, and selected one who 
seemed to have the qualifications of ability, enterprise, in- 
dustry and experience necessary to make a successful super- 
intendent. This man's name was put up to representatives 
of labor and capital to make sure that he had the confidence 
of both sides and a fair record of impartiality in labor matters. 
In this way an excellent set of superintendents was secured. 
Where this method was not followed the results were not 
very satisfactory. 

The central office employed a number of young men, some 
college graduates, and set them to work in the old offices to 
be trained as assistants for the employment bureaus. These 
were then sent to the new offices as soon as the supervisors 
could get them organized. 

The superintendents and assistants were instructed by the 
supervisors. The theory of the employment offices was ex- 
plained to them, the nature of the present employment prob- 
lems, and the methods of managing an office. A system of 
records was installed for them. They were taught how to 
register men, how to question applicants, how to solicit busi- 
ness from employers, how and where to find out the labor 
needs and labor supply of their districts. In addition, the pos- 
sibilities of a career as employment manager, both for the 
state and in private employment, were pointed out to them. 



They were made to see the great future in the work if prop- 
erly handled, and as a result the state secured superintendents 
at $125 a month and assistants at $75, most of whom are 
worth much more than they are paid. With few exceptions, 
they are taking hold of their work in the spirit of enthusiastic 
learners of a new profession and they have nothing in common 
with the political officeholder as he is ordinarily pictured. 

The supervisors continue to visit each branch office about 
once a week. They give personal instructions to superin- 
tendents, help them solve knotty problems, investigate labor 
market conditions in their districts, audit records and make 
reports on the work of each office. 

The management of the entire system of Ohio employ- 
ment exchange centers in the labor division of the state de- 
fense council in the Capitol at Columbus. Mr. Mayhugh, 
state director of employment for the industrial commission of 
Ohio, has been temporarily transferred to the council to be- 
come responsible head of the work. He maintains a central 
clearing house in Columbus for twenty-two branches. 2 To 
the central office daily reports are sent by each of the branches 
and they in turn receive reports and instructions every day. 
Transfers of labor from one office to another are handled 
through this office. When one sees Mr. Mayhugh in his 
office, in constant touch with his superintendents, telephoning 
long distance to one, wiring another, dictating general orders 
to all the offices, instructing his office assistants to meet gangs 
from Cleveland, Toledo and Youngstown at the station and 
transfer them to the special car going to the Chillicothe can- 
tonment, informing farmer Jones that a gang of corn cutters 
are on their way from the Cincinnati office and he had better 
meet them with a wagon at the local office where he had 
placed his order — then one realizes what a labor clearing house 
really means, and what skill, tact, energy and ability it re- 
quires to conduct such a central exchange so that the labor 
market of the whole state may in fact become a unified organi- 
zation to eliminate waste and maladjustment. 

By means of this organization and by the methods that 
we have described, Ohio's employment system is demonstra- 
ting to the people of the state, not only what can be done to 
help in particular labor emergencies, but also that the labor 
force of the state can in effect be greatly increased by securing 
a fuller application of it than generally obtains. When system 
is thus introduced in connecting men with jobs, waste is elimi- 
nated, employers are prevented from "hogging" labor reserves 
while others have not enough, and almost all the legitimate 
demand for labor can be met. 

What Ohio's employment system has accomplished in this 
direction may be seen quantitatively in the reports of the opera- 
tions of the twenty-two employment offices. In the six months 
since the centralized organization was formed the "help 
wanted" has numbered slightly over 200,000 men and women. 
In response to these calls for help over 190,000 applicants 
were referred to the employers who needed them, and a total 
of about 160,000 actually went to work on the jobs to which 
they were sent. This means an average of over 6,000 workers 
supplied to employers every week. And still more significant 
is the fact that the number thus supplied has been increasing 
quite steadily from week to week and month to month. 

What Ohio has done, the states of New York, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota and California would be in a position to do if 
they only had the funds to extend the operations of their em- 
ployment bureaus and to pay the salaries necessary to retain 



2 The fourteen cities in which new offices were established are: Athens, 
Canton, Chillicothe, Hamilton, Lima, Mansfield, Marietta, Marion, Ports- 
mouth, Springfield, Steubenville, Tiffin, Washington Court House and Zanes- 
ville. The seven existing offices were located in Akron, Cincinnati, Cleveland, 
Columbus, Dayton, Toledo and Youngstown. A twenty-second office was 
opened iu Sandusky in August, 1917. 



68 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20 



1 9 1 



in their service the expert employment agents that the bureaus 
have trained. These states have the laws, the basic organiza- 
tion, the technical knowledge of the business and the trained 
employment agents. All they need is financial support to 
extend and perfect the organization and to put their knowl- 
edge and training to work in keeping thousands of wage- 
earners actively employed in furthering production who are 
now needlessly unemployed. In addition, almost twenty 
other states have more or less efficient public employment 
bureaus, but their centralized organizations are undeveloped. 
Here a little more effort would be required, but given funds 
and the determination, a comprehensive organization could be 
accomplished in short order. 

This is the work that is waiting for a National Bureau of 
Employment, but up to the present the employment service 
carried on by the United States Bureau of Immigration has 
not taken advantage of its opportunity. Partly this is due 
to lack of legislation authorizing subsidies to states which 
organize their labor markets, but mostly the failure is due to 
lack of a national employment policy based on American 
experience and American needs. 

The commissioner of immigration has secured a great 
deal of publicity for plans and projects of a United States 
employment service. There have been conferences galore, and 
a good deal of time and effort has been spent in trying to 
induce states to adopt a confusing "federal-state-city plan." 
But when we come to look for tangible results there is little 
to be found. Only in Missouri and New Jersey has the 
combination between federal and state employment bureaus 
been made outright, and this duplicating authority has not yet 
shown results that the states alone could not accomplish. In 
many other states federal employment offices have been estab- 
lished that maintain no connection with the state bureau and 
are either competing agencies or else represent purely useless 
duplication. In Wisconsin, for example, the federal employ- 
ment office located at Madison reported 3,257 positions filled 
in the month of August. On inquiry we find that this does 
not represent any actual employment business done by the 
federal office at all. The agents of the United States gov- 
ernment in that city have merely taken the total business done 
by the four state offices and reported this to be the work of 
the federal office in Madison. Thus it is made to appear that 
the work has been doubled. The state of Wisconsin has been 
placing from 3,000 to 5,000 workers every month without the 
assistance of the United States government, and the money 
now being spent in that state by the federal agency appears 
to be mostly wasted. In Los Angeles, Buffalo, and other 
cities similar situations prevail. 

Where the federal employment service thus has the assist- 
ance of state offices to show some results, there is actual busi- 
ness done. Where there is no such assistance the United 
States employment bureaus proudly make reports like the fol- 
lowing (for November, 1917, the latest published): 3 

Persons Applying Positions 

for Work Filled 

Mobile, Ala 15 1 

Savannah, Ga 160 19 

Minneapolis 202 1 

Sacramento, Calif 32 11 

Galveston, Tex 55 401 

There are sonic exceptions to this rule, but in the main this 
is the character of the reports of the federal employment work 
published in the Monthly Review of the United States 
Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

As long as the Department of Labor was without funds 

s Monthly Review, U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Jan. 1918, p. 121126. 



for an employment service there was some excuse for this 
kind of work, but during the last year or two it has spent a 
considerable amount of money. If, instead of duplicating the 
work of the state offices, it had confined its activities to stimu- 
lating the states to develop their own employment systems, 
and then had tried to unite all the state systems into a national 
employment organization, it might have been in a position 
now to meet the national labor emergency. 

The directors of employment in New York, Ohio, and other 
states urged upon the federal authorities a plan by which co- 
ordination of state activities should be undertaken by the 
United States Department of Labor. They proposed that 
each state should be left free to work out its own employ- 
ment office systems, but that the federal government should 
standardize their work in line with a national policy by means 
of grants, of subsidies and the franking privilege, similar to 
the plan adopted in federal aid for road building and voca- 
tional education. A federal council was to be organized com- 
posed of the directors of employment of all the states, who 
would assist the national employment authority in establish- 
ing agencies for transferring labor from state to state and 
in developing a comprehensive policy of labor market organi- 
zation for the nation. 

But little has been done in this direction. Had the advice 
been followed, the hysterical campaigns for "ship yard volun- 
teers" would never have been undertaken — both because it 
would have been unnecessary and because the experienced em- 
ployment agents of the states know that attempts to mobilize 
labor by such publicity increases disorganization and waste in 
the labor market. As matters stand now the Department of 
Labor conducts a drive to "enroll" 200,000 "ship yard volun- 
teers" and it carefully explains that "enrollment" means that 
these workers may be needed in the future, but are not wanted 
now. Newspapers, however, do not trouble themselves with 
these fine distinctions. They herald the great shortage of men 
at the ship yards, and many workers leave their places to go 
to Hog Island only to find no work there. Further, the 
Instructions to Enrollment Agents state specifically that 
arrangements have been made with the ship yards by which 
all calls for help will be handled through the Department of 
Labor, but at the same time the American International Cor- 
poration scatters alluring advertisements in the street cars of 
western cities calling on ambitious men to "come to Phila- 
delphia." According to the Pennsylvania state director of 
employment, ninety-five men thus attracted to Philadelphia 
in one night, after exhausting their funds and finding no 
work, had to sleep in the police station. 

"In sixty days," says a recent statement of the United States 
Employment Service, "men will probably be wanted in great 
numbers at the ship yards. By that time the stories of dis- 
appointed workers will have spread among the volunteers and 
it will be difficult to make them believe that they could really 
get work if they went to the ship yards. If half the energy 
and expense that have been put into the drive for ship \ard 
volunteers had been devoted to building up the efficiency of 
the state systems of employment bureaus, these bureaus would 
be in a position to supply most of the men needed as the actual 
demand for them came. Wage-earners would not be quitting 
their jobs and incurring expense to go to the ship yards, only 
to be disappointed. The labor market would not be dis- 
organized months in advance of the need for any class of 
workers. And employers and workers alike might have 
some confidence in the ability of public employment exchanges 
to control the mobilization and distribution of labor in the 
interests ot the nation as a whole. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 1918 



69 



Book Reviews 



The Standard of Living in Japan 

By Kokichi Morimoto. Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity Press. ,150 pp. Price $1.25 in 
paper; by mail of the Survey $1.33; $1.50 
in cloth; by mail of the Survey $1.62. 
Japan at the Cross Roads 

By A. M. Pooley. Dodd, Mead & Co. 362 
pp. Price $3.50; by mail of the Survey 
$3.65. 
Rising Japan 

By Jabez Sunderland. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 220 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of the 
Survey $1.35. 

Three important books on present-day 
Japan have come to our desk with which 
students of the Far East should acquaint 
themselves. The first is a scientific study of 
the cost of living in Japan; the second is a 
readable survey of recent political and eco- 
nomic developments in Japan, marred by an 
attitude of unsympathetic criticism; the third 
is a refreshingly friendly study of the ques- 
tion whether or not Japan is a menace to the 
United States. 

The Standard of Living in Japan, by Ko- 
kichi Morimoto, is the first number of series 
XXXVI of the Johns Hopkins Universitv 
studies. The author is associate professor 
of economics in Tohoku Imperial University 
(Sapporo, Japan), where he gathered a large 
amount of statistical information as to the 
actual conditions and standards of life in 
Japan. One section each is devoted to the 
cost respectively of food, of clothing and of 
housing. This volume will be of interest to 
economists but not to the general public. 

A. M. Pooley's volume is the work of a 
professional newspaper correspondent, alert, 
observant, a great gatherer of information. 
To a reader whose mind is already made up 
to condemn Japan for her faults and failings, 
this volume will prove highly satisfactory, as 
it will furnish him with much effective ma- 
terial. One who knows little or nothing of 
Japan save what he finds in this volume will 
develop a cynical spirit and an anti-Japanese 
attitude. 

While Mr. Pooley has brought together a 
vast amount of information, most of it no 
doubt reliable, yet his work appears to the 
reviewer essentially superficial. He seems to 
lack a quality of the greatest importance for 
a correct portrayal of any land, sympathetic 
insight into its problems, and ability to rec- 
ognize the regenerative forces that are at 
work. For one like the writer of this review, 
who has lived for more than a quarter of a 
century in Japan, many of the author's state- 
ments appear to be the revelation of his own 
emotional antipathic psychology, rather than 
statements of objective fact and the sober 
judgments of a cool and fair-minded ob- 
server. 

Take these sentences for instance: "Per- 
mission to criticize is inexorably refused. 
The traveler comes to see, he must stay to 
praise. The national attitude to foreigners 
is either contemptuously patronizing or in- 
sulting. Whichever it be, no foreigner is 
credited with even the threat of intelligence." 
Mr. Pooley must have had some pretty bad 
jolts. My own experience is quite the reverse 
of Mr. Pooley's. I do not know of a people 
which so welcomes criticisms as the Japanese. 
It is quite a mistake to think that they want 
praise. They are sick of it and disgusted 
with those foreigners who think to win Japa- 
nese favor by it. They have told me so in 



very explicit language. What they really 
welcome is helpful criticism of sympathetic 
friends. Caustic, cynical criticism like that 
in which this volume abounds could not fail 
to arouse resentment. A volume written by a 
Japanese on America or England in the spirit 
and perspective of this volume would call 
forth the resentment of Americans and Eng- 
lishmen. 

The author's closing chapter, for instance, 
on Religion dwells on the so-called Confer- 
ence of the Three Religions. This was in 
fact not a conference at all, but only a recep- 
tion given by the cabinet to the chief officials 
of Shintoism, Buddhism and Christianity. 
His diagnosis of the situation is quite mis- 
leading. "To propose an amalgam of the 
three religions," he says, "was the true Jap- 
anese touch to the whole affair." This fling 
discloses serious misapprehension. Mr. To- 
konami and co-laborers had no thought of 
"an amalgam;" they desired to "strengthen 
a*nd to deepen the spiritual life of the peo- 
ple," and they hoped by the official reception 
to let the nation see that the government 
regards religion as one of the essential spir- 
itual forces, along with education, making 
for the betterment of national character and 
life. What the author means by saying that 
"the matter was withdrawn" (p. 361) is in- 
comprehensible — for the reception was held 
(February 25, 1912) and also a second one 
some eighteen months later. 

Rising Japan. Is She a Menace, or a 
Comrade to Be Welcomed in the Fraternity 
of Nations? is the full title of an interesting 
and, to the writer, effective presentation of 
the latter alternative of the title. The author 
surveys in four chapters the civilization of 
Asia and Japan and then in nine chapters 
discusses the assertion that she is a menace. 
One chapter is devoted to the Solution of the 
Japanese Question in California, in which he 
presents with approval the proposals for the 
regulation of all immigration on a per- 
centage principle by which to admit from no 
country more immigrants than the United 
States can Americanize. 

Lindsay Russel writes the introduction, in 
which a striking quotation from an address 
of Elihu Root is given. Referring to the 
time when he was secretary of state, Mr. 
Root said: "I say that during all that period 
there never was a moment when the govern- 
ment of Japan was not frank, sincere and 
friendly, and most solicitous not to enlarge 
but to minimize and do away with all causes 
of controversy." 

Dr. Sunderland's style is easy and inter- 
esting. Hundreds of thousands of Ameri- 
cans should read this book and learn some- 
thing of the malicious campaign of interna- 
tional slander that has for years been per- 
sistently waged apparently in the hope of 
some day bringing Japan and the United 
States into armed collision. The author has 
rendered an important service to the cause of 
international understanding and good will. 
Sidney L. Gulick. 

The American Labor Year Book 

Edited by Alexander Trachtenberg, Rand 
School of Social Science. 384 pp. Price 
$.60 (paper) ; bv mail of the Survey, $.70; 
cloth bound, $1.25; by mail, $1.45. 
The first publication of a labor year book 
by the research department of the Rand 
School was in 1916. This second volume con- 



tains a large amount of interesting and valu- 
able material, most of it of more than cur- 
rent importance — some of it of permanent 
usefulness. 

The volume is divided into six parts, as 
follows: Labor and War; The Labor Move- 
ment in the United States; Labor and the 
Law; The International Socialist; Labor 
and Cooperative Movements; and The So- 
cialist Movement in the United States. There 
are brief histories of the International Asso- 
ciation of Machinists and of the International 
Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. The editor 
states in the preface that in succeeding edi- 
tions other unions will be similarly treated. 

As might be expected, in a work involving 
the collaboration of so many people, a uni- 
form standard of excellence is not main- 
tained throughout. The book is not without 
its errors. A serious misstatement of fact 
appears, for example, in the account of the 
Mooney case. On the other hand, the reader 
feels a sense of security when he finds ap- 
pended to articles the names of I. M. Rubi- 
now, Owen R. Lovejoy, George Gorham 
Groat, Frederic S. Lee, John B. Andrews and 
others of authority in their different fields. 

J. A. F. 

Women and War Work 

By Helen Fraser. G. Arnold Shaw. 308 

pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the Survey 

$1.62. 

Miss Fraser's lively account of the war 
work of her countrywomen will find many 
interested readers among their American sis- 
ters who are eagerh' seeking their places in 
the great struggle. She tells the stories of 
women doctors and nurses who are giving 
their services and even their lives on foreign 
soil; of the million and a quarter girls and 
women who have taken the places of men in 
shops and factories, who have learned the 
dangerous trade of oxyacetylene welding and 
who make shells and aircraft engines and 
thousands of things needed by the fighting 
forces. 

She tells of women policemen to whom is 
entrusted the law and order of the realm; 
of women farmers who are adding to their 
country's food supply, and of the women who 
are actually enlisted in the army for work 
at the front under the famous auxiliary 
corps. The descriptions of the work are 
convincing testimony of the importance of the 
contributions English women are making in 
widely different fields; and the author's 
own tributes to the spirit behind it are very 
moving. 

Apparently the vast amount of initial 
work of the voluntary associations has fitted 
very smoothly into the plans finally given 
public auspices. We are told that women 
have made it a definite policy to secure the 
appointment to all government and national 
committees on which their presence would 
be useful; and they have actually succeeded 
in getting this representation, as evidenced 
by the long list of committees on which 
women sit. 

The first work of actually mobilizing and 
placing the woman power was done in a 
large part by the Women's Service Bureau. 
The registration and placing of women 
workers is now done by the emplovnient ex- 
changes of the Ministry of Laboi, but appar- 
ently the same problems which are before 
us in the United States have been difficult 
ones in England. For example: 

"The government seems to suffer from a 
delusion a great many people have, that if 
you have enough machinerv and masses of 
names something is being done, but you do 
not solve any problem by registers. You 
solve it by getting the workers and the work 
together." 

The industrial history of 1917, which holds 
such important lessons for us, is not given in 
detail. The titles of the memoranda of the 



"It 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 191 



Health of Munition Workers' Committee 
are listed in an appendix, but these do not 
include the more recent numbers of these 
documents which throw so much light on 
the labor standards now being worked out 
in the munition industries. 

Mention is made of the Ministry of Re- 
construction, but the author is firmly of the 
conviction that after-the-war problems must 
not be attempted before victory is secured 
and reparation has been made. She rather 
surprisingly interprets the present experi- 
ence as "a definite mental discarding of 
state socialism. . . We shall undoubt- 

edly have to continue controlled in many 
ways after peace comes, but we do not 
like it." 

It is perhaps not surprising that Miss 
Fraser, who is herself one of the hardest 
workers, should have been forced to write 
hastily by the pressure of her arduous and 
varied program, which has included the 
"setting up" of scores of committees for war 
savings under the Treasury Department in 
England, and recently much public speak- 
ing in this country. The signs of a hurried 
organization of the material are especially 
disappointing in the places where more defi- 
nite information would be of much value to 
us. There is nothing indefinite about the 
impression left of the nobility and effective- 
ness of the work of the English women who 
are themselves inspiring examples. 

Amy Hewes. 

Real Stories from Baltimore County 

History 

Revised and adopted by Isobel Davidson. 

Warwick and York. 282 pp. Price $1 ; 

by mail of the Survey $1.08. 

If one sentence from the foreword of this 
book could become a precept for all future 
writers and teachers of history, the book 
would have served a good purpose: "The 
history of any community is the history of 
the common man." We long ago admitted 
the common man into our novels and poems; 
we paint him and write plays about him; 
occasionally we do him in marble and in 
bronze; why, then, exclude him longer from 
our history? Moreover, it is his history that 
we exclude him from, for he made it and 
was it in all essential ways. 

The obvious effort of these stories is to 
identify the boy or girl reading them with 
the life of Baltimore county that has gone 
before. Only the other day the vacant lot 
where you played games, the child is re- 
minded, was usurped by a church: and this 
is history! It is but the turning back of a 
few more days to Colonel Carroll of Car- 
rollton, to Captain John Smith, to the In- 
dians. "History is ever in the process of 
making, is not static, but ever in a fluid state, 
progressing, changing as time goes on." 

The data for these stories were obtained 
by the teachers and children of Baltimore 
county schools; the illustrations were drawn 
by seventh and eighth grade pupils. The 
book is not attractively put out for reading 
by children, but is rather intended as a 
source and guide for teachers of primary 
grades. Readable as it is, it will probably 
require considerable "adaptation" for suc- 
cessful use in the classroom. W. D. L. 

An American in the Making 

By M. E. Ravage. Harper & Bros. 265 

pp. Price $1.50 ; by mail of the Survey 

$1.62. 

The author feels that "becoming an Amer- 
ican is spiritual adventure of the most vol- 
canic variety" and involves "renouncing your 
priceless inherited identity and blending 
your individual soul with the soul of an 
alien people." The narrative starts in 
Rumania when the boy is sixteen and ends 
with his return to the University of Mis- 
souri for his sophomore year and his reali- 



zation that at last he "was an American." 
His experiences from leaving his family, 
through his arrival at New York, peddling 
candies and toys, acting as tap-boy in an 
East Side barroom, operating a sewing-ma- 
chine, attending anarchist meetings and 
studying in school and college, are all viv- 
idly sketched and will help anyone working 
on the Americanization problem to know the 
viewpoint of one type of immigrant. 

"The slums are emphatically not of our 
making" and repel him. He finds it im- 
possible to speak English without being 
laughed at and thinks "there must be some 
magic glue outside the dictionary" which 
holds the words together. His work in the 
barroom teaches him lessons which "in- 
stilled more of the rich wisdom of life" than 
he got out of the later university training, 
and he feels that "no one should be granted 
citizen's papers unless he can 'see' a joke." 
This is one of the books that leads you 
on until suddenly you realize you have read 
it all instead of the chapter you intended. It 
is more like My Mother and I than The 
Rise of David Levinsky, and the kind you 
pick out to read aloud. E. E. Winslow. 

The Foundations of National Prosperity 
By Richard T. Ely, Ralph H. Hess, 
Charles K. Leith and Thomas Nixon Car- 
ver. 378 pages. Macmillan Company. 
Price $2; by mail of the Survey $2.15. 
The Foundations of National Prosperity 
is a treatise on the conservation of natural, 
or national, resources as presented from the 
point of view of the economist. The first 
section, by Dr. Ely, is rather a naive plea 
that the conservation movement, started by 
moralists, philosophers, foresters — "the tech- 
nical men, the men of natural science" — 
should now be taken over by the econo- 
mists, who should "not simply let men of 
other fields gradually become economists 
and usurp their territory." 

The first three sections, on conservation 
and economic theory, conservation and eco- 
nomic evolution, and conservation of cer- 
tain mineral resources, add little to the 
theory or knowledge of conservation as al- 
ready published in the report of the Na- 
tional Conservation Commission, and in 
books by Pinchot, Van Hise and others. It 
is, however, exceedingly interesting to have 
this presentation of the economists' reaction 
to the conservation program. 

The part by Dr. Leith on the conserva- 
tion of certain mineral resources rather de- 
stroys the unity of the whole work because 
it accents disproportionately a single re- 
source. It deals with a few of the metals 
and with coal as a representative of the 
mineral fuels. It is likely that soil conser- 
vation and the conservation of water through 
wise use are equally entitled to prominence. 
By far the most important, most illuminat- 
ing, and most original part of the book is 
the fourth section, by Dr. Carver. It deals 
with the conservation of human resources. 
Dr. Carver analyzes the economic value of 
the human resource in its physical, mental, 
and moral qualities. In so doing he puts 
conservation squarely on the basis of a 
moral issue instead of on a merely economic 
one — and that is precisely where it belongs. 
Bristow Adams. 

The Negro in Literature and Art 

By Benjamin Brawley. 176 pp. DufField 
& Company. Price $1.35; bv mail of the 
Survey $1.45. 

There are two ways of gauging the cul- 
tural contribution of a subject race: the one 
is to trace its influence upon the life and art 
of its tyrant, the other to measure the fruit 
of its genius against the highest standards in 
the different fields of human accomplish- 
ment. Mr. Brawley, in the present volume, 
has chosen the latter method and has, more- 



over, limited himself to literature, oratory, 
music, drama and the fine arts. 

Such a test is not, of course, conclusive ; 
but with all the appalling drivel that is 
being written about the racial qualities and 
potentialities of the American Negro, any 
study is welcome that helps to throw light 
on the psychology of this one-ninth of the 
American people. 

"That the Negro is ever to be taken seri- 
ously is incomprehensible to some people," 
says the author in an appendix on the Negro 
in American fiction. There are still thou- 
sands of educated Americans who regard all 
Negroes as very near the Simian and all 
Negro writers and artists as either freaks 
or more white than black in composition. It 
may easily be replied that Dunbar, the 
greatest of the Negro poets, and many other 
prominent Negroes are full-blooded. But it 
is true that the majority of them are mulat- 
toes. The reason for this is that from the 
times of slavery to our' own days the best 
educational and economic opportunities, such 
as they were, have gone to the "fair" Negro 
— not because of his racial superiority but 
because of his looks. 

Even assuming there were more talent 
among the "almost whites" than among the 
dark-skinned, the argument for admitting 
Negroes (so-called) as full equals into the 
social life of America rather than treating 
the whole race as inferior beyond possibility 
of change, would only be so much stronger. 
Mr. Brawley's admirable critical apprecia- 
tions of some of the leading Negro contem- 
poraries, in any case, cannot be discounted 
by mere verbiage and scoffing. B. L. 

Women as Munition Makers 

By Amy Hewes and Henrietta R. Walter. 

158 pp. Russell Sage Foundation. Price 

$.75; by mail of the Survey $.81. 

So long as men are called to shoulder guns, 
the call for women to manufacture shells 
will be increasingly urgent. So long, too, 
will this study of Women Munition Workers 
in Bridgeport, Conn., undertaken by Miss 
Hewes for the Russell Sage Foundation, be 
timely and suggestive. The working condi- 
tions in munition factories as well as the 
living conditions in munition centers have 
now become of vital importance to the whole 
nation. 

Statistically, Miss Hewes^s report is not 
conclusive, since it concerns only 165 workers. 
It is, however, a very real picture of the 
life and labor of a typical group of women 
munition makers in a typical war-boom town. 
It describes their earnings, their hours of 
work, their home conditions, their recreation. 
It gives the testimony of the girls themselves 
regarding their employment. 

It is not altogether a black picture. The 
majority of the women worked less than 
forty-nine hours a week, and their median 
wage was $10.97, though this fairly high 
rate was cut into by the soaring prices in 
Bridgeport. Three evils, however, stand out 
in the study — the large number of industrial 
accidents, the crowded housing conditions in 
Bridgeport with attendant high rents and the 
prevalence of night work for women. 

Employers are now making some attempt 
to safeguard their employes against acci- 
dents and poisoning from fulminate of mer- 
cury, and both munition companies and the 
citv of Bridgeport itself are aroused to the 
need of proper homes for the operatives, but 
the dangers of night work are not vet real- 
ized in Connecticut as they are in the neigh- 
boring states of Massachusetts and New 
York, where women's labor after 10 p. m. 
is prohibited. 

A valuable part of the book is Miss Wal- 
ter's concise summary of the various reports 
issued by the British Ministry of Munitions, 
including one on the munition industry in 
France. M. C. 



C0SC920 




KM 



WAR-TIME USES FOR THE 
SHAKER COLONIES 

A BRIEF article under this heading 
in the Survey for December 15, 
1917, seems to have borne fruit. It was 
there pointed out that many of the for- 
merly populous Shaker villages in New 
England, New York, Kentucky and 
other states are now altogether or nearly 
depopulated, some of them having al- 
ready been sold to private persons. 
Others, while still remaining in the pos- 
session of the Shakers, have large un- 
occupied buildings which are very sub- 
stantially built and in excellent condi- 
tion, with heating, lighting and plumb- 
ing facilities to some extent. The ques- 
tion was asked whether these properties 
could not be put to some purpose in con- 
nection with the war. Might they be 
considered, for example, for convalescent 
hospital purposes? Precedent for their 
use is found in the purchase by New 
York of the Shaker colony at Sonyea, in 
1895, for the Craig Colony for Epilep- 
tics, and in the purchase of the colony 
at Shirley, Mass., for a state reforma- 
tory for adolescents. Dr. Walter E. 
Fernald, superintendent of the Massa- 
chusetts School for the Feebleminded, 
has advocated their use in such ways for 
years. 

The article in the Survey and the 
arguments for putting the colonies to 
war-time uses were brought to the at- 
tention of interested officials by Mary 
Vida Clark, of the New York State 
Charities Aid Association. The news- 
papers of Albany and Troy, N. Y., 
and of Pittsfield and Springfield, Mass., 
now bring the news that Dr. Arthur L. 
Shaw, assistant medical superintendent 
of Craig Colony for Epileptics at Son- 
yea, N. Y., has been appointed con- 
tract surgeon for the United States gov- 
ernment and has been directed to inspect 
the Shaker villages at Mount Lebanon 
and Canaan, N. Y. ; West Pittsfield 
and Harvard, Mass.; Enfield, N. H.; 
and Enfield, Conn. The purpose of 
these inspections is said to be to secure 
proper accommodations for cases of shell 
shock, epilepsy and other mental and 
nervous diseases developed by soldiers 



either in the cantonments in this coun- 
try or in service abroad. 

It is understood that a considerable 
number of these cases are already in the 
care of the government, awaiting the 
establishment of a diagnostic station 
where they can be carefully studied and 
given such treatment as their difficulties 
require. The number of epileptics alone 
being discovered is mounting rapidly, 
several hundred being already enumer- 
ated. 

It is further understood that one of 
the largest colleges for women in this 
country is considering the establishment 
of a summer course during July and 
August this year to prepare specially 
qualified college graduates to cooperate 
with physicians in the care of mental 
and nervous cases resulting from war 
strain in the camps and the trenches. 
This, it is believed, would be the begin- 
ning of a movement to put mental nurs- 
ing on a higher level of efficiency and to 
procure for mental cases after the war 
the special facilities that, are being pro- 
vided for our soldiers. 

The Shakers showed great wisdom in 
the selection of sites for their villages, 
and these sites are not only beautiful in 
their surroundings and outlook, but have 
a very large and fertile acreage where 
able-bodied mental and nervous cases 
could be employed with profit to them- 
selves and to the community. 

One colony in New York has from 
1,500 to 2,000 acres and more than sixty 
buildings, divided among five families, 
comprising about thirty persons. 



April 20, 1918 Vol. 40, No. 3 

THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street, New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 
U. Kellogg, editor; Arthur P. Kellogg, 
secretary ; Frank Tucker, treasurer. 
10 cents a copy; $3 _o year; foreign 
postage, $1.50; Canadian, 75 cents. 
Copyright, 1918, by Survey Associates, 
Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 
25, 1909, at the post office at New York, 
N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



ARE YOU FOND OF HORSE 
STEAK? 

OF course, you can get horse meat in 
New York. Any one in Green- 
wich Village will show you where. It 
is not a case of "necessity the mother of 
invention" either; for, horse meat has 
long been a popular article of diet with 
certain classes, even when other meats 
were yet relatively cheap. 

Archeologists have proved, at least to 
their own satisfaction, that the cave man 
of northern Europe used it ; and cer- 
tainly Moses would hardly have pro- 
hibited its consumption had it been un- 
known. Dr. Leo Price, veterinarian of 
the New York city Department of 
Health, in a recent study of horse flesh 
as human food, conducts us right 
through history with records of tribes 
and peoples who not only ate the equine 
steak but actually fattened the animals. 

In the United States, horses until 
recently seem to have been slaughtered 
mainly for export; and only in 1898 
was the first appropriation given to the 
United States Bureau of Animal Indus- 
try to subject "live horses and the car- 
cases and the products thereof" to the 
same inspection as other animals. No 
figures seem available to show the pres- 
ent consumption of this article in this 
country, all Dr. Price's data, for reasons 
not explained, being fifteen years old. 

The opposition to horseflesh as a food 
is, of course, chiefly sentimental ; but 
not entirely so. In the first place, horse 
meat cannot be as acceptable a food as 
some of its propagandists try to make out 
because animals are not bred for meat 
but for muscle. In the second place, as 
Dr. Price admits, since mostly old ani- 
mals or those unfit for service are con- 
signed to the abattoir, they are especially 
subject to disease. 

With the present high cost of living, 
an increase in the use of horse meat is 
probable; and there can be no sanitary 
objections to it, provided inspection is 
really adequate. With this end in view, 
Dr. Price advocates a thorough ante 
mortem as well as the usual post mortem 
examination, which would discover pa- 
thological conditions without visible 

71 



72 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20 



1 9 1 




great deal has yet to be done and much 
ampler funds to be raised before the 
need for such provision will be adequate- 
ly met. The association hopes to be in- 
corporated at an early date under royal 
charter. 

The illustration on this page is of a 
cottage donated by a Scottish society in 
New York, which shows the general 
style of architecture of the others, from 
Albany, Colorado Springs, Schenectady 
and Amsterdam. 





nnnr 



M N VWf ' 
* : * F " *f S' 



nn x? a pi pi w : - \ : « n p| p 



ONE OF THE "AMERICAN" PAIRS OF COTTAGES AT I.ONGNIDDRV 



lesions and, especially, glanders. He 
also describes a number of other tests to 
safeguard the consumer. 

While the wholesome and nutritious 
qualities of horse meat are attested by 
the best authorities, some writers are of 
opinion that it must be prepared in a 
special manner to bring out all its 
"goodness." On the whole, however, all 
recent efforts to popularize whales, 
sharks, sea-weeds, horses and what-not 
probably will break in vain against the 
stubbornness of our "sentimental prej- 
udices"; and we shall most of us prefer 
to dig up a few more square yards this 
spring to make sure of enough beans and 
potatoes. 

A MODEL VILLAGE FOR THE 
DISABLED 

SCOTTISH-AMERICAN societies 
have contributed to the success of 
the first settlement for disabled soldiers 
in Great Britain. The Scottish Veter- 
ans' Garden City Association came into 
existence in June, 1915, to provide prop- 
er housing and care of men maimed in 
the war under conditions which would 
permit of their residing with their fami- 
lies and of their training and employ- 
ment in suitable crafts or industries. 

In the beginning of 1916, the site for 
the first garden settlement was fixed 
upon at Longniddry, on the east coast 
route, a few miles from Edinburgh, a 
site with a beautiful view of the Forth 
and the Fife coast. Plans were pre- 
pared for the erection of sixty cottage 
homes, each surrounded by a small gar- 
den. 

Combined with this scheme, which 
at once appealed to the imagination and 
sympathy of the people of Scotland and 
had the active support of the municipal 
authorities throughout the country, was 



a memorial to the late Lord Kitchener, 
of cottages built from the memorial 
whose name has been given to a number 
fund. 

The settlement is built in the shape 
of a crescent with a large recreation and 
pleasure ground in the center, and funds 
have been provided for the erection of a 
community hall with reading and recre- 
ation rooms. In close proximity to the 
colony, a fruit farm is being laid out, 
combined with a jam factory where light 
and suitable employment will be pro- 
vided for the men in an industry which 
is not in competition with machinery. 

Houses of various sizes have been 
built which are allocated to suit family 
requirements. The rooms are large and 
airy, with plenty of light and the most 
modern internal arrangements to make 
housekeeping easy. "These cottages," 
writes the secretary, "may serve as a 
demonstration of what can be done to 
provide approved housing on the most 
up-to-date lines at a moderate cost and 
assist in solving what is, after all, one 
of the most important social problems in 
Scotland." There is a school within 
three minutes from the settlement 
which its children can attend. 

Through the generosity of the Earl 
of Ancaster, a second ideal site has been 
given to the Perthshire committee of the 
association, and ten pretty little cottages 
have been secured by the association at 
the beautiful seaside resort of Montrose. 
The Aberdeen committee has been for- 
tunate in securing another excellent site 
of twenty-live acres near Aberdeen, and 
a small site has been given at Moffat. 
Sites for other settlements are under 
consideration at Falkirk, Galashiels and 
Hawick. 

The association looks upon these ac- 
complishments merely as beginnings ; a 



SOCIAL WORK IN AN INDIAN 

CITY 
A I A HE Social Service League of Bom- 
X bay, India, when criticized re- 
cently on the ground that it has under- 
taken a larger number of activities than 
can be efficiently managed and fully de- 
veloped by one institution, answered that 
social work on modern lines is so new 
in India that volunteers must be 
attracted to it first of all by acquainting 
them with the vastness of the field and 
the opportunities for every kind of 
talent. 

In keeping with this idea, the league 
last year opened a settlement, where edu- 
cated Hindus can live and see at close 
quarters the life of the poor. As in west- 
ern countries, settlement work in India 
has the twofold aim of helping the indi- 
vidual to rise above his circumstances 
and of promoting, on the basis of a study 
of actual conditions, changes in law and 
administration to remove the burdens 
imposed upon the weakest members of 
society by ignorance and oppressive cir- 
cumstances. 

According to a report in the Indian 
Social Reformer, the Bombay organiza- 
tion also started last year educational fa- 
cilities in the two city prisons and opened 
a temperance club. It maintains both 
standing and traveling libraries and 
twelve night schools, with twenty-six 
paid teachers. Most of the educational 
work, which also includes a great varietx 
of special classes and lectures on hygiene, 
child welfare, first aid, and similar sub- 
jects, is done for "the backward and de- 
pressed classes of the Hindu community 
and Mohammedan working classes." 

There is, however, provision also for 
higher education that enables poor stu- 
dents to become in turn leaders in the 
backward communities. This con-ists 
chiefly, so far, in a free supply of text 
books and in scholarships for various sec- 
ondary schools. 

Sir Narayan G. Chandevarkar, presi- 
dent of the league, considers that its in- 
tangible work during the six years of its 
existence, though it cannot be tested 
statistically, had prominently contributed 
to the raising of the people's moral and 
mental horizon. Even a comparatively 
few years ago, Bombay bad a most un- 
enviable reputation tor drunkenness, 
gambling and insanitation. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 191 



73 



MEAGER WORK OF NEW 
YORK LEGISLATURE 

THE New York legislature, which 
adjourned last Saturday, lived up 
to Governor Whitman's admonition that 
owing to war time conditions a minimum 
of legislation would be expected of it. 
The bills favored by the American As- 
sociation for Labor Legislation provid- 
ing for compulsory health insurance and 
excluding commercial companies from 
writing workmen's compensation insur- 
ance failed to pass, and three of the four 
bills initiated by the Consumers' League 
of New York city [see the Survey for 
March 9, 1918, page 629] giving further 
protection to working women were also 
defeated. 

The lucky measure was the Nicoll- 
Meyer bill which prohibits the employ- 
ment of women under 21 years of age 
as messengers and regulates the hours of 
women over twenty-one in such employ- 
ment to ten hours -a day, six days a 
week, as well as prohibiting their work- 
ing between 10 p. m. and 6 a. m. This 
was expected to die, having been placed 
on the general orders calendar, known 
as the "morgue," but a thrilling closing- 
hour fight by its advocates brought it 
onto the floor of the assembly where, in 
spite of the opposition of Speaker Sweet, 
it passed by a vote of ninety-four to ten. 

The three defeated bills were the min- 
imum wage bill, which would have cre- 
ated a minimum wage commission to 
study and fix the wages of women and 
minors in the state ; the Bewley bill, 
which would have prohibited women 
under twenty-one from operating eleva- 
tors in a business office, restaurant, ho- 
tel, apartment house, theater or other 
place of amusement, and would have 
regulated the hours of women over 
twenty-one in such employment to nine 
hours a day, six days a week, and pro- 
hibited their employment between 10 
p. m. and 6 a. m,; and another Nicoll- 
Meyer bill, which would have prohibited 
the employment of women under twen- 
ty-one years of age on the street, surface, 
elevated or subway railways, and would 
have regulated the hours of women over 
twenty-one in such employment to ten 
a day, six days a week, as well as pro- 
hibiting their working between 10 p. m. 
and 6 a. m. 

Present standards did not suffer great- 
ly. Four bills to relax the labor laws 
failed to pass: One to empower the 
Industrial Commission to suspend at 
its discretion any or all provisions of 
the labor law relative to men, women 
and children ; one to extend the clos- 
ing hour of restaurants from 10 p. m. 
to 1 a. m. ; one to extend the closing 
hour for women employed in candy 
stores where light lunches are served 
from 10 p. m. to 1 a. m. ; and one to 
allow women employed in certain res- 
taurants to work fourteen hours on 
Saturday. 



A bill reducing by two years the age 
at which both boys and girls could sell 
newspapers on the streets failed to pass. 
So also did a measure suspending all 
provisions in relation to the employment 
of children under fourteen or the hours 
of labor thereof in factories, mercantile 
establishments, street trades, or any 
other employment contained in the la- 
bor law, the public health law and 
the education law during the war and 
for six months thereafter. 

A law was passed providing compul- 
sory education, in English for all illiter- 
ates between sixteen and twenty-one 
years of age. 

Both Senate and Assembly passed with- 
out dissent the bill to enable the Hylan 
administration in New York city to get 
around the "pay-as-you-go" law and 
realize by bond sales of $15,000,000 a 
year for the period of the war and a year 
afterward, the money to be spent for 
purposes which under the present law 
must be met with funds realized from 
current revenues. 

A concurrent resolution providing for 
an appropriation of $5,000 to defray the 
expenses of the special Senate commit- 
tee created to investigate municipal 
ownership with a view to recommend- 
ing a fixed policy for the state to the 
next legislature was passed. 

EMERGENT AND ENDURING 
SERVICE 

THE organized forces of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross in France have been 
brought to bear on two great emergencies. 
The first was the Italian invasion, when 
executives, investigators, supplies of cloth- 
ing and food were dispatched from the 
headquarters at Paris to Rome, and a 
ground work of civil and military relief 
was laid down in advance of the com- 
ing of the permanent Italian commis- 
sion. 

The second has been the emergent 
work of caring for the thousands of refu- 
gees dislodged by the present great Ger- 
man offensive. Americans do not 
realize that every field dressing station, 
every evacuation hospital, and every hos- 
pital further back to which the French 
wounded have been brought in the 
midst of the great battle in Picardy, and 
to which unquestionably thousands of 
English troops have been brought, has 
been supplied with not only surgical 
dressings but with all manner of other 
equipment by the bureaus of the Mili- 
tary Affairs Division of the American 
Red Cross, which serve upwards of 
4,000 hospitals and supplement the sup- 
plies of the Service de Sante. More 
dramatic and equally real has been the 
emergent relief work of the Red Cross 
in evacuating civilians from that twice- 
devastated region which was given up 
by the Germans a year ago, and which 
became a new battleground in March. 
The early phases of this work will be 



described in a forthcoming article in the 
Survey, now on its way from Paris. 
These paragraphs taken from one of 
the remarkable stories of each day's 
fighting cabled by Philip Gibbs, the Eng- 
lish war correspondent at British head- 
quarters, to the New York Times re- 
veal the urgent need for such help: 

"One thing in this new phase of the war 
is very cruel, and makes one's heart ache, 
however steeled it may be to war's inevitable 
brutalities. This is where poor people, non- 
combatants, are stricken by the enemy's ruth- 
less methods. 

"It is not to be helped that as the German 
tide flows over new ground the menace and 
horror of this advance should travel ahead 
and cause the evacuation of the old people, 
women, young girls, and children from the 
villages where for nearly four years of war 
they had lived within sound of the guns but 
unhurt. 

"It was, however, brutal of the enemy to 
fling hundreds of gas shells without warning 
"into a town like Bethune, crowded, as he 
knows, with civilians, just as last June he 
did into Armentieres, and to scatter harass- 
ing fire of shrapnel and high velocity shells 
into little hamlets, remote from his fighting 
lines. 

"From Bethune there are many women and 
children in the hospitals suffering from gas 
poisoning, and today and yesterday I have 
been in villages where shells had fallen be- 
fore the people had any chance to escape. 

"Through one village yesterday passed 
a man carrying a baby with its arm blown 
off. Many old men and women have been 
wounded. 

"All these people are very brave, astound- 
ingly gallant. I have seen only a few women 
weeping today, though to them there is great 
cause for tears." 

How the Red Cross brought staff and 
resources to bear in a lesser emergency, 
in Paris just before the great drive, is 
told by Mary Ross in this week's issue — 
a forecast of the spirit and competence 
which the cables reaching us from 
France, indicate has marked its service in 
the midst of the present offensive. 

But beneath this emergent work, 
small or large, lies the permanent work 
of the Red Cross in France. , The one 
is comparable to the work of a health de- 
partment in meeting an epidemic, the 
other to its permanent hygienic work in 
upbuilding the common health. 

Many of the American volunteers who 
plunged into the Red Cross and army 
medical work last summer did so in 
the spirit in which a man runs to a fire. 
Some of the base hospital units — those 
assigned to the British zone — were at 
once employed in the most exacting and 
responsible activities. Others — those as- 
signed to the French zone — were many 
of them placed at points in remote parts 
of France where the demands upon them 
were very much more casual and where 
to a degree they "beat time" waiting for 
a real opportunity for service. Several 
of the medical men in these units suc- 
ceeded in getting temporary leave to 
volunteer for more active work with the 
Red Cross. At a small meeting of such 
physicians, as late as January, one of 



74 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2 



191 



I Women's 
I Neckwear 



I at 





Rag. Trade Mark = 



Smart exclusive Neckwear to 
complete the Spring Wardrobe 




Mosaic Linen Collar and Cuff Set, 
an exclusive importation, $13.95 set. 



Mosaic Linen Neckwear, as 

illustrated, a new exclusive importa- 
tion, collar and cuff sets, 

$10.50 to 15.95 set 
Separate collars, $7.95 to 8.75 each 

Real Lace Neckwear, Carrick- 
macross and Limerick, in the new 
shapes, $7.75 to 24.50 each 

Real Filet Neckwear, dainty 
collar and cuff sets, 

$5.95 to 12.95 set 
Separate collars, $3.95 to 9.50 each 

Fashionable Guimpes, Hand- 
Embroidered, Lace-trimmed in Or- 
gandie, Batiste, and Net. 

$3.50 to 12.95 each 

Smart Vestees of Net and Or- 
gandies, Hand - Embroidered and 
Lace-trimmed, 

$1.00 to 7.50 each 



gj Adjustable Satin Collars in White, Flesh, and Copen. Worn with long- 

g shawl effect or as collar and tie, $1.50 each 

jj Novelty Pique Vests, with graceful roll collar, 50c each 

g Colored Linen Collars in Copen, Rose, and Bisque. Roll and flat shapes, 

g Hand-Embroidered with real Picot edge. 50c each 

1 Orders by mail given special attention. 

| James McGutcheon & Co. 

I Fifth Avenue, 34th and 33d Streets, New York 



them whimsically asked the others if 
any had seen an emergency since they 
came to France, and all had to confess 
they had not. Since then, the emergency 
has come; but up to March they had 
found work in a situation which was 
three years old, which was very different 
from that imagined by the average Amer- 
ican but which is big with values of a 
different sort — that of conserving a civ- 
ilian population worn and wasted by 
three years of strain, that of building up 
health among hundreds of dispossessed 
families who are living under unnatural 
conditions, that of laying the basis for a 



new resurgence of French vitality in 
the period after the war. The refugees 
who came to the Red Cross dispensaries 
in Paris are very similar to the immi- 
grant folk coming to the dispensaries in 
our large city hospitals; they have the 
same sorts of diseases, the same family 
complications, the same need for social 
service linked with medical help. But 
because of the war, because of the na- 
tionalization of social concern, the op- 
portunity to make such work a demon- 
stration that will count for all men 
everywhere has unfolded itself before the 
American workers. 



This was brought out at the first staff 
dinner of the Department of Civil Af- 
fairs of the American Red Cross in Paris 
on March 18, bringing as it did two 
hundred workers together, just before 
the descent of the German armies. 
Among them were fifty representatives 
of the bureau of refugees, in Paris for 
a two days' conference on problems of 
housing and establishing the repatries, 
who for months past have been coming in 
by the trainload through Switzerland to 
Evian, and thence distributed through- 
out the country. The speakers included 
visiting Red Cross executives from 
Washington as well as the heads of the 
civil affairs bureau. They included 
Henry P. Davison, president of the War 
Council of the American Red Cross; 
Eliot Wadsworth, a member of the 
council who is believed by many to be 
slated to become ' commissioner for 
France; James H. Perkins, commis- 
sioner for Europe; Homer Folks, di- 
rector of the Department of Civil Af- 
fairs, and his bureau chiefs— Edward T. 
Devine, Margaret Curtis and Mme. 
Edouard Fuster for the refugees ; Dr. 
William Charles White, for the bureau 
of tuberculosis; Dr. J. H. Mason Knox, 
of Johns Hopkins (speaking in Dr. Lu- 
cas' absence), for the children's bureau; 
Grace Harper for the mutiles; Edward 
Eyre Hunt for the reconstruction bu- 
reau; Charles Evans for the Friends 
unit, and Barton Blake as a publicist. 

Dr. Livingston Farrand, as the chair- 
man of the Rockefeller Commission for 
the Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
France, expressed his belief that the op- 
portunity for civil work in France was 
unexcelled in the history of the world — 
Mr. Davison had just called the civil 
work "the greatest movement of its kind 
that the world had ever known," and 
several others made use of the superla- 
tive degree of the adjective. Dr. Far- 
rand's more restrained but, in a sense, 
more formidable statement had the 
weight of an outside observer and fel- 
low worker, long an executive in one of 
the great constructive health movements 
of the United States. 

"We've never been able to get the 
public at home really lined up behind 
social movements on a large scale," he 
added, "but, here in France, we're do- 
ing it; and what we're doing will count 
in America as well as in France. We 
are working just as much for humanity 
in general as tor any one part of it; and 
the reaction at home of what we are do- 
ing here may be greater than any of us 
guess." 

PRIVATE COMPENSATION 
INSURANCE 

THE emplovers of New York lose 
$4,000,000' exerv year through the 
wasteful methods of casualty insurance 
companies. This was the statement made 
a few days ago bj F. Spencer Baldwin, 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 191 



75 



manager of the New York state work- 
men's compensation fund, before the ju- 
diciary committee of the state senate, 
which was considering a bill to exclude 
the private companies from writing any 
workmen's compensation insurance in 
the state. The legislature adjourned 
without passing this bill. 

Mr. Baldwin said that he had been 
compelled, against his will, to abandon 
the views he formerly held in favor of 
competition in the field of compensation 
insurance. He had thought that the 
competitive plan would result in the 
lowest rates and the best service to em- 
ployers. In practice, however, he has 
found that the competitive plan has 
failed to secure these results. It does 
not protect the employer against high 
costs and unsatisfactory service ; instead 
of promoting the survival of the fittest 
in the insurance field, it promotes a sur- 
vival of the unfit. He stated that the 
private companies with their 12,000 in- 
surance agents and brokers throughout 
the state, have adopted methods absolute- 
ly unscrupulous and shameless in car- 
rying on competition, and that they have 
"by their own despicable competitive 
tactics invited their exclusion from this 
field." 

Continuing, Mr. Baldwin said: "It 
costs the stock companies approximately 
sixty-five cents in management and ac- 
quisition expenses to get one dollar of 
compensation into the hands of benefi- 
ciaries; it costs the New York state fund 
about ten cents to distribute a dollar in 
compensation. There is no justification, 
economically or morally, for commissions 
and profits on workmen's compensation 
insurance. This insurance is made com- 
pulsory by law, and the justification for 
agents' or brokers' commissions, which 
exists in connection with voluntary in- 
surance, as the price paid for the needed 
function of distribution, does not hold in 
the case of workmen's compensation in- 
surance. There is a growing conviction 
that no one ought to be permitted to 
make money out of the necessity of the 
employer and the misfortune of the em- 
ploye. The money which employers are 
required by law to contribute for the re- 
lief of injured workers and their de- 
pendants should not be subject to any 
toll of commissions or profits." 

Mr. Baldwin was followed by Chair- 
man Thomas J. Duffy, of the Industrial 
Commission of Ohio, where the private 
casualty companies were prohibited from 
doing business several years ago. Mr. 
Duffy prefaced his arguments by 
saying that four years ago, when he 
came to Albany and explained the Ohio 
plan, he was reminded that he was ex- 
pressing a hope of future accomplish- 
ments and that perhaps he might not 
make good. He was now pleased to 
announce, after four years of practical 
experience with the commercial insur- 
ance companies excluded from the com- 



pensation field in Ohio, that the plan 
had been successful and that the em- 
ployers of the state had been saved up- 
wards of $5,000,000 in 1917 that is now 
wasted in less economical and less satis- 
factory methods in New York. 

Two representative employers went 
on record in favor of the state fund in 
New York and opposed to commercial 
insurance in this field. The president 
of the State Federation of Labor an- 
nounced that the organized wage-earn- 
ers in New York were for the proposed 
change, namely, to eliminate all profit- 
taking in workmen's compensation busi- 
ness. John B. Andrews, secretary of 
the American Association for Labor 



Legislation, followed with a brief state- 
ment favoring the measure on grounds 
of economy and of public policy. 

The Associated Manufacturers and 
Merchants, who, through their general 
secretary, Mark A. Daly, announced 
that they had perhaps been caught nap- 
ping and had not appreciated the impor- 
tance of the proposed amendment, now 
find themselves in the position of oppos- 
ing workmen's health insurance one week 
on the ground solely of expense, and 
confessing the following week that they 
have overlooked the opportunity to save 
$4,000,000 a year on another branch of 
social insurance — workmen's compensa- 
tion. 



LESSONS OF THE WAR 

Interest your members with talks on the social, 
economic and religious phases of the great 
war. Illustrate the lectures with maps and 
pictures projected by the 

pause!* joint 

Ralopticon 

THE PERFECT STEHEOPTICON 

In every branch of welfare work this projection lantern 
proves its value. And it is so safe and simple, with 
its gas-filled Mazda lamp, that anyone can operate it. 
I'rojects from slides, from postcards or other opaque 
objects, or from both. Prices range from $31.50 (for 
slides only) up, with a list of models for every 
requirement. 

Ask for free descriptive 
booklet. 

BAUSCH H0MB 
OPTICAL COMPANY 

528 St. Paul St.. Rochester, N. Y. 
New York Washington 
ChlcagoSan Francisco 

Leading American mak- 
ers of Photographic and 
Ophthalmic hemes, Mi- 
croscopes, Projection Lan- 
terns, S t e r e o-P r i s m 
Binoculars and other Hi gh- 
Qrade Optical Products. 




"Good Bye.Dad.Irn Off 
To Fight For Old Glory, 
You Buy US. GOVT 
BONDS' 




American Liberties in War Time 

A Series of Pamphlets on the Issues and the Facts 
CIVIL LIBERTIES 

The Issues 

Why Freedom Matters, by Norman Angell. 

Liberty in Wartime (Our Situation, in view of English Experience), by Alice Edgerton. 

Who are the Traitors? (leaflet). 

Constitutional Rights in War-time (legal). 

Freedom of Speech and of the Press (extracts from the writings of statesmen and scholars). 

Cases 

The Outrage on Rev. Herbert S. Bigelow of Cincinnati. (October 28, 1917.) 

The "Knights of Liberty" Mob, and the I. W. W. Prisoners at Tulsa, Okla, (Nov. 9, 1917.) 

The Case of the Christian Pacifists at Los Angeles, by Norman M. Thomas. 

The Truth About the I. W. W. (Facts in relation to the present trial.) 

The Conviction of Kate Richards O'Hare, and North Dakota Politics. 

Liberty of Conscience 

War's Heretics (a plea for the Conscientious Objector), by Norman M. Thomas. 
The Facts about the Conscientious Objector in the U. S. 

Note: These pamphlets deal solely with the protection of American liberties in wartime. They 
are not colored by any 'ism' or propaganda. A full set will be sent on receipt of 30c. single 
copies 3c. 

Cut this out and mail to 

NATIONAL CIVIL LIBERTIES BUREAU 

70 Fifth Avenue, New York City 

[Full Set 
Send -, to 

[Those Checked 

Name 



Address. 



76 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 191 



J 11 1 ii Iti 1 11 1 1 J 1 1 > 1 Ill 111 mi in 1 1 mini I Milt m minimi in inn mil mil Illlg 

= £i urn illinium i i i iiiiiiiintniiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuinii iiiiiiiiiiiiniiiinuiiiiiiiHiiiiiig | 

I I SPECIAL 

SUMMER 

SESSIONS I I 

I irtinii 1 in tun 1 linn imi inns 1 11 1 111 ti mi 1 mil 1 in 1111 1 mi iiininiiiiiii iinniiniiiii miT | 

I TRAINING CAMP FOR NURSES 

For college women only. Classes 1909-1918 eligible | 

At Vassar College, June 24 to September 13, 1918. | 

I Under the auspices of the American Red Cross and | 

| the Council of National Defense. _ E 

A three months intensive course in theory of nursing, 5 

I preliminary to two years training in hospitals. Fee, g 

= including board, room, living expenses and tuition I 

I —$95. I 

I Our country's need | 

Apply at once to Dean Herbert E. Mills, Vassar College, | 

i Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 5 

1 Summer Session, June 24 — August 3, 1918 | 
| University of Southern California | 

| More than 100 courses by 40 specialists. Visiting professors 5 
1 include some of America's foremost educators. = 
= Social aspects of government xcar program given special promi- = 
nence. George E. Howard, ex-president American Sociological = 
= Society (Social Psychology) ; Richard Burton, of Minnesota | 
(American Literature and the War) ; Emory S. Bogardus = 
(Americanization) ; Ernest C. Moore (Educational Administra- ra- 
tion) ; Dr. Louise Stanley (Household Problems and Dietetics) ; = 
= Rockwell D. Hunt (National Conservation) ; and many others. = 
= Unusual opportunity for teachers in unexcelled environment. = 
I For Bulletin with full announcements, address = 
| J. H. MONTGOMERY, Registrar, Los Angeles, Cal. 

1 THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA \ 
Summer Session, 1918 

| June 24— August 2 

| The Summer Session of the University of Minne- = 

sota will be maintained as usual. = 

Colleges offering instruction: Agriculture, Chemis- g 

try. Dentistry, Education, Engineering, Graduate § 

School, Medicine, Science, Literature and the Arts. 

Numerous undergraduate and graduate courses 5 

= leading to bachelor's and advanced degrees. 

= Special Features: (1) Professional side of high 

school teaching emphasized. Special courses for prin- | 
cipals, superintendents, supervisors and normal school 
and college teachers of Education. 

(2) Training of teachers in Trades and Industries. 

= Courses in Trade Mathematics, Applied Science. = 

= Trade Drawing, Vocational Psychology, Industrial = 

History, and Organization and Supervision of Voca- | 

= tional Education. = 

I (3) Social Service Plattsburg. Special attention to § 

social service work in war time. 

| (4) Special lectures on war activities. 

= Faculty of specialists drawn from the University of | 

Minnesota and other leading universities. 

= Women students may engage rooms in Sanford § 

| Hall by making application before May 1st. 

For bulletin containing detailed information, address | 

The Registrar, University of Minnesota 

I THE SUMMER QUARTER OF THE I 
UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

Affords opportunity for instruction on the same basis 
as during the other quarters of the academic year 

The undergraduate colleges, the gradu- I 
ate schools, and the professional schools | 
provide courses in Arts, Literature, Science, | 
Commerce and Administration, Law, Medi- 
cine, Education, and Divinity. Instruction | 
is given by regular members of the Uni- | 
versity staff which is augmented in the 
summer by appointment of professors and 
instructors from other institutions. 
Special War Courses 

Military Science, Food Conservation 
Spoken French, etc. 

SUMMER QUARTER, 1918: First Term 
June 17-July 24; Second Term July 25- 
August 30 

A detailed announcement will be sent upon application to the I 
1 Dean of the Faculties, THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, Chicago, | 
| Illinois • | 

nlHIHIIIIMIIIIMIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIillllllllllllMIIMIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIII lltlllllllllMIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIHIliT 

(Continued <"/ back cover) 



OBITUARY 




A. J. MCKELWAY 

A J. McKELWAY, secretary for the southern states of the 
* National Child Labor Committee, died suddenly at his home 
in Washington on Tuesday of this week. Though born in Penn- 
sylvania, in 1866, his family removed to Charlotte county, Virginia, 
the next year and it was in the South that he lived and worked. 

When the National Child Labor Committee was organized in 1904, 
its first task was to begin a campaign in the South Atlantic states, 
where the poverty of reconstruction days was only beginning to yield 
to the new industrial life about the cotton mills; where mill owners 
were looked upon as the saviors of a poverty-ridden district; where 
not only the law but public opinion universally sanctioned the employ- 
ment of children at heavy tasks, for long hours and at a wage fixed 
under a competitive system in which each mill had only itself to 
compete with. 

The campaign against child labor started by the National Con- 
sumers' League under Mrs. Florence Kelley was violently resented 
in the South as northern interference. It was a southerner, Edgar 
Gardner Murphy, who first proposed a national child labor com- 
mittee, and once organized the committee itself turned to another 
southerner, Dr. McKelway, to do its southern work. Against every 
kind of open and secret opposition, smiling in the face of bitter 
personal abuse, a master at argument and the best of story-tellers, 
this Presbyterian minister and editor, with his broad accent and his 
camaraderie, gradually made headway until, one after another, the 
southern states had thrown at least some protection about children. 

His skill at lobbying was placed by the committee at the service 
of the movement to secure the creation of the federal Children's 
Bureau. And his crowning achievement was the passage of the 
federal child labor law, for which he acted as Washington repre- 
sentative of all the agencies concerned. Dr. McKelway was :i 
graduate of Hampden-Sidney College, Virginia, and of Union Theo- 
logical Seminary. His two sons are in the army. 

JAMES W. MAGRUDER died suddenly on Tuesday of this week 
while in a telephone booth at the Harvard Club in New York 
city, where he had recently come to join the central staff of the War 
Camp Community Service of the Playground and Recreation A.S80- 
ciation of America. For some months past Dr. Magruder had been 
with the American Red Cross Home Service, on leave of absence 
from the Baltimore Federated Charities, of which he had been 
secretary for some ten years. 

ROBERT BAYARD CUTTING, of New York citv, died at an 
American base hospital in France, early in April, as the result 
of an operation Mr. Cutting had been for a number of years a 
member of the Board of Managers of the New York Association for 
Improving the Condition of the Poor, and was treasurer of the Com- 
mittee on Provision for the Feebleminded, whose headquarters are 
in Philadelphia. He went to France as associate organizing secre- 
tary of the Y. M. C. A. 

COL. RAYNAL C. BOLLING, who has been reported by General 
Pershing as "missing," was general counsel of the United 
States Steel Corporation. It was through him that negotiations were 
conducted several years ago by Charles M. Cabot, which resulted in 
a protest against the twelve-hour day, prepared in the StntVEl office, 
being sent to 15,000 stockholders of the Steel Corporation. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 20, 191 



n 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travels, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various 
headings "Situations Wanted," "Help Wanted," 
etc., five cents each word or initial, including 
the address, for each insertion. Address 
Advertising Department, The Survey, 112 East 
19 St., New York City. 



WORKERS WANTED 

OSHKOSH, Wisconsin, Associated 
Charities, wants competent secretary. 

WANTED — Jewish case worker as resi- 
dent by Philadelphia child-caring agency. 
Address 2764 Survey. 

WANTED— A Settlement Director by a 
neighborhood center in a large eastern city. 
Address 2763 Survey. 

WANTED — Trained matron and house- 
keeper at Texas State Training School 
for Girls, Gainesville, Texas. 

A CHILD-PLACING Agency in New 
Jersey desires Matron for its Receiving 
Home. Experienced. Send photo. Ad- 
dress 2765 Survey. 

WANTED — Experienced headworker 
(Jewish) for Abraham Lincoln House, 
Milwaukee. Address Secretary, 531 Ter- 
race Avenue, Milwaukee, Wis. 

WANTED — Competent General Secre- 
tary for well-established Welfare Associa- 
tion. Give experience and salary wanted. 
Address C. L. Young, Muscatine, Iowa. 

WANTED — Case worker for position of 
Assistant Secretary in Charity Organiza- 
tion Society in rapidly growing New Eng- 
land Coast City. Salary $900 to $1000. 
Address 2750 Survey. 

ASSISTANT EMPLOYMENT 
MANAGER. 
OLD established chemical manufacturing 
company in New Jersey desires an assistant 
manager for its employment department ; 
good opportunity for advancement ; appli- 
cant should state full qualifications in first 
letter, which will be treated confidentially. 
Address 2766 Survey. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

EXPERIENCED boys' worker wants 
to make a change. Institutional work pre- 
ferred. Address 2760 Survey. 

YOUNG woman, thoroughly experienced 
in institution as housekeeper. Excellent 
manager. Address 2761 Survey. 

HOUSE mother (under-graduate nurse) 
desires position child-caring institution. 
Experienced child helping work ; house- 
keeping. Address 2767 Survey. 

SOCIAL worker with wide experience 
in city and country, desires an executive 
position preferably in a small town. Box 
154, Newburgh, N. Y., R. F. D. No. 1. 

EXECUTIVE — Jewish young man, Uni- 
versity and Philanthropy school graduate, 
experienced in relief, research and Ameri- 
canization work, seeks position as head of 
philanthropic organization. Well qualified 
and highly recommended. Ready May 15. 
Address 2758 Survey. 



EXECUTIVE— Man past 32, Jewish, 
College and Law School Graduate, Attor- 
ney for seven years,, volunteer Social 
Worker past ten years, desires to enter 
social service as Superintendent or As- 
sistant to Federation Executive or in any 
other capacity. Highest references. Ad- 
dress 2762 Survey. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



VICTORIAN ORDER OF NURSES: 

Post-Graduate course in District Nursing, 
four months, is given at the fpur training 
centres of the Order at Ottawa, Montreal, 
Toronto and Vancouver. Salary during the 
course and good openings after successful 
terminations. For full information apply to 
the Chief Superintendent, 578 Somerset St., 
Ottawa. 



THE Sheffield Scientific School 
and the School of Medicine of 
Yale University offer a course of 
one year's study leading to a 

Certificate in Public Health 

The course is open to men and 
women who hold either the degree 
of B.A., B.S., Ph.B., or M.D., al- 
though other mature persons quali- 
fied by special experience in public 
health may be admitted with the ap- 
proval of the Committee in Charge. 
Fundamental training in physics, 
chemistry, biology, and general bac- 
teriology is required for entrance. 

The academic year of 1918-1919 
begins September 26, 1918. The 
charge for tuition is $150. per an- 
num. 

Further information may he obtained 
by addressing the Department of Public 
Health, Yale School of Medicine, New 
Haven, Conn, 



For Employers in War- 
Time 

ET XPERT advice on labor prob- 
lems. "Retainer" basis. Labor 
relations, employment methods, labor 
supply, plant sanitation, hygiene, 
pensions, insurance, female labor, 
wages, "welfare work," industrial 
democracy. Address 

"CONSULTANT," care Survey. 



Ask for the Index 

THE index for Volume XXXIX of the 
SURVEY (October. 1917-March, 1918), 
is now in press. It will be sent free on 
request. Libraries and others on our index 
mailing list for other volumes will receive 
this one without further request. Volume, 
stoutly bound in red cloth with leather cor- 
ners, $2.50 ; subscribers' copies bound at 
$1.50; carriage extra. 

THE SURVEY. 
112 East 19 Street, New York 



PERIODICALS 



Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

American Physical Education Review; nine issues 
(October to June) ; $3; official organ for the Amer- 
ican Physical Education Association. Original 
articles of scientific and practical value, news 
notes, bibliographies and book reviews. Amer- 
ican Physical Education Association, 93 West- 
ford Avenue, Springfield, Mass. 

The Child Labor Bulletin; quarterly; $2 a year; 
National Child Labor Committee, New York. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; published 
by The National Committee for Mental Hy- 
giene. 50 Union Square, New York. 

The Negro Year Book; published under the aus- 
pices of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.; an 
annual; 35c. postpaid; permanent record of cur- 
rent events An encyclopedia of 450 pages of 
historical and sociological facts relating to the 
Negro. General and special bibliographies; full 
index. 

Public Health Nurse; quarterly; $1 a year; na- 
tional organ for Public Health Nursing, 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. 

Scientific Temperance Journal; quarterly ; 64 pages; 
$1 per year; a magazine for serious students of 
alcohol question; practical articles; educational 
methods; world temperance progress notes; re- 
views. Free to members. Scientific Temper- 
ance Federation, 36 Bromfield St., Boston. 

Southern Workman, illustrated monthly; $1 for 
700 pages on race relations here and abroad; 
Hampton Institute, Va. Sample copy free. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 



CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly insertions . 
copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Order pamphlets from publishers. 

Consumers' Co-operation During the War. Al- 
bert Sonnichsen. 5 cents. Co-operative League 
of America, 2 West 13 St., New York. 

The Disgrace of Democracy. An Open Letter to 
President Wilson by Prof. Kelly Miller. "The 
best argument that any Southerner, white or 
black, has contributed to American Governmental 
theory in a half century." — Editor Smart Set, 
in the Evening Mail. 10 cts. a single copy. On 
orders over ten, 5 cts. a copy. Address Kelly 
Miller, Howard University, Washington, D. C. 

Girls and Khaki. Winthrop D. Lane. Reprinted 
from the Survey. 10 cts. Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Helping Hoover. A Business Man's Synopsis of 
Food Values. Food Combinations and Simplified 
Dietetics. Free on request from Richard Mayer, 
200 Summer St., Boston. 

Immigration Literature distributed by National 
Liberal Immigration League, P. O. Box 1261, 
New York. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St.. New York. 

Wheatless— Meatless Meals. 84 menus, 124 
recipes, directions, food values, substitutes, timely 
suggestions, etc. 10c, or FREE for two names 
interested in Domestic Science. Am. School of 
Home Economics, 519 W. 69th St., Chicago, 111. 

You Should Know About Credit Unions. A 
manual furnished gratis upon request. Massa- 
chusetts Credit Union Association, 78 Devon- 
shire Street, Boston. 



COMING MEETINGS 



(Ftfty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
lions; copy unchanged throughout the month.) 

Charities and Corrections, Tennessee State 
Conference. Memphis, May 12, 13, 14. Sec'y, 
Mary Russell, Associated Charities, Memphis. 

Public Health Nursing, National Organiza- 
tion for. Hotel Hollenden, Cleveland, May 
6-11. Sec'y, Ella Phillips Crandall, 156 Fifth 
avenue, New York city. 



78 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 




KEY 

// yeu know the name of the agency 
nr organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you <want to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply) and 
pamphlets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



'H' 



WARTIME SERVICE 
T OW the Survey can serve" 
was the subject of an infor- 
mal conference held early in the war, 
in our library, to which we asked the 
executives of perhaps twenty national 
social service organizations. The con- 
ference was a unit in feeling that as a 
link between organized efforts, as a 
means for letting people throughout 
the country knoiv promptly of needs 
and national programs — how, when 
and where they can count locally — the 
Survey was at the threshold of an 
opportunity for service such as has 
seldom come to an educational enter- 
prise. 

The development of this directory is 
one of several steps in carrying out 
this commission. The executives of 
these organizations will answer ques- 
tions or offer counsel to individuals 
and local organizations in adjusting 
their work to emergent wartime de- 
mands. 



Listings $3 a month for card of five lines (in- 
cluding one listing in SUBJECT INDEX by full 
name and three by initials), fifty cents a month 
for each additional line. No contracts for less 
than three months. Additional charge of $1 for 
each change of copy during three-month period. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Animals, Amer. Humane Education Soc. 
Birth Registration, Aaspim. 
Blindness, Ncpb. 
Cancer, Ascc. 
Charities, Ncsw. 



CHARITY ORGANIZATION 
Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Ore. Dept. 

Charters, Sbo. 

CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Child Welf. Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept of Child Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Praa. 

CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 
Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg 

Bureau of Municipal Research 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Commission Government, Sbo. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 
Correction, Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 

COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca. 
County Ywca. 

Credit Unions, Mass. Credit Union Assn. 

Crime, Sa. 

Cripples, Red Cross Inst, for Crippled and 

Disabled Men. 
Disfranchisement, Naacp. 

EDUCATION 

Amer. Humane Education Soc. 
Amer. Physical Education Assn. 
Cooperative League of America. 
Natl. Board of the Ywca. 
Public Ownership League of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 
Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 

Efficiency Work. Bmr, 

Electoral Reform, Ti, Aprl. 

Fmplovment. Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Eugenics, Er. 

Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb. 

Feeblemindedness, Ncmh. 

FOUNDATIONS 

Russell Sage Foundation. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Amer. Red Cross. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl. Ore. for Public Health Nursing. 

Ncsw, Ncwa. 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
Home Economics, Ahea. 
Home Work, Nclc 
Hospitals. Naspt. 
Humane Education. Ahes. 
Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca, Apea. 

IMMIGRATION 

Im. Aid, Council of Jewish Worn. 
International Institute for Foreign-born Women 

nf the Ywca. 
Industrial Education, Rcicdm. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 
Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 
Natl Child Labor Com. 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 
Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 
Ncsw, Ncwa, Nlws. 

Insanity, Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Anti-Imperialist League. 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 

Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
Labor Laws. Aai.l., Nclc 
Legislative Reform. Aprl. 



LIBRARIES 
Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 

Mental Hygiene, Cpfm, Ncmh. 

Mountain Whites, Rsp. 

Municipal Government, Aprl, Nfs. 

Negro Training, Hi, Tl. 

Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 

Nursing, Apha, Noph». 

Open Air Schools, Naspt. 

Peace, Ail. 

Peonage, Naacp. 

Playgrounds, Praa. 

Physical Training, Apea, Praa. 

Prostitution, Asha. 

Protection Women Workers, Ntas. 

Public Health, Nophn. 



RACE PROBLEMS 
Er, Ail. 

Hampton Institute. 
Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 
Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 
Tuskegee Institute. 

Reconstruction, Ncsw. 



RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 
Nbywca, Nwwcymca, Apea. 



REMEDIAL LOANS 
Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans, Mcua. 

Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Savings, Mcua. 
Self-Government, Nlww, Ail. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Nat. Fed. of Settlements. 

Sex Education, Asha. 
Schools, Ahea. Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Social Hygiene, Asha. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca. 
Nwwcymca. Pola. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Statistics, Rsp. 

SURVEYS 
Bureau of Municipal Research. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sot. and Ex. 
Ncmh, Praa, Ncwa. 

Thrift, Mcua. 



TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers Aid Society. 

Iacjw. 
Tuberculosis Naspt. 
Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 
Unemployment, Aall. 



WAR RELIEF 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work oi Ywca 
Nwwcymca, Rcicdm. 

WOMEN 
Amer. Home Economics Assn. 
Natl. Board of the Y. W. C. A. 
Natl. I c;iKiic for Woman's Service . 
Natl, League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Work for Soldiers, Natl. War Work Council 

Y. M. C. Assns. of U. S. 
Working Girls, Iactw, Ntas, Nlww. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St.. 
New York. For national employment service for 
mobilizing and demobilizing war workers; main- 
taining labor standards; workmen's compensation; 
health insurance; efficient law enforcement. 

AMERICAN ASSN. FOR 6TTJDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 
B. Knipp. exec, sec'v; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature. Exhibits. L'rges prenatal in- 
struction; adequate obstetrical care; birth registra- 
tion; maternal nursing; infant welfare consultation*. 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 

— Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y. Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
tions in home, school, institution and community. 
Publishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN HUMANE EDUCATION SOCIETY 

— Founded by Geo. T. Angell. To promote kindness 
to animals through schools, press, and societies for 
young and old. Organ, Our Dumb Animals. Free 
literature. 180 Longwood Ave., Boston. 

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION — William Burdick, M.D., pres., McCoy 
Hall, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Persis B. McCurdy, 
acting sec'y, 93 Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 
Object to awaken a wider and more intelligent 
interest in physical education. Annual member- 
ship fee $3 includes magazine. 

AMERICAN PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TION LEAGUE— C. G. Hoag, sec'y; 802 Franklin 
Bank Building, Philadelphia. Advocates a rational 
and fundamental reform in electing representatives. 
Literature free. Membership $1. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION — William F. Snow, M.D., gen. sec'y; 
105 W. 40 St., New York. For the repression 
of prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotion of sound sex education; pam- 
phlets upon request; membership $5; sustaining 
$10. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Miss Marion H. Mapelsden, acting 
exec, sec'y; 25 W. 45 St., New York. To dissemi- 
nate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free on 
request. Annual membership dues, $3. 

ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE— Founded Nov. 
19, 1898. Moorfield Storey, pres. (first pres., 
George S. Boutwell) ; David Greene Haskins, Jr., 
treas., 10 Tremont St., Boston; Erving Winslow, 
sec'y. Object: To protest and agitate against ex- 
tension of sovereignty over peoples, without their 
own consent. 

BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH— 261 

Broadway, New York. Has a department of field 
work to make surveys of governments and institu- 
tions anywhere at cost. Efficiency systems in- 
stalled. Twelve years' experience. Estimates fur- 
nished. 

COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St., New York. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice concerning all phases of 
consumers' cooperation. Annual membership, $1, 
includes monthly, Cooperative Consumer. 

IMMIGRANT AID, COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL)— Headquarters, 242 East 
Broadway, New York. Helen Winkler, ch'n. 
Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. Has international system of safeguarding. 
Conducts National Americanization program. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic pos- 
sibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
gen'l sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service; 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Rev 
Clyde F. Armitage, asso. sec'y; Herbert M. 
Shenton, special sec'y; Miss Grace M. Sims, 
office sec'y. 

Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 

Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 
Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life- Rev 
Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Campaign for the Conservation of Human Life; 
Charles Stelzle, sec'y. 

«AMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal- 
elect; G P. Phemx, vice-prin.; F. K. Rogers, 
treas.; W H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, Va. 
I rams Indian and Negro vouth. Neither a State 
nor a Government school. Free illus. literature. 



MASSACHUSETTS CREDIT UNION ASSOCIA- 
TION — J. C. Bills, Jr., managing dir.; 78 
Devonshire St., Boston. Gives information con- 
cerning credit unions, and assists in their organ- 
ization and development. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Moor- 
field Storey, pres.; John R. Shillady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American citizen- 
ship. Furnishes information regarding race dis- 
crimination, lynching, etc. Membership, 10,000, 
with 100 branches. Membership, $1 upwards. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY 
AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS— 

Charles T. Hatfield, M.D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph.D., ass't sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New 
York. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational methods. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOM- 
EN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexing- 
ton Ave., New York. To advance physical, social. 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county centers; 
physical education; camps; rest-rooms, lunch-rooms 
and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; 
Bible study; secretarial training school; foreign 
work; war work councils. 



NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22 St., New 
York, 35 state branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration: education: delinquency; health; recrea- 
tion; children's codes. Publishes quarterly Child 
Labor Bulletin. Photographs, slides and exhibits. 



NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION 
— Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Cooperates with hundreds of social 
agencies. Headquarters for child welfare mate- 
rials, exhibits, literature, etc. Inquiries invited. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq., 
New York. Pamphlets on mental hygiene, mental 
disorders, feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, 
criminology, war neuroses and re-education, social 
service, backward children, surveys, state societies. 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director; Gordon L. Berry, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y: 130 East 22 St., 
New York. Objects: To furnish information, ex- 
hibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish literature 
of movement — samples free, quantities at cost. In- 
cludes New York State Committee. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 

— Robert A. Woods, pres., Boston; William T. 
Cross, gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago. 
General organization to discuss principles of hu- 
manitarian effort and increase efficiency of agencies. 
Publishes proceedings annual meetings, monthly 
bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information bureau. Mem- 
bership, $3. 45th annual meeting Kansas City, 
May 15-22, 1918. Main divisions and chairmen: 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Mrs. Tessie D 

Hodder. 
Health. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 

Johnstone. 
The Family, Gertrude Vaile. 
Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 

Florence Kelley. 
The Local Community, Charles C. Cooper. 
Mental Hygiene, Frankwood E. Williams, M.D. 
Organization of Social Forces, Allen T. Burns. 
Social Problems of the War and Reconstruction, 

Prof. George H. Mead. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
—Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state, and na- 
tion, for meeting the fundamental problems dis- 
closed by settlement work; seeks the higher and' 
more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR WOMAN'S SERVICE 

— Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'n; 257 Madison Ave., 
New York. To mobilize and train the volunteer 
woman power of the country for specific emer- 
gency service; supplemental to the Red Cross; co- 
operating with government agencies. 



NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS— 

Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New York. 
Evening clubs for girls; recreation and instruction 
in self-governing and supporting groups for girls 
of working age. Magazine, The Club Worker, 
monthly, 30 cents a year. 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING — Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Object: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop sta»dards of technique; 
to maintain a central bureau of informatien. Bul- 
letins sent to members. 



NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 

—Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr.. 13« E. 22 St., 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations with 
trained workers. 



NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil- 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart. treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y: rooms 20-21, 465 Lexington Ave.. 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of travel- 
ers, especially women and girls. Non-sectarian. 



NATIONAL WAR WORK COUNCIL OF THE 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS 
OF THE UNITED STATES— 347 Madison Ave.. 
New York. To promote the physical, social, in- 
tellectual, moral and spiritual interests of men in 
uniform. Wm. Sloane. ch'n; Cleveland H. Dodge, 
treas.; John R. Mott, gen. sec'y. 



NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703), Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ, Life and Labor. 



PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSN. OF 
AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 Madison Ave.. 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with War 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 



PUBLIC OWNERSHIP LEAGUE OF AMERICA 
— Organized to secure the public ownership and 
operation of railroads and other public utili- 
ties and natural resources. Inouiries solicited. 
Address Albert M. Todd. pres.. Westory Building 
14th and F Sts., Washington, D. C. 



RED CROSS INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND 
DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir.; 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Makes studies of re-education 
for disabled soldiers and industrial cripples. Pub- 
lishes reports on reconstruction work at home and 
abroad, and carries on propaganda to inculcate 
a sound attitude on the part of the public toward 
the physically handicapped. 



RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
dir.; 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics. Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys 
ind Exhibits. Industrial Studies, Library, Southern 
Highland Division. 



SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.: Richard S. Childs. sec'y: 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. Clearing house for in- 
formation on short ballot, commission gov't, city 
manager plan, county gov't. Pamphlets free. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES. INC. ^obert W. de 
Forest, pres.; Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y; publishers 
of the Survey: Paul U. Kellogg, editor; Edward 
T. Devine, Graham Taylor, Jane Add.ims. associate 
editors; departments: Civics, Grah-m R. Tavlor; 
Industry, John A. Fitch; Health. .Mice Hamilton, 
M.D., Gertrude Seymour; Educatios. Crime, Win- 
throp D. Lane; Foreign Service, Brun» Lasker, 
112 East 19 St., New York. 



TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An restitutio, for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment in race 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; fur- 
nishes information on all phases of the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, Ata. 



CHARLES FRANCIS PRESS, NEW YORK 



{Continued from page 76) 



■1" 1 1 iiiiiiiiii 1 ilililll 1 inn 1 mil 1111 nun iimiiiiiiiiiiiim i iilllliuillllllllllli mmimmill i iniin i i imimimiiii mil mill mi i i niimiiiu 

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SPECIAL SUMMER SESSIONS 

SOCIOLOGY, ECONOMICS, PUBLIC AFFAIRS, HEALTH. PRISON REFORM, EDUCATION I I 



Tiiiiiimiiiiiiimmiiiiiiiiiiiiiimmi im iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimimi miimmmimimimiiiiiimimmMiimmimimiimmmmimimmiiiiR = 

^1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 iiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiim 11 1 1 n 1 ■] 1 [i 1 n 1 in 1 1 ii mi 1111 mmimiimmimimmmmiim iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniimuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinHn!! = 



I ! YOUR COUNTRY 
1 I NEEDS YOU 

Learn How to Serve Through the 

RED GROSS HOME SERVICE 
INSTITUTES 

§ 1 For the training of Executive Secretaries for 

Home Service with the families of soldiers and 

I 1 sailors. 

Summer Sessions in Boston, Cincinnati, Cleve- 

| I land, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and 

elsewhere. Six weeks course, full time. Three 
dollars registration fee. Red Cross Certificate. 

I 1 For f jller information, address, 

I I Mr. W. Frank Persons, 

I I Director-General of Civilian Relief, 

I I American Red Cross, Washington, D. C. 

I I THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL 
I WORK, BOSTON, MASS. 

A DEPARTMENT OF SIMMONS COLLEGE. 

The first year program begins September 
18. A substantial preparation for the 

I I forms of social service now in special de- 

mand. Correlated courses on work with 
individuals and families and on neighbor- 

I § hood work. 

Well prepared students may specialize 
in medical social service, work with children 
and adolescents, organizing charity, or in 
neighborhood work through settlements. 

I I A Summer Course is offered for six 

weeks beginning June 25. An introduc- 
| 1 tion to social work. 

1 1 Address the Director, 18 Somerset Street, Boston. 



I I SUMMER SCHOOL FOR INTER- 
I I CHURCH WORKERS 

Lake Geneva, Wisconsin 

June 26th to July 7th, 1918 

i I Courses in social service, publicity, community evangelism, missions, religious 

= education, church cmnity and the principles and methods of inter-church work. 

- = Faculty: Harry Wade Hicks, Rev. Ernest Bourncr Allen. Prof. Benjamin F. 

I Winchester. Kev. Henry Atkinson. Rev. Horace S. Holton, Rev. Charles Stelzle. 

= = J. E. McAfee, Prof Shailer Mathews, Rev. Roy B. Guild. 

= Special Speakers: Dr. Frank Mason North. Dr. Cornelius Woelfkin and Fred 

Smi 

imisslon nn Inter-Church Pedention of the Federal Council of 
1 in America. Address Roy B. Guild. Executive Secretary, 
New York City, for information and particulars. 

i WORK aMONQ young women and girls 

Women qualified to become club leaders, industrial 

rctaries, cafeteria directors, physical directors, re- 

ioua work directors, executive secretaries, etc., in a 

'Mian movement with a social program are invited 

to correspond with the Secretarial Department, Na- 

= I tional Board of 

Young V omi n's Christian Associations, 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

Relative to Intensive and Professional Courses of Training 



Attend the Six Weeks Summer Session 
of 

New York School 
of philanthropy 

July 8— August 16 

Courses, including required practical 
work, in Community Organization, Play, 
Case Work, Child Welfare, Industry, 
Public Service, Psycho-Pathology, Crime 
and Punishment, Excursions to Agencies 
concerned with War Activities. 



Write for information about the Summer Session and 
the Fellowships offered for the regular work of the School 
to the Secretary, 287 Fourth Avenue. 

CHICAGO SCHOOL 
OF CIVICS AND 
PHILANTHROPY 

1918 SUMMER SESSION 

June 19- July 26 

General Course for Social Workers 

Five Credit Courses: (1) Principles of Case Work; 

(2) Problems of Social Work in War Time; 

(3) The Law and the Courts in relation to 
Social Work; (4) The Organization and 
Conduct of a Statistical Inquiry; (5) Mod- 
ern Radicalism. 



Field Work with one of the Soci 



;ies in Chicago. 



Visits of Inspection to the Important Institutions in 
or near Chicago. 

Special Course for Playground Workers 

Folk Dancing, Gymnastics, Games, Story-telling and 
other technical classes held at Hull-Huuse. 

Sixteenth Year Opens October 1, 1918 

For information, address The Dean, 2559 Michigan 
,J, Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



H Rlllll liniii! iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiil iiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiul i i mil i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilillililin iiiiniiilllllil in nullum iiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimlillliiimiiii miiimiiimiuiiiiiiiimmmiiii? 

iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii uiiiiiiiimii iiiiiiiiiinii iiiimiiiimimi i iiiiiiiiii mi miiiimmimmmmii miiiiii mm minimum urn mini i uumimmiiiiiiumimmmiiiiiiiiimimn 

[ADVERTISEMENT] 




NOTICE TO READER. 
When you finish reading this magazine, 
place a one-cent stamp oa this notice, 
mail the magazine, and it will he placed 
in the hands of our soldiers or sailors 
destined to proceed overseas. 

NO WRAPPING — NO ADDRESS. 



A. S. Burleson, Postmaster General. 



SUTWEff 





The Russian Instinct for Democracy 

By an American In Russia 

College Women and Nursing 

By Herbert E. Mills 

Making the Job Worth While 

By John A. Fitch 



Health of Soldier and Civilian 

Some Aspects of the American Public Health Movement 

By Gertrude Seymour 



April 27, 1918 



Price 10 Cents 



82 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 191 



PAMPHLETS 
RECEIVED 



Pamphlets are listed once in this column 
•without charge. Later listing may be made 
under CURRENT PAMPHLETS (see page 
/op). 

The New World Being Made; The Gos- 
pel of Thrift. Sermons by Rev. Sydney 
Strong, pastor of Queen Anne Congrega- 
tional Church, Seattle, Wash. 5 cents 
each ; 25 cents a dozen. 

Immortality. Responses from college and 
university presidents and citizens of 
Seattle to letters sent out by the Queen 
Anne Congregational Church, Seattle, 
Wash., on the question of immortality. 

A Social Welfare Program for the State 
of Florida. Prepared at the request of 
His Excellency, Sidney J. Catts, Governor 
and the Cabinet of State Officers by Has- 
tings H. Hart, of the Russell Sage Founda- 
tion, and Clarence L. Stonaker of the State 
Charities Aid and Prison Reform Asso- 
ciation of New Jersey. 10 cents, Russell 
Sage Foundation, 130 East 22 street, New 
York city. 

Are You Ready? Sermon by William E. 
Blackstone. Bible House, 643 South Olive 
street, Los Angeles, Calif. 

An Inquiry Into the Present Moral Crisis 
and Its Demands Upon War and the 
Moral Reconstruction of Theology. By 
Floyd Hardin. Theism. Santa Barbara, 
Calif. 

A State Board of Charities and Correc- 
tion. By Amos W. Butler, secretary, 
Board of State Charities of Indiana, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. Read at American Prison 
Association meeting at New Orleans, Nov- 
ember 20. 

God is Sovereign ; Persons or Property ; 
Christianity Not National; When 
Christianity Was Young. Sermons by 
Sydney Strong, Queen Anne Congregation- 
al Church, Seattle. 5 cents apiece; 25 
cents dozen. 

Working Plan Adopted for a Campaign 
for a United Jewry in Brooklyn by the 
Committee of One Hundred and Ex- 
tracts from Minutes of Directors of the 
Brooklyn Federation of Jewish Chari- 
ties. 

New Ventures of Faith. Suggestions for 
greater achievements through prayer. A 
monthly cycle for general use. 20 cents 
each; $2 for twelve; 6 for fifty; $10 for 
one hundred. General War-Time Com- 
mission of the Churches, 105 East 22 street. 
New York city. 

List of Approved War Relief Organiza- 
tions. Issued by the Connecticut State 
Council of Defense. From reports fur- 
nished by the Charity Organization So- 
ciety of the City of New York, 105 East 
22 street, New York city. 

The Responsibility of the Average Man 
for the Pimp and Procurer. Howard 
Clark Barber's address before World's 
Purity Congress, Louisville, November 12. 
Bulletin No. 43, Society for the Prevention 
of Crime, 50 Union square, New York 
city. 

Economic Effects of the War Upon Women 
and Children in Great Britain. By Irene 
Osgood Andrews, assistant secretary of the 
American Association for Labor Legisla- 
tion, 131 East 23 street, New York city, 
assisted by Margaret A. Hobbs. 

Christian Cooperation in States. By Alfred 
Williams Antho"- wiston, Me. 



Signs of the Times in American Indian 
Affairs. Report of the Committee on In- 
dian Missions of the Home Missions Coun- 
cil, 156 Fifth avenue, New York city. 

Anti-Loan Shark Decision. By Daniel P. 
Trude of the Chicago Bar. Bulletin of 
the Legal Aid Society of Chicago, 31 West 
Lake street. 

Official Recipe-Book: What to Eat, How 
to Cook It; Win the War in the 
Kitchen. Illinois State Council of De- 
fense, 120 West Adams street, Chicago. 10 
cents if mailed; 5 cents if called for. 

"Helping Hoover." A business man's syn- 
opsis of food values, food combinations and 
simplified dietetics. By Richard Mayer, 
200 Summer street, Boston. 

Constitution, By-laws, Committees and 
Membership. Bulletin No. 3 of the Chi- 
cago Council of Social Agencies, 1258 
Taylor street. 

Charities and Correction, New York City 
Conference of. Brooklyn, Manhattan and 
Yonkers, May 7-9. Sec'y, John B. Prest, 
287 Fourth avenue, New York city. 

Citizenship. By R. W. Smith, president of 
Manistee, Michigan, Board of Commerce. 

The Social Significance of the Motion 
Picture. By Dorothy Hanson, New Hamp- 
shire State College, Durham, N. H. 

Neighborhood Americanization. By Frances 
A Kellor, Americanization War Service. 
National Americanization Committee, 29 
West 39 street, New York city. 

Local Rural Institutions and Their Re- 
sponsibility to the Community. By Edwin 
Earp. Pamphlet No. 19. Printed by the 
Moravian Country Church Commission, 
225 North 10 street, Easton, Pa. 

Storage and Distribution of Water on 
Ships. By A. E. Wadsworth, member 
Royal Sanitary Institute, associate member 
Institute of Sanitary Engineers; quarantine 
sanitary inspector. Service Publication No. 
14, Commonwealth of Australia Quaran- 
tine Service, Melbourne. 

A County at Work on Its Health Prob- 
lems: A Statement of Accomplishment 
by the Dutchess County Health Asso- 
ciation During the Sixteen Months, 
Aucust, 1916, to December, 1917. By Jo- 
seph J. Weber, executive secretary, Com- 
mittee on Hospitals, State Charities Aid 
Association, 105 East 22 street, New York 
city. 

Reports (1914-17), North Manchurian 
Plague Prevention Service. Edited by 
Wu Lien-Teh, director and chief medical 
officer of the Service. Peking Gazette- 
Press, Peking, China. 

Healthy Homes Make Happiness: What 
Has Been Done for Health in Framinc- 
ham? A report from the Community 
Health Demonstration, Wilsonia building, 
Framingham, Mass. 

Sickness Survey of Principal Cities in 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Sixth 
community sickness survey. By Lee K. 
Frankel, third vice-president, and Louis I. 
Doublin, statistician. Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Co., 1 Madison avenue, New 
York city. 

Mitigation of the Heat Hazard in Indus- 
tries. By J. A. Watkins, passed assistant 
surgeon, United States Public Health Serv- 
ice. Reprint No. 441, United States Public 
Health Service. 5 cents, from Superin- 
tendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Garment Making Industries: Industrial 
Survey of Cincinnati. Chamber of Com- 
merce, Cincinnati. Report prepared by Cleo 
Murtland of the National Society for the 
Promotion of Industrial Education. 
The Justice of Rumania's Cause. By A. 
W. A. Leeper. Hodder and Stoughton, 
London, England. Price twopence. 
Belgium and Greece. By J. W. Headlnm. 



George H. Doran Company, 38 West 32 
street, New York city. 5 cents. 

Swiss Internment of Prisoners of War: An 
Experiment in International Humane 
Legislation and Administration. A re- 
port from the Swiss Commission in the 
United States. Bulletin of Social Legis- 
lation No. 5, edited by Samuel McCune 
Lindsay, professor of social legislation, 
Columbia University. Columbia University 
Press, New York city. $1 net. 

British War Aims. Statement by the Right 
Honourable David Lloyd George, January 
5, 1918. George H. Doran Company, 244 
Madison avenue, New York city. 5 cents 
per copy; $3 per hundred, postpaid. 

Turkey, A Past and A Future. By A. J. 
Toynbee. George H. Doran Company, 244 
Madison avenue, New York city. 15 cents. 

Are the Germans the Chosen People? Ad- 
dress delivered at the Business Men's 
Club, Cincinnati, by Rabbi David Philip- 
son. Copies may be secured by addressing 
Maurice J. Joseph, 1242 Harrison avenue, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Instructions and Notes on the Treatment 
and Training of Disabled Men. Ministry 
of Pensions. T. Fisher Unwin, Ltd., Lon- 
don, W. C. 3d net. 

Vocational Rehabilitation of Disabled Sol- 
diers and Sailors. A preliminary study. 
Bulletin No. 5. February, 1918. Issued by 
the Federal Board for Vocational Educa- 
tion, Washington, D. C. 

Training of Teachers for Occupational 
Therapy for the Rehabilitation of Dis- 
abled Soldiers and Sailors. Bulletin No. 6. 
February, 1918. Issued by the Federal 
Board for Vocational Education, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Manua-l of Home Service, Second Edition. 
ABC 201. December 17, 1917. The 
American Red Cross, Department of Civi- 
lian Relief, Washington, D. C. 

War Vegetable Gardening and the Home 
Storace of Vegetables. Published by the 
National War Garden Commission, Mary- 
land building, Washington, D. C. 

Persistency of Dependency — A Study in 
Social Causation. By Maurice B. Hexter, 
superintendent, United Jewish Charities, 
Cincinnati. Reprinted from Quarterly Pub- 
lications of the American Statistical Asso- 
ciation, December, 1917. 

The Food Garden Primer, 1917. Published 
by the National Emergency Food Gar- 
den Commission, 210 Maryland building, 
Washington, D. C. 

Instructions for the Assessment of Alter- 
native Pensions. T. Fisher Unwin, Ltd., 
London, W. C. 2, England. 3d net. 



1 


BOOKS 

RECEIVED 






Rising Japan. By Jabez T. Sunderland. G. 
P. Putnam's Sons. 220 pp. Price $1.25; 
by mail of the Survey $1.3 5. 

Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simov In- 
telligence Scale. Educational Psychology 
Monographs, No. IS. By Lewi? M. Ter- 
man and others. Warwick & York. 1S4 
pp. Price $1.40; by mail of the SURVEY, 
$1.50. 

Fighting Starvation in Belgium. By Ver- 
non Kellogg. Doubleday, Pasie & Co, 213 
pp. Price $1.25; In mail of the SURVEY, 
$1.35. 

Lesson Pi INS i\ I'm rim Gr\de Historv Hv 
[Continued on pagl >j 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 1918 



83 



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I •jiiiiiiiiimitmmimiiiJimmimiimmimiHiiiiiimiiiimH | 

SPECIAL SUMMER SESSIONS 

1 SOCIOLOGY, ECONOMICS, PUBLIC AFFAIRS, HEALTH, PRISON REFORM, EDUCATION 



E = 



Attend the Six Weeks Summer Session 
of 

New York School 
of philanthropy 

July 8— August 16 

Courses, including required practical 
work, in Community Organization, Play, 
Case Work, Child Welfare, Industry, 
Public Service, Psycho-Pathology, Crime 
and Punishment, Excursions to Agencies 
concerned with War Activities. 



| aiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiMii iiiiMiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 111 miiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiirc 3 

I £lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIMIIIIII I IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIII I IIIIIIIIMIII mil I III I n I irillll I 111 1 1 II 1 1 1 Illllllllllllllll MIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMI tlltlMIIIIMIl ml Illlllllllll IIIIIIIIIIHinillllllllllMIIIIIIIIU 

I I YOUR COUNTRY 
I J NEEDS YOU 

Learn How to Serve Through the 

RED GROSS HOME SERVICE 
INSTITUTES 

For the training of Executive Secretaries for 

| I Home Service with the families of soldiers and 

sailors. 

I I Summer Sessions in Boston, Cincinnati, Cleve- 

land, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and 

I I elsewhere. Six weeks course, full time. Three 

I I dollars registration fee. Red Cross Certificate. 

c = 

I 1 For fuller information, address, 

Mr. W. Frank Persons, 
I I Director-General of Civilian Relief, 

§ 1 American Red Cross, Washington, D. C. 

! THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL 
I WORK, BOSTON, MASS. 

A DEPARTMENT OF SIMMONS COLLEGE. 

E = 
E E 

The first year program begins September 
18. A substantial preparation for the 
forms of social service now in special de- 
mand. Correlated courses on work with 
I I individuals and families and on neighbor- 

hood work. 

Well prepared students may specialize 
I I in medical social service, work with children 

and adolescents, organizing charity, or in 
I I neighborhood work through settlements. 

A Summer Course is offered for six 
weeks beginning June 25. An introduc- 
| I tion to social work. 

Address the Director, 18 Somerset Street, Boston. 

! I SUMMER SCHOOL FOR INTER- 
I § CHURCH WORKERS 

Lake Geneva, Wisconsin 

June 26th to July 7th, 1918 

e E Courses in social service, publicity, community evangelism, missions, religious 

3 education, church, comity and the principles and methods of inter-church work. 

15 Faculty: Harry Wade Hicks. Rev. Ernest Bourner Allen. Prof. Benjamin F. 

1 Winchester. Rev. Henry Atkinson. Rev. Horace S. Holton, Kev. Charles Stelzle, 
= J. E. McAfee. Prof. Shailer Mathews, Rev. Roy B. Guild. 
= Special Speakers: Dr. Frank Mason North. Dr. Cornelius Woelfkin and Fred 

B. Smith. 

Auspices: Commission on Inter-Church Federation of the Federal Council of 
the Churches of Christ in America. Address Roy B. Guild, Executive Secretary, 
105 East 22nd Street, New York City, for information and particulars. 



WORK AMONG YOUNG WOMEN AND GIRLS 

Women qualified to become club leaders, industrial 
secretaries, cafeteria directors, physical directors, re- 
ligious work directors, executive secretaries, etc., in a 
Christian movement with a social program are invited 
to correspond with the Secretarial Department, Na- 
tional Board of 



Young Women's Christian Associations, 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

| | Relative to Intensive and Professional Courses of Training 



Write for information about the Summer Session and 
the Fellowships offered for the regular work of the School 
to the Secretary, 287 Fourth Avenue. 

CHICAGO SCHOOL 
OF CIVICS AND 
PHILANTHROPY 

1918 SUMMER SESSION 

June 19 — July 26 

General Course for Social Workers 

Five Credit Courses: (1) Principles of Case Work; 

(2) Problems of Social Work in War Time; 

(3) The Law and the Courts in relation to 
Social Work; (4) The Organization and 
Conduct of a Statistical Inquiry; (5) Mod- 
ern Radicalism. 

Field Work with one of the Social Agencies in Chicago. 

Visits of Inspection to the Important Institutions in 
or near Chicago. 

Special Course for Playground Workers 

Folk Dancing, Gymnastics, Games, Story-telling and 
other technical classes held at Hull-Huuse. 

Sixteenth Year Opens October 1, 1918 

For information, address The Dean, 2559 Michigan 
Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



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[ADVERTISEMENT] (Continued on back cover) 



84 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 191 



[Continued from 82) 
M. Annie Grace, Emma C. Monroe and 
others. 155 pp. Price $.75; by mail of 
the Survey, $.81. 

Artificial Dye-Stuffs. By Albert R. J. 
Ramsey and H. Claude Weston. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. 212 pp. Price $1.60; by 
mail of the Survey, $1.72. 

An Imperial Obligation. By Thomas H. 
Mawson. Grant Richards, Ltd. 124 pp. 
Price $1.10; by mail of the Survey $1.25. 

Report on a Survey of the City Govern- 
ment of Indianapolis, Ind. By Bureau of 
Municipal Research. Bureau of Govern- 
mental Research, Indianapolis Chamber of 
Commerce. 568 pp. Price $3.50; by mail 
of the Survey $3.70. 

The Winning of the War. By Roland G. 
Usher. Harper & Bros. 381pp. Price $2; 
by mail of the Survey $2.12. 

Library Ideals. By Henry E. Legler. Open 
Court Publishing Co. 78 pp. Price $1.50; 
by mail of the Survey $1.60. 

Modern Civic Art. Fourth Edition. By 
Charles Mulford Robinson. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. 381 pp. Price $3; by mail 
of the Survey $3.25. 

The Negro in Literature and Art in the 
United States. By Benjamin Brawley. 
Duffield & Co. 176 pp. Price $1.35; by 
mail of the Survey $1.45. 

Household Management. By Florence Nes- 
bit. Russell Sage Foundation. 170 pp. 
Price $.75; by mail of the Survey $.81. 

The Problem of the Soul. By Edmond 
Holmes. E. P. Dutton & Co. ,115 pp. 
Price $1 ; by mail of the Survey $1.06. 

Over Here. By Edgar A. Guest. Reilly & 
Britton Co. 192 pp. Price $1.25; by mail 
of the Survey $1.33. 

Field Artillery Officer's Notes. Compiled 
by Wm. H. Caldwell. E. P. Dutton & Co. 
77 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the 
Survey $1.56. 

The Temple. A Book of Prayer. By W. E 
Orchard. E. P. Dutton & Co. 165 pp 
Price $1 ; by mail of the Survey $1.05. 

Food in War Time. By Graham Lusk. W. B 
Saunders Co. 46 pp. Price $.50; by mai 
of the Survey $.55. 

Out There. By Charles W. Whitehair 
D. Appleton & Co. 248 pp. Price $1.50 
by mail of the Survey $1.62. 

The Happy Garret. The Recollections of 
Hebe Hill. Edited by V. Goldie. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. 314 pp. Price $1.50; by mail 
of the Survey $1.60. 

An American in the Making. By M. E. 
Ravage. Harper & Bros. 265 pp. Price 
$1.50; by mail of the Survey $1.62. 

Drink. Revised Edition. By Vance Thomp- 
son. E. P. Dutton & Co. 231 pp. Price 
$1; by mail of the Survey $1.10. 

Reconstruction in Louisiana After 1868. 
By Ella Lonn. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 538 
pp. Price $3 ; by mail of the Survey $3.20. 

Modern European Civilization. By Roscoe 
Lewis Ashley. Macmillan Co. 326 pp. 
Price $1.20; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 

Studies in Christianity. By A. Clutton- 
Brock. E. P. Dutton & Co. 169 pp. Price 
$1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 

America After the War. By An American 
Jurist. Century Co. 208 pp. Price $1 ; by 
mail of the Survey $1.08. 

Mediaeval Town Planning. By T. F. 
Tout. Longmans, Green & Co. 35 pp. 
Price $.50; by mail of the Survey $.55. 

The Woman Voter's Manual. By S. E. 
Forman and Marjorie Shuler. Century 
Co. 180 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of the 
Survey $1.08. 

Social Control. Vol. 12 of Papers and 
Proceedings of the American Sociological 
Society. By George Elliott Howard and 
others. University of Chicago Press. 269 
pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the Survey 
$1.60. 



Jottings From the Front. By Kenneth E. 
Shaw. George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. 184 
pp. Price 2s. 6d; by mail of the Survey 
$.90. 

The Way Forward. By Gilbert Murray. 
George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. 43 pp. Price 
Is; by mail of the Survey $.40. 

The Russian Revolution and the Jugo- 
slav Movement. By Alexander Petrun- 
kevitch and Robert Joseph Kerner. Har- 
vard University Press. 109 pp. Price $1; 
by mail of the Survey $1.08. 

Home Help in Music Study. By Harriette 
Brower. Frederick A. Stokes Co. 211 pp. 
Price $1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 

The Soul of the Soldier. By Thomas 
Tiplady. Fleming H. Revell Co. 208 pp. 
Price $1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 

Universal Service. By L. H. Bailey. Stur- 
gis & Walton Co. 165 pp. Price $1.25; 
by mail of the Survey $1.35. 

A Social History of the American Family. 
Vol. II. From Independence Through the 
Civil War. By Arthur W. Calhoun. 
Arthur H. Clark Co. 390 pp. Price $5; 
by mail of the Survey $5.30. 

Handling Men. By Various Business Ex- 



Calendar of Conferences 



<<V7"OUR book reviews are enor- 
1 mously valuable to us busy folks 
who haven't the time to browse 
through all of the publishers' lists in 
search of those things which will help 
us in our work. I watch very care- 
fully not only your extended book 
reviews, but also your advertisements 
and your lists of books received. I 
make a practice of writing out book 
orders directly from your lists. 

"In this connection, let me add that 
I appreciate the policy of the Survey 
in including for review books that do 
not bear specifically upon the tech- 
nique of social work. I am glad to 
see that you recognize that the social 
worker needs, both for his education 
and for the refreshing of his mind 
from time to time, books quite outside 
his own special narrow field. I be- 
lieve that for this reason you are 
rendering a valuable service to au- 
thors, to publishers, to social workers 
and to the general student." 

— From a letter by a Professor of 
Sociology in a Western State 
University. 



ecutives. A. W. Shaw Co. 200 pp. Price 

$1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 
The Holy Communion. By Charles Lewis 

Slattery. E. P. Dutton & Co. 51 pp. 

Price $.50; by mail of the Survey $.55. 
Health for the Soldier and Sailor. By 

Irving Fisher and Eugene Lyman Fisk. 

Funk & Wagnalls Co. 148 pp. Price $.60; 

by mail of the Survey $.66. 
The Theory and Practice of Mysticism. 

By Charles Morris Addison. E. P. Dutton 

& Co. 216 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of 

the Survey $1.60. 
The Third Great Plague. By John H. 

Stokes. W. B. Saunders Co. 204 pp. 

Price $1.50; by mail of the Survey $1.60. 
Use Your Government. By Alissa Franc. 

E. P. Dutton & Co. 374 pp. Price $: ; 

by mail of the Survey $2.12. 
Studies in Christianity. By A. Clutton- 

Brock. E. P. Dutton & Co. 169 pp. Price 

$1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 
The Psychology of Marriage. By Walter 

M. Gallichan. Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

300 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the 

Survey $1.62. 



MAY MEETINGS 

Items for the next calendar should reach the 
Survey before May 8 

Birth Control League, National. New 
York city, May 10. Ch'r'm, Virginia T. 
Heidelberg, 200 Fifth ave., New York city. 

Boys' Work Conference. Under the aus- 
pices of Boys' Club Federation. Philadel- 
phia, May 21-23. Sec'y, C. J. Atkinson, 1 
Madison avenue. New York city. 

Charities and Correction, New York City 
Conference of. Brooklyn, Manhattan and 
Yonkers, May 7-9. Sec'y, John B. Prest, 
287 Fourth avenue, New York city. 

Charities and Corrections, Tennessee State 
Conference. Memphis, May 5-7. Mary 
Russell, Associated Charities, Memphis. 

Child Helping Conference, Lehigh Valley. 
Lehighton, Pa., May 11. President, J. S. 
Heberling, Redington, Pa. 

Fire Protection Association, National. 
Chicago, May 7-9. Sec'y, Franklin H. 
Wentworth, 87 Milk street, Boston. 

Jewish Charities, National Conference of. 
Kansas City, Mo., May 12-15. Sec'y, L. H. 
Levin, 411 W. Fayette street, Baltimore. 

Labor, Socialist and Radical Movements, 
Second Conference of. New York city, 
May 3-5. For further information, ad- 
dress the Organizing Committee, 138 W. 
13 street, New York city. 

Museums, American Association of. Spring- 
field, Mass., May 20-22. Sec'y, H. L. Mad- 
ison, Park Museum, Providence, R. I. 

Nurses' Association, American, Cleveland, 
May 7-11. Sec'y, Katharine de Witt, 45 
South Union street, Rochester, N. Y. 

Nursing Education, National League of. 
Cleveland, May 6-11. Sec'y, E. J. Taylor, 
Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore. 

Probation Association, National. Kansas 
City, May 15-22. Sec'y, Charles L. Chute, 
State Probation Commission, Albany, N. Y. 

Public Health Nursing, National Organi- 
zation for. Cleveland, May 6-11. Sec'y, 
Ella Phillips Crandall, 156 Fifth avenue, 
New York city. 

Sanitary Association, Southeastern, Knox- 
ville, Tenn., May 20-22. Sec'y, Dr. Clar- 
ence E. Smith, Greenville, S. C. 

Social Work. National Conference of. 
Kansas City, Mo., May 15-22, 1918. Sec'y 
W. T. Cross, 315 Plymouth court, Chicago. 

"Win the War for Permanent Peace" 
Convention. Philadelphia, May 16-18. 
Under the auspices of League to Enforce 
Peace, 70 Fifth avenue, New York city. 

Women's Clubs, General Federation of. 
Hot Springs, Ark., April 30-Mav 8. Sec'v, 
Elizabeth H. Everett, Highland Park, 11*1. 
LATER MEETINGS 

INTERNATIONAL 

Kindergarten Union, International. Chi- 
cago, June 25-28. Sec'y, May Murray, 
Springfield, Mass. 

national 

Blind, American Association of Instruct- 
ors of the. Colorado Springs, Colo., June 
22-29. Sec'y, George D. Eaton, College 
for the Blind, Vinton, Iowa. 

Church Work, Conference for. Cam- 
bridge, Mass., June 21-July 6. Further 
information may be had of Miss Marian 
DeC. Ward, 415 Beacon street, Boston. 

Community Center Association, National. 
Pittsburgh, first week in July. Sec. E. L. 
Burchard, 617 C street, Washington, D. C. 

Tuberculosis, National Association for the 
Study and Prevention of. Boston, June 
6-8. Ass't Sec'y, Philip P. Jacobs, 105 East 
22 street, New York citv. 

WOMFN WORKI RS, \\TION\L LEAGUE OF. 

Biennial meeting, Welleslev, Mass.. Tune 
22-26. Sec'v. Alma Nilsen, SS Eat 
street, New York city. 




The Russian Instinct for Democracy 

[The following excerpts are from a private letter from a well-informed American who has been in 
Russia continuously for nearly two years. — Editor] 



I AM going to try in a few words to hit off the situation 
to you. The revolution last March was not led by 
Milyukov and Rodzianlco and the other liberals in the 
Duma, even though they became the first cabinet, and 
indeed were the ones who really made the Tsar abdicate. 
True, their speeches in the Duma all of the fall a year ago 
were preparing the way. But I doubt if any one of them 
really had any notion that they were going to have a revo- 
lution even ten days before it happened. No one had such 
a notion. The thing just happened. We all knew it was 
going to happen — it was like a tremendous avalanche which 
needed only the dislodgment of one boulder to start it going. 
But I personally didn't think it would happen until weeks, 
perhaps even months, later — perhaps not until after the war. 
But the boulder that dislodged was the food disturbances 
by the Petrograd proletariat. All of a sudden these took 
on such a formidable character that in a twinkling it dawned 
upon Milyukov and Rodzianko and the others that the great 
hour had struck. The thing that the proletariat had started 
they jumped into and led. 

Now the revolutionary ideals of the liberals and intel- 
lectuals were mightily different from those of the proletariat. 
I didn't realize this at the time, and hardly anybody did, but 
we now have the advantage of hindsight. The liberals and 
intellectuals were thinking of freedom to move and talk and 
meet and write. And when they got in, in the sort of adven- 
titious way they did, they at once set about to realize those 
ideals. They were going along splendidly. 

But soon there became audible the rumblings of the proleta- 
rian idea of freedom through revolution. They thought of 
it as not merely the freedom wanted by the intellectuals, but 
as freedom to get enough to eat, enough money to pay rent 
and to have power over economic conditions. If any of us 
had been endowed with foresight we should have realized 
that the ousting of Milyukov was a flash out of that great 
rumbling storm cloud. And still more clearly we should 
have seen it coming when the real proletariat, with a class- 
conscious socialistic program, got control of the Petrograd 
Soviet of Workmen's and Soldiers' Deputies. We did under- 
stand that, and we knew that the real seat of power was in 
the Soviet, but somehow we thought that the intellectual abil- 
ity of such men as Milyukov and Rodzianko and the other 
big liberal leaders would meet the situation. 

The Survey, April 27, 1918. Volume 40, 



Kerensky seemed to be the best bet, and I thought he was 
the real and only man who could keep both crowds in line. 
He worked about forty-two hours a day, had wonderful per- 
sonal magnetism, very simple and democratic ways, and played 
his game as straight and fair as anyone could who was trying 
to keep about ten diverse elements all in harness. 

I shudder to think what I would have written then if I 
had been able to write. For I should have banked everything 
on Kerensky. And even before that I had actually written the 
first draft of an article I hoped that some day the Survey 
would publish — an article centering around the personality 
of Milyukov. Ten days after I wrote that draft, Milyukov 
was dead so far as the situation here was concerned. 

You cannot begin to realize how far to the "left" things 
have gone so rapidly. Take, for instance, Mme. Breshkovsky. 
Liberated by the March revolution, she came out of Siberia 
to meet an ovation at every railway station. I was in the 
Samara station only three days after she was there and fol- 
lowed her in to Moscow. The nearest I have ever got to 
finding her was when I called her on the 'phone in Moscow 
just after I arrived, and was told by her secretary that she 
was that night leaving for Petrograd. 

She was a warm supporter of Kerensky. But now she is 
classed by the present Bolshevik control as utterly reactionary, 
the "tool of the capitalists of the allied imperialism," and her 
former private secretary has come out with an "exposure" of 
her for taking funds from American millionaires to play their 
game in the war. It was merely that she accepted some 
money from Americans of wealth to start big educational 
work throughout the country. But so far has she been left 
behind that she has been crucified in the way I explain — 
how cruelly words cannot describe. And she is somewhere 
in seclusion, unable to let even her whereabouts be known. 

But I don't mean to minimize the good points and the abso- 
lute consistency of those in control of the government. Since 
coming to Petrograd I am inclined to disbelieve the charges 
that they are German agents. They want peace — the masses 
of the country undoubtedly yearn for peace with an intensity 
that is overwhelming. It is largely due to their unintelli- 
gence. Kept in ignorance for generations by the old regime, 
they cannot see far beyond their immediate hardships, except 
to catch with their eyes through some rift in the clouds that 
surround them a vision of the day of ultimate universal peace 

No. 4. 112 East 19 street, New York city 85 



86 



THE SU RVEY FOR APRIL 27 , 191 




MILITANCY UNDISMAYED 

Mrs. Emeline Pankhurst visiting the Woman's 

Battalion of Death, which, before it broke up, 

was attached to a Moscow regiment- 

and brotherhood. And they sincerely believe, I am sure, that 
the masses of every other country have the same feelings as 
themselves ; that if only the workers and peasants of all coun- 
tries could become articulate, the war would be over and an 
epoch of universal good-feeling and fair dealing would ensue 
automatically. They think that the masses of' all countries 
are under the thralldom of the capitalistic governments that 
are conducting the war for imperialism and profits, and they 
don't believe that in any country is there any popular support 
of the war. 

But it may be that those now in control will some day wake 
up to the autocratic power of the German militaristic caste, 
and realize that it is the last bulwark of despotic control and 
that it must fall if the real progress of the Russian revolution 
is to be assured. The only solid rock is to be absolutely 
genuine, with no plausible special pleading, to assume fair- 
mindedness on the part of all the Russians — and, indeed, I 
believe them to be fair-minded — and to stick to plain hammer- 
ing in of information. 

I can't help — in the middle of this "speech" — saying a word 
about the relations of the future between America and Russia. 
I believe they are going to be the most important interna- 
tional relations for the movement of democracy. And that 
is because I believe America will be challenged to gear up her 
own democratic efficiency to help Russia sincerely in the de- 
velopment of her own democracy. But that does not mean 
that Russia is going to copy us. I believe that out of all 
this tremendous birth throe in the new Russia is coming a 
new thing in the democratic movement of the world. What 
it is I don't know, and probably there is no prophet who does 
know. But if you were here you would feel it as I do — 
vague and indefinable as it is. And America is going to learn 
something big from Russia. 

One of the reasons I feel this is that I seem to sense some 
essential and profound difference between American and 
Russian democracy. The Russians are inherently the most 
democratic people I have ever come in contact with. I could 



give instance after instance. But as nearly as I can express 
it, American democracy is a thing of intellectual belief, of 
accepted principle, of moral sense, of equality before the law, 
of political equality in principle, of future equality of economic 
opportunity. Russians have not this intellectual and moral 
sense of democracy as highly developed as ourselves. But 
theirs is even more fundamental. It is a human instinct and 
a profound emotion. It is part of the fiber of their warm 
flesh and blood. It is an instinct born in them, which ex- 
presses itself in all their relations as human beings to each 
other. It is a human passion with them. There isn't the 
shrinking from dirty clothes and dirty skins — not even from 
smelly feet — on the long, crowded train rides, that your aver- 
age American shows. They like being close together in a 
crowd — even the better-to-do show that simple affection for 
all with whom they are thrown in contact. And there is a 
spirit of tolerance and sharing the common lot in hard circum- 
stances that the rest of the world can learn a great deal from. 

You find that spirit cropping out in every sort of way. 
At one of the wealthiest homes in Moscow I dined one night 
in the midst of the most job-lot of people I ever saw together. 
They were dressed in every sort of attire — the man opposite 
me wore a celluloid collar — but no one had the slightest 
thought that it was "funny." And your peasant soldier these 
days is what a touchy bourgeoisie would call too familiar. But 
it isn't being obnoxiously forward; it's just his simple way of 
reaching out for human relationships now that he has a bet- 
ter chance than before. A princess whom I know gets all 
sorts of amusement out of the fact that every letter she re- 
ceives now with her title in front of her name on the envelop 
has a big blue pencil mark drawn through the word "prin- 
cess." And one of the happiest social gatherings I have been 
in on in a long time was in a railway car, jammed so it ac- 
tually bulged, in which I found the old governor under the 
Tsar's regime of an oblast back of the Urals. I had met him 
in Orenburg, and sat down for a chat with him. His friend 
had a 'cello, and at the mention of music he took the green 
baize cover off and played beautifully to the mob as we rolled 
and rolled across the steppe in the dark. 

The scoffer will say that he wanted to stand in with the 
mob, but if you could have seen the simple, natural way the 
whole thing happened you would understand what I am talk- 
ing about when I say that democracy is an instinct and an 
emotion with these people. But some other scoffer will men- 
tion the bitter strife that is at this moment making these 




WAI II N'(, 10R CLOTH 

To get enough for our dress, a woman often had to stand 

in line two or three times. A scent in the Red Square, 

\foscow, before the revolntion. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27 , 1 q 1 8 



87 



brothers butcher each other in the streets. That is only part 
of the passion. The same thing in their make-up that gives 
their democracy the peculiar human quality makes them all 
the more unbridled when their anger does get on fire. But 
even in this matter of disorder, the^ great, amazing wonder is 
that they are as self-restrained as they are. Here is a country 
utterly without real authority and discipline, and without even 
a peanut-stand police force in any of the large cities. If New 
York or Chicago were in the same condition as Moscow or 



Petrograd, the situation would make the worst "crime wave" 
we have had seem like a kid's game of marbles. 

Through all this turmoil I cannot lose faith in what the 
future will bring out of this tremendous human adventure on 
which Russia has embarked, and the only thing I feel real 
and hopeless despair about is my own lack of capacity to 
understand it all and to interpret it, to see the vision I am 
sure is here to be seen, and to be even in a little measure a 
medium to transmit its full meaning. 



Making the Job Worth While 

The Work of the Employment Manager, Bonuses and Vacations 

in Maintaining a Steady Work Force 

By John A, Fitch 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



i i 



A 



LL PERSONS applying for employment in this 
house who are turned away must be treated so 
that they will go away wishing to be employed 
here as much or more than when they applied." 
This from a set of rules worked out by a large mercantile es- 
tablishment for the guidance of those who interview prospec- 
tive employes is an example of the new standards that are being 
set up as employers are coming to recognize the human as- 
pects of the labor problem. Nowhere is such recognition more 
in evidence than in those establishments where the employment 
department has been raised to the dignity that its importance 
demands. 

Within the last few months I have had a chance to talk with 
some of the leading employment managers of the country. 
From them I have learned directly of the new spirit that has 
grown up wherever the business of employing men has been 
recognized as one of the major questions with which industry 
has to deal. I found that it is not alone because men are scarce 
that some industrial leaders have taken up in earnest the work 
of conserving their working force. 

"It's my job to keep men from quitting, that's true," one of 
them said to me. "T3ut it's just as important to do that when 
there are plenty of men to be had as when you can't hire one 
anywhere." And then he pointed out how much more valuable 
a man is who had become familiar with his surroundings. Even 
if the man in the street looking for work is equally skillful, the 
man on the job is the better man, on account of his acquaint- 
ance with the methods of the factory. 

One of the tasks of the modern employment department, 
therefore, is to find out why men quit; just as the sales de- 
partment when it loses a customer wants to know the reason, 
or as the chief engineer looks for the cause, when the ex- 
pected power fails to develop. 

It is interesting work— this business of taking your own 
temperature, so to speak. Some companies have found, to their 
surprise, that their wages were too low. They had not known 
it until they began to count up the number who left because 
they could do better somewhere else. 

Sometimes you find something altogether new that you were 
not looking for. About a year ago, for example, a new man 
went into the employment department of a large corporation. 
He was unfamiliar with the processes in that particular indus- 
try, and as he went over the plant to study the different de- 



partments he found one where it seemed to him the heat was 
excessive. He mentioned it and everyone else in the office 
laughed at him. They told him that he was absolutely wrong 
and that no old-timer would give a second thought to the mat- 
ter. Then they began to keep records of quits, and found to 
their surprise that an unduly high proportion of men were 
leaving that particular department. When the men were in- 
terviewed they complained of the excessive heat. The old- 
timers were then convinced and measures were taken to im- 
prove the condition. 

It may seem easy enough to find out from a man who has 
chucked his job just why he did it, but it isn't. It is easy 
enough to get a chance to interview the man. He has to go 
through the employment department to get his pay. But he 
does not always care to tell his real motives. The employment 
manager of a firm employing 10,000 people, told me that one 
of the most difficult problems he had to face was to find a 
man who could interview employes who were quitting and 
find out from them the cause of their dissatisfaction. Two 
men whom he had tried in that position had failed and he 
was looking for a third man. Another unusually successful em- 
ployment manager, who told me that he puts his best men on 
this job, said that he was completely baffled. He could not 
find any single or intelligible cause for the employes quitting. 
Yet the firm had a turnover of 100 per cent. 

There is nothing more likely to develop a spirit of under- 
standing and fair dealing than this practice of looking for the 
causes of dissatisfaction. You may not always find them, but 
the mere looking for them is sufficient to give you a new and 
broader point of view. "An employment manager," one man 
said to me, "must look the facts in the face. He must be a 
scientist. His work represents an altogether new conception of 
responsibility, for he must represent something more than the 
views of the employer. He must understand the employes just 
as well as he does the employer, and stand in a middle position 
representing both." Another employment man expressed a sim- 
ilar idea when he said to me: "The business of an employment 
department is to understand the point of view of the men and 
interpret it to the management." 

Of course, most employment managers, even the best of 
them, have a long way to go before they can be truly represen- 
tative of the men. A man hired by the employer to deal with 
the workers does not find it the easiest thing in the world to get 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 191 



the point of view of the shop. The very man quoted in the 
paragraph above said to me: "An employment department 
that is on its job, won't let an agitator get started. Men who 
are satisfied won't listen to an agitator." I gathered that he 
would consider as an agitator anyone proposing to organize 
a union; and that he would conceive it to be a part of his 
business to block any movement in that direction. 

But what of that ? He has started out with a new formula 
— he is going to defeat organization by making men satisfied. 
If he sticks to that program with all the sincerity and single- 
ness of purpose, with which I was impressed as I talked with 
him, neither the unions nor anyone else in the long run will 
have much to criticize. 

As employment departments are developed to a high degree 
of efficiency, it is becoming more and more the custom to keep 
tab on absentees, with a view to promoting regularity. Every 
morning the foreman of each department checks up his force 
and reports to the employment department the names or num- 
bers of those who are absent. It then becomes the duty of 
members of the staff of the employment manager, who are 
designated for that purpose, to make inquiry either over the 
telephone or by personal visit at the home of the absent em- 
ploye to discover the cause. This is done the same day that the 
absence is reported. This inquiry is made for three reasons: 
To maintain a high standard of health ; to correct abuses, and 
to overcome the habit of irregularity. 

Wherever the employment department is highly developed, 
and there is a medical department with a sufficient staff, it is 
customary to turn the inquiry over to the latter, if it is found 
that the absence is due to illness. In some factories a force of 
visiting nurses is employed, who do all the work of looking 
up absentees. One method or the other is employed at such 
establishments as Sears Roebuck & Company, in Chicago, the 
Ford Motor Company, the Solvay Process Company in De- 
troit, and many others. At Ford's, for example, as soon as it 
is found that an employe is ill, a visit from the nurse follows 
immediately. If she satisfies herself that the case is being taken 
care of properly, she so reports; if no doctor has been called 
and she thinks the case requires the advice of a physician, she 
notifies the medical department and a doctor is sent. 

Another large company has found this method very effective 
in preventing dissatisfaction due to various causes. It has 
been discovered frequently that a man stays away from work 
because of resentment over some minor injustice or a slighting 
remark on the part of the foreman. In such a case the man 
is asked to come back ; some responsible representative of the 
management takes the matter up with the foreman and the 
man, and the trouble is straightened out. Thus not only are 
the services of the man retained, but knowledge is at once ac- 
quired of a tendency on the part of the foreman which if un- 
checked may lead to a great deal of trouble. 

It was a matter of some interest to me to discover that in 
one of the largest firms in Detroit, where there was an em- 
ployment manager, but no method of following up absentees, 
they were complaining of a high labor turnover. If a man is 
absent five days they simply assume that he has quit and drop 
him from the payroll. 

Of course, it is found often enough that a man has laid off 
just because he has the habit of irregularity. Such a case re- 
quires the exercise of tact. Indeed, the whole practice is one 
that can easily make trouble if it is not handled with consider- 
able diplomacy. I was deeply interested in the method of one 
of the most successful employment managers in the country, 
as he explained it to me. "When a man enters the employ 
of this company," he said, "he is told that the company assumes 



him to be a fair-minded and honorable man who will discharge 
his obligations. The company has hired him and has entered 
into a contract to pay him a certain amount every day that he 
works. The employe on the other hand has entered into a 
contract to put in a day's work every working day. If he 
doesn't show up, the company will therefore naturally assume 
that he has met with some accident, is ill or has met with some 
other misfortune, and will send someone around to see if the 
company can help. This makes the follow-up seem reasonable, 
and the company is able at once to take any action that may 
seem necessary." 

A by-product of this keeping tab on absences, is the main- 
tenance of records which are sometimes very valuable in deal- 
ing with certain causes of unrest. The company has a record 
of all of a man's lost time. The advantage of that was explained 
to me as follows "A man thinks he isn't making money enough. 
He goes in and makes a kick; the superintendent can imme- 
diately turn to the books and see if he has been working full 
time. Often the man doesn't realize how much time he has tak- 
en off, and the record shows him why he isn't making more 
money. One of our first-class workmen was getting forty-five 
cents an hour, but he was working only part time, so he 
thought he was underpaid. We figured out that if we paid 
him only thirty-three cents an hour, and he worked full time, 
he would make just as much money as he was then making. 
So we told him if he didn't straighten up and come to work 
every day, we would cut his rate to thirty-three cents. The 
man saw the point ; he has been working regularly ever since." 

The old idea of securing punctuality was to enforce it 
through rigid discipline. There were fines for tardiness and 
absence, and often discharge. The new idea is to offer a re- 
ward for punctuality instead of a definite punishment for the 
lack of it. This idea is worked out in an interesting way at 
the Cloth Craft Shops of the Joseph and Feiss Company in 
Cleveland. Every year the plant closes down for one week, so 
that every employe gets a vacation whether he wants it or not. 
It is not a vacation with pay, but after working for the com- 
pany for one year an employe is entitled to a vacation bonus 
equal to forty-eight hours work. This is due him if he has 
a perfect attendance record. Every unexcused absence of one 
day takes eight hours off his bonus. A reasonable absence is 
not counted against a man, but if he takes a day off just for 
fun he will lose some of his vacation money. 

Probably the most interesting method for insuring not only 
punctuality, but efficiency and satisfactory conduct of every 
sort, is that followed by the Ford Motor Company. As is well 
known, the five dollar wage at Ford's is made up of two ele- 
ments: the daily rate, which is the wage proper, and the differ- 
ence between that and five dollars, which is termed profits. It 
is the Ford theory that a man is entitled to his wage, if he is 
kept on the payroll at all, but that he is entitled to his profits 
only in case of his adhering very strictly to the rules laid down. 
Therefore, if a man grows irregular in his attendance, after 
the cause has been ascertained and it is discovered to be for no 
good reason, the company takes him "off profits." He is then 
given thirty days in which to improve his record. If he has 
done so at the end of that time to such a marked degree as 
to indicate that it is his intention in the future to observe the 
rules and be regular in his attendance, he is permitted to draw 
as back pay all of the accrued profits which would have been 
paid him had he not become subject to discipline. If, how- 
ever, his record has not sufficiently improved in thirty days, 
the period of probation is extended for another thirty days. 
If he makes good within that time, he receives a portion of 
the accrued profits, but 25 per cent is retained. When the try- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27 , 19 18 



89 



out runs for three months, he gets back 60 per cent of his prof- 
its. After four months, he gets back only 50 per cent. If it 
takes him five months to make good, he gets back only 25 per 
cent, and if after six months his record has not sufficiently im- 
proved, all of his profits are withheld and he is automatically 
discharged. It should be stated in this connection that the 
profits are not retained by the Ford Motor Company, but are 
put into a charity fund. 

Daily regularity is not the only desirable thing. Employers 
are coming to feel that if it is a good thing to reward a man 
for working every day, it is also a good thing to reward him 
for remaining continuously in the employ of the company. 
This reward is taking two forms : an increase in wages based 
on service, and a vacation with pay for a definite period of 
time. This tendency with respect to wages was mentioned 
in a preceding article (the Survey for January 12). It is 
interesting and gratifying to note that employers are begin- 
ning to realize that vacations with pay are as desirable for the 
shop workers as for the office employes, and so, gradually, the 
old invidious distinction between office and shop is disappear- 
ing. The Solvay Process Company gives to every employe who 
has been working for the company one year, one week's vaca- 



tion with pay. The practice of the Joseph and Feiss Company, 
in this respect, has been mentioned. At the Black Company, 
manufacturing cloaks and suits in Cleveland, a week's vacation 
with pay is given after two seasons of employment. Sears, 
Roebuck & Company have developed the idea of the larger 
reward for longer service, and give one week's vacation with 
pay for one year's employment, two weeks after three years. 
At Filene's, in Boston, the practice is related directly to the 
length of service. After six months service an employe is en- 
titled to one day of vacation for each month of service, and 
this continues until the maximum of two weeks is reached. 
In this case also the vacation is with pay. 

These are some of the methods that are being used by for- 
ward-looking men in the industrial field, to attract labor by 
making the job worth while. The importance of the move- 
ment is incalculably great in a time when the successful issue 
of war is dependent in so large degree upon industrial effi- 
ciency. The government itself has recognized its value, and in 
the Shipping Board and the Ordnance Bureau men are giving 
their whole time to the spread of the new doctrine of employ- 
ment management. It is a movement that can result in noth- 
ing but good to the workers, to employers and to the public. 



The Health of Soldier and Civilian 1 

Some Aspects of the American 
Health Movement in War-Time 

By Gertrude Seymour 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



WHEN this paper was first planned, nearly a year 
ago, it promised to be a sketch of the effect of war 
upon various forms of public health work in this 
country. Perhaps it would also show, we thought, 
that danger existed here and there of neglecting, in the general 
pre-occupation, some much-needed district nursing service; or 
newly formed plans for infant hygiene out in the rural sec- 
tions of the country; or special provision for children of back- 
ward minds. Anti-tuberculosis work had suffered in Eng- 
land ; the disease was claimed to have extended terribly in 
France. And of one German army it was said that more 
men were disabled by the venereal diseases than would fill 
three divisions. 

Were these things to happen to this country, too? It was 
hard to await an answer to the question. Then, as the weeks 
passed, word came from one part of the country and another 
of a great gathering of medical and sanitary forces against 
these conditions. The selective service act itself provided 
for a medical and moral oversight that should control venereal 
disease in the camps and places accessible, and prescribed areas, 
"white zones," around every cantonment. National health 
and welfare societies placed their resources at the disposal of 
the government. Secretaries of state boards of health as- 
sembled for special conference with the Public Health Service 
a month earlier than the time of their annual meeting, and 
worked out an extensive program for the sanitation of the 
extra-cantonment zones. In this the Red Cross presently 
joined with reinforcements of money which enabled large 
numbers of physicians and nurses to enter this important ac- 
tivity. A great complex of service began. For, so far from 
arresting public health progress, the war has suddenly defined 



America's public health problem. And the aroused public 
conscience has promptly enacted measures which, a few 
months ago, would have been tabled by leisurely officials and 
classed as visionary schemes. Into a year there has been packed 
the progress of a decade. 

And so this paper has waited until it could see how all the 
zealous plan of service was working out ; how far the splendid 
schemes were temporary enthusiasm — how far they consti- 
tuted a sane, unified program of enduring worth. Only frag- 
ments of the whole great program can be here presented ; but 
perhaps from them one may judge somewhat of the poten- 
tialities of America's public health movement, upon which is 
laid the charge of making a democracy physically safe for the 
world. 

The material following is not presented in strict chronology. 
It is rather placed to illustrate specifically America's public 
health problem as this has been anew defined by war condi- 
tions, and its solution stimulated by war-time demands. 

Most dramatic of the year's events, the selective draft ex- 
aminations furnish adequate basis for many immediate public 
health measures. Even the preliminary report, now issued 
by Provost Marshal General E. B. Crowder, gives a regret- 
tably brief space to the physical disqualification ; but this in- 
adequacy is not an oversight. Says the report: 

"The causes for rejection, when ascertainable, will be of 
great sociological and medical value. But in the present 
emergency the time and labor to examine in detail two million 
and a half records cannot be spared." 

Such study is now proceeding in the provost marshal's 
office, and its results will doubtless appear at as early a date 

'Two preceding articles in this series appeared in the Survey for Decem- 
ber 1 and December 29, 1917. 



90 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 1918 



THE BEST 
-WAY 




T WISE 

Your 
Worst Enemy 



To Avoid Disease 

is to 

Keep Healthy 

See The 



HEALTH EXHIBIT 



GETTING WISE IN CAMP 

This poster, just issued by the War Department's Com- 
mission on Training Camp Activities, shows modern 
methods of carrying health propaganda to the soldier. 

as possible. But even in their present form, the findings are 
noteworthy. According to appendix table 12, the percentage 
of men physically unfit was highest in these states: 

Ratio of Physically Unfit 
STATE to Number Examined 

Pennsylvania 46.67 

Connecticut 46.30 

Vermont 43.82 

Maine 42.57 

The states having the lowest percentage of men physically 

unfit were: 

Ratio of Physically Unfit 
STATE to Number Examined 

South Dakota 14.1 3 

Nebraska 20.15 

Wyoming 21.53 

Oklahoma 22.03 

Only a small number of records (10,000 in eight camps) 
had been examined for causes of rejection, when the report 
was published, but these showed as the chief source of defect, 
eyes; and second, teeth. A list of the principal causes of re- 
jection is as follows: 

Causes for Physical Rejection Number Per Cent 

1. Total number of cases of physical rejec- 

tions considered 10,258 .... 

2. Alcoholism and drug habit 79 0.77 

3. Physical undevelopment 416 4.06 

4. Teeth 871 8.50 

5. Blood vessels 191 1 . 86 

6. Bones 304 2.96 

7. Digestive system 82 .80 

8. Ear 609 5.94 



9. Eye 2,224 21.68 

10. Joints 346 3.37 

11. Muscles 66 .64 

12. Respiratory 161 1.56 

13. Skin 118 1.15 

14. Flat foot 375 3.65 

15. Genito-urinary (non-venereal) 142 1.39 

16. Genito-urinary (venereal) 438 4.27 

17. Heart disease 602 5.87 

18. Hernia 766 7.47 

19. Mentally deficient 465 4.53 

20. Nervous disorder (general and local).... 387 3.77 

21. Tuberculosis 551 5.37 

22. Underweight 163 1.59 

23. Undefined or not specified 93 .91 

24. Not stated 809 7.89 

On the interesting question of relative fitness of urban and 
rural residents, the figures throw a rather unexpected light. 
"Selection was made," says Provost Marshal-General Crow- 
der, "of a typical set of cities of 40,000, to 500,000 population, 
having no large element of foreign immigrants and distributed 
over ten different states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, 
Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New York, North 
Carolina and Texas), and a corresponding set of counties of 
similar total size located in the same states and containing no 
city of 30,000 population. The total number of registrants 
presented was 315,000." 

The comparison resulted in a virtual tie between the city 

boy and the country boy: 

• 

Number Per Cent 
Urban and Rural Rejections Examined Rejected 

1. Urban areas, total persons physically ex- 
amined 35,017 

Accepted 25,048 71.53 

Rejected 9,969 28.47 

2. Rural areas, total persons physically ex- 

amined 44,462 

Accepted 32,030 72 . 04 

Rejected 12,432 27 . 96 

As to the rumors that camp surgeons had found men with 
glass eyes, cork legs, and other obvious disqualifications who 
had succeeded in bluffing the examining boards, Provost Mar- 
shal General Crowder explains that not all men called were 
physically examined by boards; for such examination would be 
postponed in the case (a) of men claiming exemption; (b) 
of men who failed to appear before the board; (c) those in 
excess of the quota, called as reserves. When their cases had 
been decided such men would naturally face a physical ex- 
amination first at the camp. Actual rejections at camps sub- 
sequent to acceptance by examining boards reached only an 
average of 5.8 per cent — "a remarkable testimony to the effi- 
ciency of local board surgeons," comments Provost Marshal 
General Crowder. 

Attempts at malingering were relatively few. Some nun 
tried to simulate tuberculosis — a scheme promptly nipped by 
the X-ray; others subjected themselves to doses of various 
kinds which would produce temporarily the effects of dis- 
qualifying diseases. It was discovered that men who peered 
and hesitated and seemed unable to read the eye tests displayed 
a quite normally acute vision when casually told to hang their 
coats on an inconspicuous nail, or in avoiding small blocks of 
wood placed with careful carelessness upon the floor. But 
malingerers usually found themselves in the ready hands of a 
"staff on correctable defects," and had their trouble for small 
satisfaction. More representative are the men who memo- 
rized the eye-tests in order to get in even if they had one 
shop-made optic; or the youth who had a hernia which could 
be cured by operation, he was told. He had feared the sur- 
gery and would not undergo it for his own sake, but readily 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27 , 1918 



91 



agreed to the ordeal "if it will land me in the army." Ex- 
amining boards were on the alert for eye troubles; they lis- 
tened attentively for "rales." Since instructions forbade ac- 
cepting flatfoot, one man so afflicted was refused, to his great 
dissatisfaction, even though he had been for several years an 
Adirondack guide. 

But there proved to be less obvious disabilities. Surgeon 
C. W. Stiles, of the Public Health Service, was the first, it 
is reported, to follow up some of the cases of southern men 
rejected because they were under weight, anemic, or in gen- 
eral ill-health. Among seventy-five such men, Dr. Stiles 
found forty-seven cases of hookworm. Of three regiments 
from different states of the South, giving a total of 3,400 men, 
the percentages of hookworm in each was, respectively, 6, 32 
and 54. 

Similarly, less well-known diseases, like pellagra and tra- 
choma were also discovered. The disconcerting fact about 
these instances is not the actual numbers of cases found, but 
the wide area from which they came — a confirmation of opin- 
ions already expressed by public health officers that these dis- 
eases are no longer limited to the strict areas of southern ter- 
ritory in which for so long they have been endemic. 

Eyes, teeth, defective feet, the extension stealthily of rarer 
infections into new areas — these facts contain a definition of 
this country's public health problem, a revelation of its ap- 
palling indifference to conditions that, taken in time, are so 
easily remedied; neglected, mean both depleted strength in the 
military crisis and an added burden upon civilian society. 
Minor defects were in very many cases remedied by the vol- 
unteer services of medical and dental societies, boards of 
health, and the Public Health Service, which admitted such 
men to its Marine Hospitals and relief stations. There was 
no charge for this attention ; the only condition attached was 
that the men cared for shall be pledged to military service. 

The practical corollary to these discoveries is prompt atten- 
tion to the community's health needs, especially to those of the 
children. And already in some places (see the Survey for 
Oct. 6, 1917, page 27) new activities to this end have been 
begun. 

But almost before the country realized what the draft had 
revealed, there occurred another overwhelming proof of the 
importance of sanitary science. To the degree in which the 
epidemics in our training camps last fall were the result of 
inadequate preparation or of a failure of an old regime to 
accept a new science not its own — to just this degree those ill- 
nesses belong not to the discussion announced for this paper 
but to coming new settlements in our social order. To the 
degree in which they illustrate the value beyond question of 
public health measures, they will be included in a report, now 
in course of preparation, on these measures as recognized and 
made operative because of the men who died here instead of 
in France. 

At this point the story branches into several directions at 
once, and it is difficult to select the immediate route. There 
is the provision for all special care needed by tuberculous men ; 
the necessary adjustment of those found mentally defective; 
to secure the best service of each as well as provide for an 
economic future; and the splendid plan for reciprocal notifi- 
cation between military officers and civilian public health au- 
thorities, resulting in sanitary protection that reaches far be- 
yond the limits of the "zones," and is becoming a program 
for future public health work based upon a tremendous dem- 
onstration. This system is believed to be unique among those 
of warring countries. In England, the local government 
board cooperates and notifies army officers of the presence of 




H^VE A LOOK 
Hidden Enemies 

Learif how they attack, how 
they destroy, and- how they 
may be escaped. 

SEE THE STEREOMOTORGRAPH 

Pictures changed every other day 



< 




MEETING THE GERM ATTACK 

Another War Department poster, in which the name of the 

camp building where the performance is given is inserted 

in the space toward the bottom. 

disease in territory adjacent to military stations. In this 
country, the reciprocal notification prevents carriers of dis- 
ease from going back from camp into communities without 
the knowledge of the health authorities protecting that neigh- 
borhood, as well as prevents men from going directly into 
camps from the midst of an epidemic without giving the 
camp officers warning to isolate them. 

The plan and progress of the mental realignment of the 
army, with its correlated studies of causes of mental defect 
and the curious social grouping of defective types, will be 
the subject of a later discussion. Reports, too, of the actual 
operation of the plans for tuberculous soldiers are not yet 
fully available, but in this field some valuable material is now 
at hand and will be outlined more briefly than it deserves." 

For the first time in the military history of the world, 
says Dr. George T. Palmer, of Springfield, 111., tuberculosis 
is being given a due recognition. Even allowing for a more 
conservative estimate than was at first placed on the possible 
number of tuberculous American soldiers — either newly dis- 
covered cases, or latent cases aggravated by war conditions, or, 
rarely, new infections — there would inevitably be an increased 
number of known cases requiring treatment and economic 
readjustment. Definite measures were taken early in the mo- 
bilization to prevent tuberculosis from becoming so great a 
factor in future disability of the troops. To Col. G. E. Bush- 
nell, U. S. A., for many years in charge of the tuberculosis 
sanatorium at Fort Bayard, N. M., was entrusted the task 
of providing a special examination for tuberculosis for every 
man in the existing armies. 



92 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 191 



A vivid story of what this examination meant in the New- 
England National Guard is told by Dr. E. O. Otis, of Boston, 
who was one of the physicians selected because of experience 
to aid under contract in this work. In the Northeast Na- 
tional Guard were practically 30,000 men, many of whom 
were very soon to go to the front. There was no time for 
prolonged observation. The doctors earned the facetious de- 
scription, "the flying squadron of heart and lungs," as they 
accomplished their one hundred cases a day. In spite of such 
speed and the inevitable weariness of examiners, the results 
have thus far proved remarkably accurate. Says Dr. Otis: 

The effect of the previous occupation was strikingly noticeable in 
many cases; in general the men who had led outdoor lives, like the 
lumbermen of northern Maine, or the farmers of Vermont, were a 
far more rugged set, and were almost entirely free from tuberculosis, 
while those who had been operatives in mills and factories and had 
led an indoor life were far inferior in physical development and 
afforded many more cases of tuberculosis. Those who had 'used 
alcohol more or less constantly also gave many cases of tuberculosis. 
The many cases of slight acute bronchitis, amounting to almost an 
epidemic in some camps, made the interpretation of localized rales 
without other evidence difficult if not impossible. 

A total of 680 men were finally recommended for discharge 
— that is, a little over 2 per cent. According to Colonel 
Bushnell the total number of examinations in all armies 
showed a percentage of less than 1 per cent of tuberculosis. 
This report is based on records up to January, 1918. The 
results of this survey led to the appointment of over two hun- 
dred physicians, specialists in tuberculosis, to investigate sus- 
pected cases, and to examine the new national army. These 
physicians were selected with the cooperation of the National 



Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, 
which at once placed its resources at the government's disposal 
and has directly and through affiliated state societies ren- 
dered important and recognized service. It is in touch with 
camp commanders as well as sanatorium physicians, for ex- 
ample, and notified the military officers of such occurrences 
as the summons under the selective draft of a man who had 
been "sitting out" on a sanatorium porch. Nothing on the 
little numbered slip drawn from the great bowl in Washing- 
ton could remotely suggest such a social setting. But know- 
ing these facts facilitated rapid action at the camps, and 
enabled those best prepared to be of assistance to these men. 
In exchange, many camp commanders have referred to the 
national association cases recently discovered and thereby 
disqualified from military service. 

Take the Illinois plan as an example of state activity in 
tuberculosis work. Here, through the joint action of the 
State Council of Defense, the State Department of Health 
and the Illinois Tuberculosis Association, an extensive edu- 
cational campaign was carried out — some of the leaflets used 
having been borrowed and adapted by a dozen other states 
to their peculiar situations. A close organization throughout 
every county in Illinois facilitated not only education, but tu- 
berculosis nursing, assistance to examining boards, and the 
provision of new hospital and sanatorium opportunities. 
Splendid cooperation, financial and other, has been given by 
public-spirited individuals, city councils, boards of education 
and county officials. 

In no part of the story of health work in war-time is there 




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PREVALENCE OK VENEREAL DISEASES AND OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN nil UNITED STATES \K\I\ 

The figures, based on reports to the surgeon-general between September 1\ and December 7„ 1917, are the 
computed annual rate per 1,000. Venereal rales are indicated by the solid black columns; cross-barred 
columns show rates for pneumonia, dysentery, typhoid, paratyphoid, malaria, meningitis and scarlet fever 
— not measles. The rate, 162.4, in the national army, points, of course, to civilian conditions. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 1918 



93 



From the Report of the Provost Marshal General 




LESS THAN 60 PER CENT 
60 TO 65 PER CENT 
65 " 70 - 

K2 70 •• 75 

mil 75 • so •• 



[■M^J SO PER CENT AND OVER 



WHERE THE MEN WERE FIT 



Showing the ratio of men physically qualified to those physically examined. South Dakota, it will be seen, stands highest. 

Manic, Vermont, Rhode Island and Pennsylvania stand lowest. 



to be found a deeper social vision, a public spirit stabbed so 
broad awake by revelations of civil conditions abroad and at 
home, so remarkable a team-work of many groups united in 
the determination to provide for a clean and normal social 
living, as in the campaign against venereal diseases. 

This is the vision : A society in which venereal diseases are 
controlled as other dangerous, communicable diseases are being 
controlled ; in which human beings are taught the facts of 
normal existence in both their physical and their moral bear- 
ing; in which conditions of work, of play, of life in every 
phase, call out the higher potentialities, not the lower. 

The position taken on this subject is official and national. 
The selective draft law passed by Congress on April 28, 1917, 
gave to the President the power to regulate the prohibition of 
alcohol in or near military camps; and further, "authorized, 
empowered and directed" the secretary of war to do every- 
thing deemed by him necessary to prohibit "the keeping or 
setting up of houses of ill-fame, brothels or bawdy houses 
within five miles of any military camp, station, fort, post, 
cantonment, training or mobilization place being used for 
military purposes by the United States. . . ." This 
was promptly supported by Secretary Baker's letter' to the 
governors of all states requesting in unmistakable terms their 
authoritative cooperation through all appropriate means: 

"Our responsibility in this matter is not open to question. 
We cannot allow these young men, most of whom will have 
been drafted to service, to be surrounded by a vicious and 
demoralizing environment, nor can we leave anything undone 
which will protect them from unhealthy influence, and crude 
forms of temptation." 

The navy's similar attitude was expressed in Secretary 
Daniels' letter of 1915 to all commanding officers: 



The spectacle of an officer or hospital steward calling up boys in 
their teens as they are going on leave and handing over these 
''preventative packets" is abhorrent to me. It is equivalent to the 
government advising these boys that it is right and proper for them 
to indulge in an evil which perverts their morals. I would not per- 
mit a youth in whom I was interested to enlist in a service that 
would thus give virtual approval to disobeying the teachings of his 
parents and the dictates of the highest moral code. You may say 
that the ideal raised is too high and we need not expect young men 
to live up to the ideal of continence. If so, I cannot agree. It is a 
duty we cannot shirk to point to the true ideal, to chastity, to a 
single standard of morals for men and women. 

Reports of the surgeon-general of the army have not only 
told in full the efforts within military circles to eliminate 
venereal diseases, but have explicitly indicated the civilian 
sources of infection. On page 17 of the 1917 report Surgeon- 
General Gorgas writes : 

It has often been assumed by well-meaning but ill-informed critics 
that illicit sexual intercourse and venereal diseases are more com- 
mon in the military forces of the United States than in civil life. 

That this is an erroneous conclusion is well known to most of 
the medical practitioners of the country, and one resulting principally 
from the fact that the statistics of these diseases are collected by the 
surgeon-general of the army and frankly published, whereas the 
corresponding figures for civilian life are incomplete and inacces- 
sible. . . . 

It should be repeated that venereal diseases have never had their 
origin in military reservations, where strict discipline and constant 
inspections have rendered it impossible, but rather in the laxly gov- 
erned civil communities surrounding many army posts, where 
ignorance of conditions and indifference, or something even worse 
on the part of local authorities, have conduced to a widespread in- 
fection, not only of the civil population but the soldiery as well. 

The same fact is indicated in Lieutenant-Colonel Vedder's 
study of syphilis in the army, published in 1916 as War De- 
partment Bulletin No. 8. Dr. Vedder says: "It is the expe- 
rience of numerous officers . . . that a large part of the 



94 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 1918 



syphilis in the army is contracted prior to enlistment," or, as 
Major Howard of Jefferson Barracks adds, "before arrival 
at the post." Since in latent form the disease cannot be de- 
tected by observation only, and therefore many cases may pass 
even the most attentive examiner, Dr. Vedder undertook 
a special survey to obtain information on this point. Here 
are some of his findings, relating to the civilian situation. 

In order to avoid including cases of infection contracted 
after enlistment, no men were examined who had been enlisted 
for more than a week. In order to compare percentages in 
different parts of the country, two series were taken: One 
from Fort Slocum, which receives men chiefly from New York 
city and vicinity ; one from Columbus Barracks, O., which re- 
ceives men largely from the country and small towns of the 
South and the middle West. Five hundred blood specimens 
from each place were mailed to the Army Medical School, 
Washington, D. C, for Wasserman test. The findings were, 
briefly, a percentage of 16.77 syphilitics among newly enlisted 
men ; a very slight difference in the percentages of the two 
series — the Columbus Barracks series, showing 16.96, and Fort 
Slocum, 16.60. "This," says Dr. Vedder, "is a truly aston- 
ishing state of affairs. . . . The fact alone is eloquent testi- 
mony as to the nature of the disease, and affords food for 
thought for those medical men who think that syphilis is a 
skin disease and that when there are no obvious eruptions . . . 
the disease has not been present or is cured." 

An interesting conclusion which Dr. Vedder reaches by 
comparing such records as are available of the causes of re- 
jection in recent years, either at once by the adjutant-general 
or later by military surgeons, is that one out of five applicants 
for enlistment is rejected for syphilis — that is, among young 
men in civil life between the ages of 20 and 30 and of the 
general range of occupations, the percentage of syphilis is at 
least 20 per 100. 

That these peace-time estimates were not exaggerated was 
overwhelmingly demonstrated by the experience in camps last 
autumn. Between September and December, 1917, over 
21,000 new cases (z. e., not before reported at a camp) were 
reported to military authorities. The incidence of these cases 
increased regularly as surely as new groups of recruits as- 
sembled ; the rate declined as regularly when the men had 
been under the treatment and discipline of camp life. In a 
word, civilian communities who had steadfastly held the idea 
that the army spread venereal diseases, were faced by the facts 
that infection comes from civilian sources; and an I-am-holier- 



than thou attitude was seen to be hardly appropriate. 

Not only has the grave criticism implicit in these facts at 
last won public attention, but an uprising of civilian forces 
has occurred to cooperate with the military in a veritable 
campaign against venereal diseases, including the different so- 
cial problems which follow upon the assembling of troops in 
a community. For quite evidently there is a nanifold prob- 
lem — venereal diseases, a matter for medical and public health 
administration ; prostitution, a matter for municipal legal ad- 
ministration ; back of both, social and economic conditions 
that await the action of state and nation. As inextricably 
associated as bad housing conditions with tuberculosis is this 
time-honored institution, the prostitute, with venereal diseases, 
Statistics of recent surveys in different parts of the country re- 
port from 80 to 95 per cent of the prostitutes examined are 
infected with one or more of the venereal diseases. Neither 
the medical solution alone nor the legal solution alone is suffi- 
cient for this problem. As well try to cure malaria by ad- 
ministering quinine while leaving mosquitoes undisturbed in 
their marshes, or depend upon bedside disinfection to check a 
typhoid epidemic, as to follow any one method alone for 
controlling venereal diseases. The idea of having engineers 
in a "sanitary corps" has at last become familiar; but in the 
present attack upon venereal diseases there are enrolled not 
only engineers and doctors, but lawyers, editors, teachers, 
clergymen, students of many lines of social progress. Such 
is the scope of the modern public health program. 

As Dr. Franklin Martin, chief of the general medical 
board, Council of National Defense, said: "For the first 
time in modern warfare a nation has undertaken to grapple 
with this problem as a war measure." For it is the nation's 
work — not a spasmodic activity in four or five states that 
would result only in "floating" the problem to another place ; 
not by one administrative or professional body alone ; but 
medicine, public health, police authority, legislation, social 
service — all the resources of our civilized community are 
tapped. It is, as Dr. Rosenau put it, "Civilization against 
syphilization." 

To tell the story of the campaign against these diseases, it 
will be necessary to review briefly the existing military regu- 
lations affecting it, and then to consider the military and civ- 
ilian cooperation in the national program for the abolition of 
drink, vice and prostitution, and the establishment of higher 
ideals of health and living. These are both parts of a still 
larger story which will be told in later pagi 



College Women and Nursing 

By Herbert Elmer Mills 

PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS AND DEAN OF THE TRAINING CAMP FOR NURSES, VASSAR COLLECE 



EVERY June there leave the women's colleges and 
the co-educational institutions of learning some 
thousands of young women. From the seventh and 
eighth grades on, the less able, less industrious, less 
persistent, less ambitious of their early classmates have dropped 
by the way, so that those who graduate are above the average 
in intellectual ability, strength of character and physical 
endurance. Through the eight years of preparatory school 
and college they have been trained, disciplined and informed 
not only by the science, history, language, economics and 
psychology of the classroom and laboratory but by the re- 
markable community life and student government systems 
that are so widely prevalent. A sense of responsibility, experi- 
ence in organization, executive capacity have been added to 



scholastic training. Quite generally among them there is 
absence of hysteria; and they have a saving sense of humor 
even in such catastrophes as the big fires at Wellesley and 
Vassar. Nor has the development of these stronger qualities 
been at the expense of "their immemorial ability to reaffirm 
the charm of existence." The beauty and joy of this stream 
of youthful life can be properly apprized only by those who 
are daily in contact with it and who themselves remain young 
enough in spirit to sympathize with its eager vigor even when 
this outstrips the wisdom of longer years. 

As it has passed out into the world what has become of this 
potential social power — of all this more than ordinary ability 
with its splendid training and enthusiastic vision? In the 
early days of woman's higher education, school teaching and 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 27 , 1918 



95 



marriage were almost the only possibilities for the college 
graduate. A few venturesome spirits entered law and medi- 
cine; but until quite recently social tradition, rather selfish 
parental affection, business and professional prejudice have 
prevented our social life from gaining the full benefit it 
should from this source. The parents who might regard it 
as a duty to allow their daughter to go to China as a mis- 
sionary would not let her live in Rivington street. The fire- 
side rather than the business office was the proper place for 
the loved daughter. Although still widespread, this attitude 
has been gradually modified. Into all fields of social work 
college women have brought intelligence, sanity, inspiration, 
a wide background of knowledge. More recently many have 
shown their fitness for advertising and publicity work as well 
as salesmanship. Along with their less fortunate sisters college 
women have entered well nigh all the occupations. Nor has 
this interfered with marriage and motherhood. Although 
somewhat postponed, these relationships have their supreme 
appeal to the college educated woman as to others. Either 
continuing their paid work or offering their volunteer services, 
married graduates remain a great social force. 

Strangely enough into one calling, traditionally and pecu- 
liarly woman's possession, college girls have not entered in 
large numbers. Nursing itself has been struggling for the 
recognition of its professional standards. In popular opinion 
a motherly hen has been the pattern to be followed. The 
scientifically trained nurse, despite the welcome many have 
given her, has been too much ridiculed and sniffed at. Further, 
the work of the nurse has been largely private family nursing 
which has not seemed to the college woman to offer full op- 
portunity for her liberal training, her developed personality, 
her social vision and obligation. The three years' training 
course of the better hospitals with much repetition of college 
work has been a great hindrance to the entrance of college 
women into nursing. 

The great health movement of the last decade or two has 
rapidly changed this situation. In every direction have opened 
up lines of executive and social work which only the trained 
nurse can do. In the hospital training schools women of 
capacity and broad education are needed as superintendents, 
assistant superintendents, .instructors, dietitians. Social serv- 
ice and after-care work of the hospitals and clinics require 
scientific preparation and social enthusiasm. In some cases, 
as in that of the psychopathic clinic, specialized educational 
preparation is practically requisite. District nursing, whether 
it be the general, or specialized forms of child welfare and 
tuberculosis care, demands resourcefulness and furnishes an 
outlet for a sense of social responsibility. Rural health work, 
centering largely around the school, is one of the great poten- 
tialities of the immediate future. In the field of insanity, pre- 
ventive and after-care furnish interesting opportunities for 
work. Industrial and commercial establishments are employ- 
ing nurses for the care of the ill and injured as well as for 
preventive effort in the control of diseases which deplete labor 
force. Almshouses and other institutions should have better 
equipped infirmaries under trained nurses, and we must emu- 
late the achievements made by Louisa Twining in England. 

Such was the situation before the war, which has increased 
the demand for superior nursing in all these fields. Even more 
imperative has become the need of nurses for military hos- 
pitals. Into them must be sent scores of thousands who will 
be taken from the force of nurses now doing social work and 
from the graduating classes and advanced pupil nurses of the 
training schools. 

Here then is an overwhelming necessity — to fill up the gaps 
left in the hospitals, to prepare for the increasing amount of 
social service nursing, and to supply those who can well do 



the administrative, educational and scientific work of the 
training schools. 

This is the demand. The force of college women is the 
supply. It is the war need and the desire to do war service 
which more than any other thing will bring the two together. 
Hundreds of letters from college women could be quoted to 
show how intensely burns in their hearts the longing to do 
something to aid the nation and how peculiarly nursing seems 
to be the great service. 

Out of such conditions has grown the Training Camp for 
Nurses at Vassar College which hopes to aid the entrance of 
possibly four or five hundred college women into this great 
calling. It is thought that it will help develop a new outlet 
for the energies of college women ; that it will furnish a 
supply of those preeminently fitted presently to enter social 
service nursing and who ought in due time to occupy executive 
and administrative positions in the nursing profession; that it 
will help maintain high standards of preparation and qualifica- 
tion for public health work and nursing; and above all that 
it will render great national service in this time of dire need 
by increasing the number becoming nurses — not only through 
the course at Vassar but by stimulating the entrance of many 
young women directly into the hospital training schools. 

The essential features of the plan can be stated briefly. At 
the suggestion of alumnae the trustees of Vassar College 
placed its resources at the disposal of the camp. The Council 
of National Defense, the American Red Cross and the nurses' 
organizations of the country are giving their support and 
council. An eminent faculty from universities like Harvard, 
Yale, Johns Hopkins and Columbia and from hospital training 
schools like those of Johns Hopkins and St. Luke's of New 
York has been gathered together. In lecture room, laboratory, 
diet kitchen, demonstration ward they will give instruction 
in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, bacteriology, elementary 
practical nursing and the history of nursing, materia medica, 
psychology, social economics, and corrective physical training. 
At the conclusion of this three months' preliminary course 
each graduate will enter the training school of one of a group 
of some thirty hospitals of high standing. These are con- 
veniently located throughout the country. In them training 
and instruction will be continued on the basis of what has 
already been done. These students will not be exempted from 
the discipline and hard work required of others in training. 
At the end of two years they will be ready to try for the di- 
ploma of registered nurse. The ordinary three years' period 
will thus be reduced to two years and three months. Each 
will then be as free to do what she pleases as any other nurse. 

All women graduates of the last ten years' classes in univer- 
sities and colleges recognized by the New York State Depart- 
ment of Education are eligible to enter the camp if physically 
fit, but only those will be received who will regard themselves 
as in honor bound to enter a hospital training school in Sep- 
tember and who make arrangements to that effect. A subsidy 
from the American Red Cross has made it possible to make 
the charge for tuition, room, board and laundry, $95 for the 
twelve weeks. Young women are giving up good positions 
in order to take advantage of this opportunity and only by 
financial help can some of them accomplish it. 

The advantages of the plan to the student are a shortened 
course, instruction from an eminent faculty, and the oppor- 
tunity to do much of the scientific work of the training course 
uninterrupted by the arduous work of the ward. The hos- 
pitals have cordially cooperated because of their desire to re- 
ceive such a selected group of well prepared young women. 
Above all it should mean permanent national betterment in 
its effect upon the nursing profession and upon the lines of 
social work related thereto. 



C0929C0 




TO STUDY THE IMMIGRANT 
ON A LARGE SCALE 

THE Carnegie Corporation has ap- 
pointed a committee to study the 
agencies and processes that affect the 
fusion of native and foreign-born Ameri- 
cans. Without wishing to take part in 
the controversy whether further restric- 
tions on immigration are or are not ad- 
visable, the corporation desires, it says, 
as one of its contributions to the war 
service of the nation, to help in clarify- 
ing the problems of Americanization in- 
volving those foreign-born who already 
have made the United States their home, 
and, if possible, to advance recommenda- 
tions towards the solution of those prob- 
lems. 

An advisory committee consisting of 
Theodore Roosevelt, Prof. John Gra- 
ham Brooks, of Cambridge, and John 
M. Glenn, director of the Russell Sage 
Foundation, has been appointed, and 
Allen T. Burns, director of the Survey 
Committee of the Cleveland Founda- 
tion, has been put in charge of the in- 
vestigation. 

The preliminary program of inquiry 
divides the general subject into ten 
sections, for each of which a specialist 
of national influence in his field will, it 
is said, be appointed chief investigator. 
These ten, with the director, will make 
up the committee of inquiry. The divi- 
sions are: schooling of immigrant (adult 
and juvenile) ; the press and the theater ; 
adjustment of homes and family life; 
legal protection and correction ; care of 
health ; naturalization and political ex- 
perience ; industrial and economic amal- 
gamation ; treatment of immigrant heri- 
tages ; neighborhood agencies and or- 
ganizations ; rural developments. The 
purpose is to learn in each field the most 
effective methods. 

While it is not expected that the chief 
investigators will be able to give more 
than part of their time to these inves- 
tigations, they will be aided by field 
workers who will spend some time in 
each of twelve communities selected for 
the significance of their developments in 
a given field. A comparative study of 
the methods and results will be con- 
ducted in the various cities. It is ex- 
96 



pected that the field work will take 
about a year. 

The corporation interprets the word 
Americanization for the purpose of this 
inquiry in a wide sense, embracing not 
only efforts to bring the immigrant un- 
der the influence of accepted standards 
of life and conduct, but also those to 
preserve such native standards as con- 
tribute to the welfare of the common- 
wealth, but are apt to be lost by faulty 
adjustment to new environmental con- 
ditions. 

The need for such a study must have 
been apparent to many of those who at- 
tended the recent Americanization con- 
ference held by the Department of the 
Interior in Washington. Its intentions 
coincide with the sympathetic speech of 
Secretary Franklin K. Lane, who em- 
phasized the constructive educational task 
and — in contrast with many thought- 
less and sensational charges made by 
other speakers at the conference against 
foreign-born citizens — insisted that what 
was' needed was "a determination to 
deal in a catholic and sympathetic spirit 
with those who can be led to follow in 
the way of this nation." The confer- 
ence, which included more than a dozen 
governors, appointed a committee to pre- 
sent to Congress a program calling for 
cooperation by the federal government, 
state and local communities, and indus- 
tries employing large numbers of non- 
English-speaking foreign-born persons in 
an intensive and immediate program of 
Americanization through education. 



April 27, 1<U8 



Vol. 40. \V. 4 



THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street, New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 
U. Kellogg, editor; Arthur P. Kellogg, 
secretary; Frank Tucker, treasurer. 
10 cents a copy; $.> a year; foreign 
postage, $1.50; Canadian, 75 cents. 
Copyright, 1918, by Survey Associates, 
Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 
25, 1909, at the post office at New York. 
N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



TRAINING NURSES FOR 
SMALL COMMUNITIES 

ILLINOIS has contributed so many 
of its trained nurses to the war nurs- 
ing service that there is a great shortage 
in the number available for public health 
work. The Illinois Tuberculosis As- 
sociation, through its president, Dr. 
George T. Palmer, has taken the initia- 
tive to meet this situation. "Stimulated 
by the peculiar demands of the war," 
writes Dr. Palmer, "counties and cities 
of the more progressive sort have ap- 
propriated funds for nurses and are 
awaiting suitable applicants. Provi- 
sion for perhaps fifty additional com- 
munity nurses has been made by the sale 
of Red Cross Christmas seals." Hun- 
dreds of returning tuberculous soldiers, 
he adds, and radical changes in social 
conditions and health activities, render 
it imperative that scores of nurses fa- 
miliar with the needs of the smaller com- 
munities be made available in the short- 
est possible time. 

The state departments of public 
health and of public welfare and the 
Illinois Tuberculosis Association an- 
nounce that they will conduct at Spring- 
field "a supplementary course for public 
health nurses preparatory to work in 
smaller communities." They will have 
the cooperation of the Elizabeth Mc- 
Cormick Memorial Fund, the Chicago 
School of Civics and Philanthropy, the 
Chicago Tuberculosis Institute and 
other state and local health and welfare 
agencies. The course is open only to 
graduate nurses and those who are reg- 
istered in Illinois or in the states in 
which they reside. Preference will be 
given to persons who have had previous 
social service training and experience. 
especially in large cities, or who are 
graduates of social service nursing 
schools in such cities. For nurses who 
have not had social service training or 
experience, brief courses will be given, 
supplemented by instruction under the 
supervising nurses in the communities 
to which they may be later assigned tor 
field work. 

The short period of two months tor 
the course is held to be justified, espe- 
cially for nurses who have hail previous 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 1918 



97 



social service training, by the urgency of 
the demand. The course, as announced, 
covers social and medical-social work, 
especially such as is suited to rural com- 
munities, towns and small cities. It 
will be given by members of the staffs 
of the state departments and other co- 
operating agencies. The lectures will 
be supplemented by visits to state chari- 
table institutions, jails, almshouses, ju- 
venile courts, and by conferences with 
those in charge of them. Longer visits 
will be made at tuberculosis sanatoria, 
where students will receive additional 
practical training. Certificates will be 
given to those who creditably carry out 
the work of the course. Dr. C. St. 
Clair Drake, director of the Depart- 
ment of Public Health; Charles H. 
Thorne, director of the Department of 
Public Welfare and Dr. George T. 
Palmer, president of the Illinois Tu- 
berculosis Association, will direct the 
course with the assistance of an advisory 
board representing each of the other 
cooperating agencies. Inquiries may be 
addressed to Dr. Palmer at Springfield. 
The course will probably open early in 
May. 

A CITY GIRDING ITSELF FOR 
VICTORY 

LIKE all populous communities, Co- 
j lumbus, Ohio, has found herself 
confronted with a multiplicity of small 
and large money appeals to meet needs 
arising out of the war. Serious prob- 
lems of personal service have been in- 
volved. Conflict and duplication of ef- 
fort have been apparent ; and those so- 
licited for funds or personal service, or 
both, find it difficult to evaluate the rel- 
ative merits of the various appeals. 

In order to coordinate and direct 
personal service, and the raising and 
disbursing of funds for all war needs, 
the social service committee of the Co- 
lumbus Chamber of Commerce evolved 
a plan which included the Syracuse, 
N. Y., idea of a single war chest for 
war needs for the community and 
other features for the coordination of 
personal service and education on war 
needs. This plan was presented to 
a general committee of 120 citizens 
representative of the entire community 
and called by the mayor. A perma- 
nent organization, the Columbus Com- 
munity War Service, was formed and an 
executive committee of ten was chosen 
by the general committee to conduct a 
campaign and to disburse the fund 
among the war needs that arose and 
were approved by the executive com- 
mittee. 

Prior to the campaign week in Febru- 
ary the sales organization of 7,000 solici- 
tors was fully organized and the prob- 
able war needs for the coming year were 
estimated at $3,000,000. The pre- 
campaign plans had been so completely 
worked out that at the close of the five- 



To visualize Ike 

Cftest 



.** 




From the cover of a pamphlet explaining 
the Columbus war chest idea. 



day week over $3,300,000 had been sub- 
scribed by almost 80,000 persons. Un- 
der the direction of twelve divisional 
chairmen, the 7,000 workers in the cam- 
paign were divided into the following 
twelve divisions: individual subscribers, 
outlying individual subscribers, township 
subscribers, factory employe subscribers, 
utility employe subscribers, retail em- 
ploye subscribers, public employe subscri- 
bers, general employe subscribers, homes 
division, meetings division, publicity di- 
vision and office or headquarters organi- 
zation. 

The pledges of the subscribers were 
made for one year, payable monthly. 
Collections for any and all purposes in- 
cident to the war, except loans, will thus 
be made through this single agency and 
all disbursements will be approved and 
disbursed through the executive com- 
mittee. The Red Cross, the Y. M. 
C. A. War Council, the Knights of Co- 
lumbus and all other war work cam- 
paigns for funds will consequently be 
eliminated. In contrast to the old cam- 
paigns in which not more than 10,000 
persons were reached, Columbus will 
now contribute an average of $38.54 per 
subscriber or $13.00 per inhabitant to 
war work exclusive of taxes and loans. 
Thirty-four per cent of the entire popu- 
lation subscribed. 

The executive committee is now re- 
ceiving applications for disbursements, 
and it is felt by them that really con- 
structive work will be done in unifying 
war activities, especially in Columbus. 
In the local war supply work, each so- 
ciety requesting funds for the purchase 
of materials to make hospital supplies or 
garments for refugees and other war suf- 
ferers must meet certain requirements, 
viz. : no duplication in distribution ; 



proper authorization of all disburse- 
ments; careful checking in and out of 
supplies, working through national dis- 
tributing body as far as possible. The 
committee is undertaking to recognize 
only those war relief agencies that are 
meeting a distinct need which cannot 
otherwise be met ; and hopes to elimi- 
nate greatly the wasteful giving to weak 
and irresponsible organizations that pre- 
viously existed. 

A continuous and extensive educa- 
tional campaign will be conducted. 
Community meetings, war movies, press 
publicity and outdoor advertising will 
inform Columbus of her duty in the 
war. The spiritual gain has probably 
been the greatest way in which Colum- 
bus has benefited. Those who have 
promoted this plan declare that the city 
now feels her ability to do big things 
and stands ready to meet all calls for 
war service. According to some of the 
religious leaders of the city, a spirit of 
service has resulted from the campaign 
which approaches as near to a religious 
awakening and great spiritual conscious- 
ness as could have been thought possible. 

The whole undertaking is not to per- 
mit present givers to do or give less, but 
rather to permit the community to pro- 
vide more, and to furnish every person 
in the community the opportunity to give 
and to render service according to his 
ability. A fundamental feature of the 
Columbus Community War Service will 
be the campaign of education, making 
vital and vivid not only the demands 
for financial support, but those also for 
moral support, food conservation, per- 
sonal service, increased production of 
war necessities, and all other factors nec- 
essary to victory. 

FAVORABLE HEARING ON 
MINIMUM WAGE 

IT was a remarkable feature of the 
hearings in Washington last week 
on the Trammel-Keating bill to create a 
minimum wage commission for the Dis- 
trict of Columbia that no one spoke in 
opposition to the bill. This measure, 
initiated by the National Consumers' 
League, is almost identical with the 
Oregon law, which was upheld as con- 
stitutional by the United States Su- 
preme Court in April, 1917. It is de- 
signed to protect the lives, health and 
morals of women and minor workers in 
the District by creating a minimum wage 
board that shall fix the rate of wages 
below which women and minors cannot 
live in decency and health. Two hear- 
ings were held, one before the sub-com- 
mittee on labor of the Committee on the 
District of Columbia of the Senate, and 
the other before a similar committee of 
the House. 

Widespread interest is manifested in 
this measure because, to become a law, 
it must pass Congress. If Congress 
sanctions it, the trail will doubtless be 



98 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 1918 



blazed for similar legislation in the 
East. 

Mrs. Florence Kelley, general sec- 
retary of the National Consumers' 
League, presided, and Royal Meeker, 
commissioner of labor of the United 
States Bureau of Labor, summarized the 
study of living costs recently made in 
the District and showed the difference 
between women's wages and what it 
costs to live there. Felix Frankfurter 
discussed the constitutionality of the 
bill. Edward A. Filene told how the 
William Filene's Sons Company, of Bos- 
ton, had established a minimum wage, 
and declared that it was a business prop- 
osition because it paid. Mrs. Newton 
D. Baker, wife of the secretary of war, 
advocated the measure from the point of 
view of the public. 

Perhaps the greatest surprise of the 
hearing came when Charles J. Colum- 
bus, secretary of the Merchants' and 
Manufacturers' Association of the Dis- 
trict, declared that this association 
wished to go on record as favoring the 
legislation. This is said to be the first 
time that any body of merchants or man- 
ufacturers has come out in favor of such 
legislation. The association of the Dis- 
trict made it clear that they were ap- 
proving the bill from the point of view 
of good business. 

NO MORE IDLING TO BE 
ALLOWED 

WHAT was a freak of legislation 
a year ago — the Maryland law 
compelling "idlers" to work for the state 
— has since become a favorite object of 
so-called social legislation. New Jersey 
and West Virginia have adopted similar 
laws ; Canada, without legislation, has 
adopted the principle by order in coun- 
cil ; and in New York the lower house 
adopted a bill to the same effect. Action 
in a similar direction but different is 
further proposed for the whole of the 
United States by the provost marshal 
general and by Secretary of Labor Wil- 
son in a plan submitted to the President 
for his approval. 

The most sweeping of the laws or pro- 
posed laws probably is that of West 
Virginia, enacted last summer, under 
which any male resident of the state 
between the ages of sixteen and sixty, 
except bona fide students during school 
term, "who shall fail to regularly and 
steadily engage for at least thirty-six 
hours per week in some lawful and rec- 
ognized business, profession, occupation 
or employment . . . shall be held to be 
a vagrant . . . and shall be fined not 
more than one hundred dollars for each 
offense, and as part of such sentence and 
punishment such offender shall be by 
the trial court ordered to work not ex- 
ceeding sixty days upon the public roads 
or streets, or upon some other public 
work. ..." This law condemns any 
schoolboy over sixteen to the most op- 



probrious punishment imaginable by him 
should he attempt to enjoy part of his 
vacation and any travelling salesman 
who is resting for a few days between 
trips. 

The Canadian order has the same age 
limits and has practically the same fea- 
tures as the law quoted, with this re- 
deeming clause, however, that a man is 
held to be entitled to idleness if "usu- 
ally employed in some useful occupation 
and temporarily unemployed owing to 
difference with his employers common 
to similar employees with the same em- 
ployer." In this case only the sympa- 
thetic strike is threatened with punish- 
ment, not every strike. 

In New York, two bills were passed, 
and Governor Whitman already has de- 
clared that he will sign the more drastic 
one of the two. This bill authorizes the 
governor to require, by proclamation, 
that all able-bodied male residents be- 
tween eighteen and sixty years of age be 
employed for at least thirty-six hours 
a week. In its main features this also 
is analogous to the bills already passed, 
except for the extraordinary powers 
which it places in the hands of the gov- 
ernor, who is required to proclaim on or 
before June 1 next the industries and 
occupations which are to be deemed es- 
sential to the "protection and welfare of 
the country." All men not engaged in 
these pursuits must register, under the 
provisions of this bill, with a sheriff, and 
the State Industrial Commission is em- 
powered to draft men from their list 
into useful industries as needed. Any 
person living on his rents or other in- 
vestments may be sent to jail as a 
vagrant if he fails to register. Drafted 
"idlers" under this bill will be paid only 
the pay of National Guardsmen, $30 a 
month and maintenance. 

The bill specifically mentions as an 
idler "any able-bodied person supported 
in whole or in part by any woman or 
child." With the high wages which 
youths are able to earn at present in 
many parts of the state, and with the 

Wn,l in the Philadelphia Public Ledger 




MARYLAND. MY MARYLAND 



general custom among large sections of 
the population for all the members of 
the family to hand their earnings over 
to "mother," this will mean that thou- 
sands of respectable workingmen will 
run the danger of being apprehended as 
vagrants. The introducer of this bill, 
Assemblyman Cowee, is a farmer. 

The New York bill in common with 
most of these statutes or orders dis- 
tinctly declares that difference of opin- 
ion as regards pay is no excuse for idle- 
ness, so long as the pay for any work 
which may be offered by the state em- 
ployment department as a test of will- 
ingness to work is up to the local stand- 
ard for similar work. In all of them it 
is regarded as perfectly reasonable that 
a man, temporarily unemployed in his 
own trade, be compelled to work at some 
other occupation even if the current 
wage for it be only half what he usually 
earns. 

It is probably not too much to say that 
no state administration, however pow- 
erful, will be able to enforce a law of 
this kind, to compel a bricklayer to work 
in the fields or else go to jail, or to give 
a high school pupil a fine of $100 and 
sixty days in jail for every week of his 
summer vacation which he spends en- 
joying himself. Apparently the under- 
lying purpose is to give a comprehensive 
scope to measures definitely intended for 
the coercion of certain classes of shirk- 
ers — unless, as has been suggested, some- 
thing else is intended, namely a weapon 
for the forceful prevention ^of walk- 
outs. 

The federal proposal is more limited 
in scope and in a class by itself ; it is for 
the purpose of giving every drafted regis- 
trant of classes 2, 3 and 4, and of the 
lower sections of class 1, to understand 
that his deferment is not a legal right 
but a privilege that may be summarily 
revoked if he misuses the time granted 
him. The intention is to prevent the 
prospective soldiers of the nation from 
shirking serious and responsible work 
and from engaging in pursuits harmful 
to themselves and to others, like those of 
poolroom touts, bookmakers and other 
professional gamblers. 

The existing local boards, under this 
plan, would be used as employment bu- 
reaus, and a man informed that he must 
find work, or other work, would be told 
at the same time where he can get it. 
No punishment for non-compliance is 
provided in the proposal, because delin- 
quents, after having been warned, can 
be dealt with by the simple proces- of 
sending them immediately into military 
service. 

This proposal may, however, only be 
an initial step toward something much 
bigger. Officials who have participated 
in the preparation of the plan are quoted 
as favoring a complete industrial classi- 
fication — which, of course, would re- 
quire legislative sanction — for all the 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27 , 191 



99 




THE FRIENDS' RECONSTRUCTION UNIT IN THE PATH OF THE GERMAN DRIVE 

At Golancourt, now retaken by the Germans, the Friends' Unit used the house above shown as a farm center for 
their repair work. The group of Friends' workers at the right were engaged in repair work at Gruny (in the 

Sommc) when compelled to evacuate. 



man-power of the country up to the age 
of fifty with the further intention of 
eventually distinguishing between so- 
called essential and non-essential em- 
ployments and of withholding labor sup- 
plies from the latter. 

J 
LESS WORK FOR WOMEN IN 
ENGLAND 

AFTER a period of unprecedented 
industrial activity in Great Brit- 
ain, it is now reported that thousands 
of women, possibly 40,000, have been 
dismissed in the great industrial centers 
on a week's notice. Cancellation of or- 
ders for Russia and delayed receipt of 
raw material are given as the chief rea- 
sons for this modification of the govern- 
ment's munition program. This may 
also be one reason why the government 
is confident that it can raise the draft 
age to fifty without serious economic 
dislocation. 

In the meantime, the National Feder- 
ation of Women Workers and other 
trade union organizations are much con- 
cerned over the hardships that have 
arisen from the unemployment of so 
large a number of breadwinners. Ac- 
cording to recent returns, about 1,- 
413,000 women, not including casual 
farm workers, are directly replacing 
men, the largest number being in in- 
dustrial and commercial occupations ; 
and the proportion of women in the 
total number of wage-earners has in- 
creased from under a quarter in July, 
1914, to over a third in October, 1917. 

The situation affects not only the new 
war industries and industries where 
women have replaced men ; in the tex- 
tile industries, the shortage of labor has 
considerably lessened and in many cases 
ceased. So far as munition workers are 
concerned, the seriousness of the situ- 
ation is enhanced by the fact that those 
who, owing to the shortage of houses, 
have been accommodated in hostels, lose 
their lodging as well as their jobs when 
dismissed. 



A deputation of women workers, 
headed by Mary Macarthur, secretary 
of the national federation, laid their 
case before members of all parties in the 
House of Commons in the second week 
of March and suggested legislative abol- 
ition of overtime work in munition fac- 
tories where women are employed, a 
reduction of hours where possible, a 
more equitable distribution of work 
available for women and a higher scale 
of unemployment benefits for women 
under the insurance act. 

Miss Macarthur charges the govern- 
ment with failure to give adequate no- 
tice of impending changes, though well 
aware of them, either to the contractors 
or to the labor exchanges. The feder- 
ation drew up a tentative scheme for 
dealing with the demobilization of the 
women workers a year ago and now de- 
mands that it be practically applied. 
This includes a month's pay when em- 
ployment ends and a railway pass home. 

The munitions, labor and national 
service departments, are cooperating to 
transfer women as far as possible to 
other branches of war work, such as the 
Royal Flying Corps, the land army, the 
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps and 
the Women's Royal Naval Service. The 
issue of free railway warrants has been 
started, and the national labor ex- 
changes have proved a splendid help in 
making new connections. There is, 
however, much necessary delay because 
most of the available new tasks require 
a new period of training, and the train- 
ing facilities are limited. 

Three representatives of women work- 
ers have been appointed by the minister 
of labor to serve on the Labor Reset- 
tlement Committee to advise upon ques- 
tions arising out of the disbanding of 
munition workers as well as the demob- 
ilization of the forces. The other mem- 
bers of this new committee are sixteen 
representatives of employers and six- 
teen representatives of trade unions, 
with twelve representatives of different 



government departments. The minister 
has promised that no scheme for reset- 
tlement will be adopted until after it has 
been laid before this committee for con- 
sideration and advice. 

WORD FROM THE FRIENDS' 
UNIT 

THE first letter to reach the Ameri- 
can Friends' Service Committee 
from a member of the Friends' unit of 
the American Red Cross in the de\ r as- 
tated region in France, telling of experi- 
ences in the midst of the great German 
drive, is one from Harold Hood, of 
West Chester, Pa., who was stationed 
at Golancourt, a few miles southeast of 
Ham. Both towns are now in the hands 
of the enemy. He tells of Allied guns 
behind the barns used by the Friends' 
Unit, airplane battles overhead and 
roads choked with refugees and soldiers ; 
and of the efforts of the American relief 
workers, not only in getting out, but in 
removing French civilians to safety. To 
quote : 

Well, I have gotten some time at last to 
write to thee. Last Thursday morning (3/21) 
the guns on the front opposite us started up 
at about 4 A. M., and the German shells 
started to drop about two miles from us. 
Friday morning I went out to run the trac- 
tor as usual, and thought nothing of it, ex- 
cept that the German shells were falling a 
little closer. About 10:30 Darling came out 
and told me to hurry up and bring in the 
tractor as Ham had been evacuated and 
that we would have to leave soon. When 
we left at 1:30, German shells were falling 
about a half a mile away and the Germans 
themselves were not over two miles away. 
We could see the shells burst and throw dirt 
and stones high in the air. You could also 
hear them whistle as they came over. The 
roads were packed with refugees and troops, 
and it took us two and one-half hours to go 
the first two miles. 

We passed Darling on the way and went 
back (walking) to get some lugs which he 
had left. There were four Allied guns back 
of our barn by that time and they were 
firing all of the time. I saw one German 
plane only a few hundred feet from the 
ground and could see the black crosses on 
his planes very easily. I also saw about 



100 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 1918 



fourteen Allied planes bring one down in 
flames not long after leaving the farm. 

We got to Grimy about 8 P. M. We told 
them the news, so they started right away 
and packed up, working all night. Next 
morning we started out about 8:30 A. M. 
for Montdidier, which was about fifteen 
miles away, and everything went O. K. un- 
til we got to the old front lines. Then one 
of the carts from Gruny broke down, the 
bottom dropping out, after we had gone 
over a very bad bridge. We also had to 
repair another bridge before we could 
cross it. 

We went through Montdidier and about 
two miles the other side, and set up camp 
for the night along a creek. We had quite 
a bunch of stuff — eighteen horses, one wagon, 
four carts, and the tractor from Gruny. We 
were very tired, and although trucks were 
passing in a steady stream with fresh troops 
going to the front, we slept soundly. Some 
of our fellows helped refugees nearly all 
night, but not those of us who walked and 
drove the horses. Next morning we started 
out about 10 o'clock and arrived at St. Just 
about 6:30 P. M. 

There are about six fellows still at St. 
Just who are taking care of the horses, etc., 
until we can get some cars to move our 
stuff either here or to a new section for us 
to work in. Our trucks are still working 
up near the front, helping to move the ci- 
vilians, and it is a big job. 

PRESIDENT APPROVES PLAN 
FOR LABOR PEACE 

TAST week President Wilson in a 
JLi formal proclamation gave his ap- 
proval to the plan worked out by the 
War Labor Conference Board for in- 
dustrial peace for the duration of the 
war. The men who constituted the 
Labor Conference Board with former 
President Taft and Frank P. Walsh at 
their head, he has named as members of 
the National War Labor Board, whose 
function will be to provide a substitute 
for strikes and lockouts throughout the 
country. 

The plan for arbitrating all indus- 
trial disputes by local boards, under the 
supervision of a National War Labor 
Board, or where they fail by the na- 
tional board itself was described in 
the Survey for April 6. It was there 
stated that such a program does not 
have the sanction of law ; this is as true 
now as before, but since the program 
was formulated by a thoroughly repre- 
sentative body of employers and labor 
leaders, together with men who have 
the confidence of capital and labor re- 
spectively, as have Messrs. Taft and 
Walsh, it had a tremendous moral 
strength at the outset. Now that it 
has been accepted by the President and 
announced by him as a national policy, 
it carries with it an authority only 
slightly less than that of law. 

In his proclamation the President said: 
'And I do hereby urge upon all em- 
ployers and employes within the United 
States the necessity of utilizing the means 
and methods thus provided for the ad- 
justment of all industrial disputes, and 
request that during the pendency of 
mediation or arbitration through the 
said means and methods there shall be no 



discontinuance of industrial operations 
which would result in curtailment of 
the production of war necessities." 

UTAH AND THE CASE OF 
BISHOP JONES 

ON April 11, the House of Bishops 
of the Protestant Episcopal church 
accepted the resignation of the Rt. Rev. 
Paul Jones as the missionary bishop of 
Utah. This resignation leaves Bishop 
Jones a member of the episcopate but 
without jurisdiction, and free to take up 
any work he may find within or without 
the church. The case of Bishop Jones 
has attracted the attention of the gen- 
eral public because it involves the large 
and vital question of the relation be- 
tween patriotism and religion in time of 
war. 

The Episcopal church, in common 
with other Protestant churches, has con- 
sidered the beneficent sentiment of tol- 
eration in religion, to use Pres. Charles 
W. Eliot's famous phrase, "the best fruit 
of the last four centuries." In nrccpting 
Bishop Jones' resignation the House of 
Bishops took pains to declare that "any 
member of this house is entitled to the 
same freedom of opinion and speech as 
any other citizen of the United States; 
and that it is unwilling to accept the 
resignation of any bishop in deference 
to an excited state of public opinion." It 
would appear on the surface that the 
House of Bishops had vindicated, even 
in the excitement of war time, the liv- 
ing principles of religious toleration and 
freedom of speech. 

There have been in the last year many 
resignations of ministers who found 
themselves out of sympathy with their 
churches on the question of the war, and 
the attitude of those churches to these 
resignations has added an illuminating 
chapter to the history of the human 
spirit. John Haynes Holmes, of New 
York, declared on the Sunday after the 
declaration of war against Germany, 
that he was unable conscientiously to 
participate in the war, and offered his 
resignation as minister of the Church 
of the Messiah. The trustees repudi- 
ated the attitude of Mr. Holmes toward 
the war, refused to accept his resigna- 
tion, and upheld the freedom of their 
pulpit. In several other instances of 
resignations, congregations have coupled 
the refusal to accept with the expression 
of dissent, and the vindication of the 
right of conscientious utterances on the 
part of their ministers. In the case of 
Bishop Jones, on the contrary, the House 
of Bishops declared for freedom of 
speech and then accepted the resignation 
of their member who had exercised the 
right. 

Paid Jones was sent to Utah a bishop 
in 1*514, by the House of Bishops, Utah 
being a missionary jurisdiction as dis- 
tinct from a diocese, which elects its 
own bishop. He was therefore, answer- 



able to the house, as is no other bishop, 
and the house was correspondingly re- 
sponsible for him. 

The churchmen opposed to Bishop 
Jones, including the vestries of St. 
Mark's Cathedral and St. Paul's church 
in Salt Lake City (the rectors of both 
churches denouncing him- from their 
pulpits) appealed for relief to the 
House of Bishops at its meeting in Chi- 
cago in October, 1917. 

He has not ceased to proclaim in public 
utterances and in private conversations anti- 
war doctrines which are held by the people 
of this state to be inimical to the interests of 
the nation in the present crisis. He has as- 
sociated himself with the People's Council 
for Democracy and Terms of Peace, and the 
Christian pacifists. Of equal significance has 
been the bishop's silence in connection with 
the war. While leaders of every other re- 
ligious organization in the state have lost no 
opportunity to aid by word or deed the pa- 
triotic efforts of the people of the state, 
Bishop Jones has consistently refrained from 
identifying himself with any patriotic move- 
ment or demonstration whatever. 

Such was the indictment. Bishop Jones 
also took his case to the House of Bish- 
ops. 

In Chicago the house was caught in 
an oratorical storm, which its cooler 
leaders were unable to counteract. Re- 
ligious toleration and freedom of speech 
were obscured. After debating two 
days, in which resolutions were passed 
and then reconsidered and defeated, and 
the epithet of "traitor" was used pro- 
miscuously, the house appointed a com- 
mission of three to look into the case of 
Bishop Jones and advise him. 

This after two hearings at St. Louis 
it did in these words: "The underly- 
ing contention of the bishop of Utah 
seems to be that war is un-Christian. 
This church in the United 
States is practically a unit in holding 
that it is not an un-Christian thing. In 
the face of this fact it is neither right 
nor wise for a trusted bishop to de- 
clare and maintain that it is an tin- 
Christian thing. . . . The making 
of such an Episcopal proclamation 
should be preceded by the withdrawal 
of the maker from his position of Epis- 
copal leadership." Bishop Jones then 
resigned, giving as his reason, "The 
commission makes it perfectly clear in 
its report that a bishop should resign be- 
fore venturing to differ from others on 
such a Christian problem, or to express 
opinions in disagreement with the gov- 
ernment." 

After the publication of the report 
and Bishop Jones' resignation, a storm 
of criticism broke upon the commission. 
Catholic churchmen like Father Hugh- 
son and broad churchmen like Dean 
Hodges united in condemning the 
grounds upon which the commission ad- 
vised Bishop Jones to resign. A peti- 
tion was circulated by the secretary of 
the Church Socialist League, the Rev. 
Mr. Byron-Curtis, and received over a 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, igi 



101 



thousand signatures of churchmen of all 
shades of opinion; an urgent request 
was made by the Living Church, the 
high church weekly, that no one sign. 
The House of Bishops met in New 
York on April 10, to receive the re- 
port of the commission and to act on 
the resignation of the bishop of Utah. 
The following resolutions record their 
deliberation and decision, which were 
made behind closed doors. 

First, the House of Bishops declares its be- 
lief that the government of the United States 
has obeyed the law of moral necessity in seek- 
ing to stop a war of deliberate aggression 
by the only means that are known to be ef- 
fective to such an end. 

Second, the House of Bishops believes that 
any member of this house is entitled to the 
same freedom of opinion and speech as any 
other citizen of the United States, but in the 
exercise of this liberty he should be guided 
by a deep sense of the responsibility which 
rests upon one who occupies a representative 
position. 

Third, the House of Bishops is unwilling 
to accept the resignation of any bishop in 
deference to an excited state of public opin- 
ion and therefore declines to adopt the re- 
port of the special commission, or to accept 
the resignation of the bishop of Utah for the 
reasons assigned by him in his letter of 
December 20. 

With full recognition of the right of every 
member of this house to freedom of speech 
in political and social matters, subject to the 
law of the land, nevertheless, in view of 
Bishop Jones' impaired usefulness in Utah 
under present conditions, recognized by him- 
self, the House of Bishops accepts the resig- 
nation of the bishop of Utah as now pre- 
sented. 

1 

In the view of a fellow churchman 
and close follower of the work of Bishop 
Jones, the situation in Utah that lies 
back of the case thus closed by the 
House of Bishops, 

antedates the participation of the United 
States in the war. Bishop Spalding, who was 
killed in September, 1914, was a Socialist 
and a pacifist. Bishop Jones succeeded to 
Bishop Spalding's socialism and pacifism as 
to his bishopric. Mr. Spalding made strong 
enemies on account of his socialism, and some 
of these same men became enemies to Mr. 
Jones. Then, too, in Utah as elsewhere in 
this country there was a vigorous pro-Ger- 
man propaganda and a no less vigorous but 
more intelligent pro-Allied propaganda. In 
the Episcopal church, related as it is 
to the Church of England, there were 
Englishmen, and they were naturally 
strongly for the mother country after 
August, 1914. Bishop Jones was at first 
strictly neutral and then "came to believe 
most sincerely," as he said, "that German 
brutality and aggression must be stopped." 
He was, however, by conviction a non-resist- 
ant; that is, while he was willing to sacrifice 
even life to stop the Germans, it was his own 
life and not the lives of others he was ready 
to sacrifice; he believed in the method of the 
Cross as the effective way to stop brutality 
and aggression, and not in the method of 
armed force or war; war was un-Christian. 
He preached this gospel and agitated against 
this country's entry into the war. 

Before April 7, 1917, the date of America's 
entry into the war, Bishop Jones had been 
publicly assailed in the newspapers of Salt 
Lake City; his words had been garbled, and 
his position misrepresented. When the na- 



PRAQER ASKED MOB TO 
WRAP BODY IN FLAG 

Witness Also Tells the Coroner 

That Boys of 12 to 16 Helped to 

Hang Alleged Pro-German. 

■ COLLINSVILLE:, Til.. April 10.-~A re 
quest that his body be. wrapped in the. 
American flag farmed the, last words 
of. Robert B. Prager, hanged here by a 
mob early last Friday, according to 
testimony given today before the Cor- 
oner'* inquest "by Joseph Riegel. it was 
said tonight by persons, who were pres- 
ent at the inquiry, which was held be- 
hind closed doors. Riegel, according to 
these persons, admitted, he was a leader 
of the mob. . 

"Jfuthe' time U.-. i'owd kept getti 
fore excited and angry, .Some., or. 
touted: 'Well, if he won t .come t 
villi nnvthlng. -string him up. A boy 
.roduced a handkerchief and his hands, 
ere tied. 1 might have b V n the man 
rho did- the thing. I was drunk and 
ecause I had been in the army the 
■rowd made me the big man in the af- 
air and I guess I was sort of puffe< 
p o ver th e 
u^ra^e^aTd^ A~f right? boyeT Go 
ahead and kill me. but wrap me in the 
flag when you bury me. Then they 



SALT LAKE CITY, April 10.— Because 
of alleged pro-Teutonic utterances. Will- 
lam PriEse. 01 years old, a registered 
German, was thrown into a dough bin 
at a bakery by two Americans today. 



Colorado Teacher Mobbed. 

GRAND JUNCTION. Colo.. April 13. 

-Dr. E. E. Cole, Superintendent of a 

*chool at Appleton. near here, was taken 

from his home last night by three men 

,who applied a coat of grease and feath- 

ff'l WJ. JIM I 

Mob Tars a Wisconsin German. 

ASHLAND. Wis., April 11.— Masked 

men took Adolph Anton, a bartender, 

from his home last night and tarred and 

feathered^ him because of his alleged 



FLINT, "Mich.. April 18.— Genesee II 
County authorities today are lnvestigat- 
| ing the tarring and feathering last night 
of Mrs. Hartey Stafford at Montrose, 



OKLAHOMA CITY, Okla., April Id. 
William' Madison Hicks,~- President of 
the World Peace League, was tarred 
and feathered at Elk City, Okla.. last 



JOPLIN, Mo., April 13.— The delica- 
tessen shop of G. A. Brautigan here was 
smeared with yellow paint today as a 
result of his alleged pro-Germanism. A 



MEDFORD, Ore., April 13. — E. P 
Taliaferro, a traveling preacher for the 
International Bible Students' Associa- 
tion, was not allowed to lecture here, I 
and was ordered out of town by Mayor 
C. E. Gates today He remained, how- 
ever until a, croivd of several hundred 
persons threatened violence, when he 
hurrledlv left by automobile. 

He was followed by a part of the 
crowd, who. failing to locate Taliaferro, 
seized George Maynard. local leader of 
the sect, painted a huge Iron Cross 
upon hfs body, and gave him until Mon- 
.^■^^tuaakvi ^bW^^m.j'' -- ... 

MUSKOGEE. Okla., April IS— Ten 
minutes after he had been released from 
the County Jail at Tahlequah. near here, 
last night, J A. Lewis, an alleged pro- 
German agitator and 1. W. W. organ- 
izer, was tarred and feathered by Tahle- 
quah citizens and forced to leave town. 
He had been held In jail for investiga- 
tion. 



A WEEK OF MOB VIOLENCE 

How Americans, angered at what they 
considered to be pro-Germanism, took the 
la<w into their own hands. — Clippings from 
the Ne<ui York "Times." 



tion entered the war the interests which were 
hostile to him straightway called upon the 
bishop to change his convictions. They gave 
him no time to readjust his mind, as Presi- 
dent Wilson has publicly declared that he 
himself had to do. When he refused to give 
up conscientious convictions at their com- 
mand, those interests of one kind and another 
apparentlv determined to get him out of 
Utah. 

The failure of the House of Bishops at its 
Chicago meeting to meet the issue of religious 
toleration and freedom of speech, and the 
tragic bungling of the case by its ill-starred 
commission, put those church people in Utah 
who were hostile to Bishop Jones completely 
in power. His position there became un- 
tenable. The men and women workers whom 
he had brought to Utah, and who were loyal 
to him all through the controversy, resigned 
when he did. He saw the work of years de- 
stroyed in a few months. Therefore, when 
the House of Bishops repudiated the report 
of the commission which led him to resign 
the first time and vindicated the principle of 
religious toleration and free speech, he felt 
that it was better for Utah and for himself 
that he resign again. This he did on April 
11. 

MOB VIOLENCE IN THE 
UNITED STATES 

INADEQUATE legislation for the 
punishment of disloyal or treasona- 
ble acts has been responsible, according 
to several United States senators and 
other commentators, for the fact that 
people in various parts of the country 
have lately been taking the law into 
their own hands. Many instances of 
the tarring and feathering or beating of 
individuals have occurred during the 
past year ; twice at least men charged 
with disloyalty have been lynched. The 
passage of the "sedition" bill by the Sen- 
ate recently is an attempt to provide 
the legislation considered necessary. This 
bill, now in conference, provides a pen- 
alty of $10,000 and twenty years im- 
prisonment for language or acts of a 
disloyal character. 

Specifically, the bill prohibits any 
"disloyal, profane, scurrillous, contemp- 
tuous or abusive language," about the 
government, the flag, the army or navy, 
or any language intended to bring the 
government into "contempt, scorn, con- 
tumely or disrepute," or any language 
designed to cripple the government or to 
interfere with the production of war 
materials. 

One of the most notorious c.ses of 
mob violence since the war began was 
the lynching of Frank Little, the I. W. 
W. leader, in Butte, Mont., last sum- 
mer. This action was explained at 
the time as caused by Little's alleged 
disloyal utterances. On April 4, Rob- 
ert P. Prager was hanged by a mob in 
Collinsville, 111., on the supposition that 
he had been carrying on propaganda 
against the government of the United 
States. Since Prager died this has been 
denied, and it is now said that evidence 
has been brought forward showing that 
Prager was in reality loyal to the United 
States. The governor of Illinois has 



102 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 191 



personally interested himself in the mat- 
ter, and a special grand jury in charge 
of the attorney general of the state has 
indicted a number of men who were said 
to be in the mob. 

Only two of the instances of wide- 
spread or community violence have so 
far been the subjects of authoritative in- 
vestigation. The Bisbee deportations 
were reported upon by the President's 
Mediation Commission and condemned 
as illegal and unjustifiable. [See the 
Survey for December 8, 1917.] The 
other affair that has been investigated 
was the abuse of members of the I. W. 
W. at Tulsa, Okla., in November, 
1917. A report has been made on 
this case by the National Civil Lib- 
erties Bureau. This report is based 
upon the statements of a citizen of 
Tulsa, the secretary of the Tulsa 
local of the I. W. W., and an 
investigator sent to Tulsa to look into 
the affair. This investigator corrobo- 
rates the statements of the other two. 
On account of the feeling prevailing in 
Tulsa, all of the names are withheld. 

The report declares that the I. W. W. 
hall in Tulsa was raided by the police 
on November 5. Eleven men who hap- 
pened to be there at the time were ar- 
rested. One of them was placed on trial 
on November 7 on a charge of va- 
grancy, and it was agreed that the de- 
cision in his case should apply to the 
other ten. At the trial the police testi- 
fied that they knew nothing of the man 
except that he carried an I. W. W. 
card. As to the other men, "none of 
them had a police record." The police 
testified further 

that they had heard nothing seditious in 
their utterances either in their hall or else- 
where. They testified they had not known 
of their visiting any kind of illegal or bad 
resorts, nor in any other way did they 
attempt to show they were guilty of any law 
violations whatsoever. They seemed to rest 
their entire case on the fact that they were 
members of the I. VV. W. . . . 

The trial ended about 10:40 o'clock on 
Friday night, November 9, and Judge Evans 
rendered a decision finding all the men 
guilty as charged and assessing their fines at 
$100 each, stating, "These are no ordinary 
times." 

Immediately afterward, the investi- 
gator reports, the eleven defendants 
were locked in a room just off the court 
room and six other men, spectators at 
the trial, some of whom were not I. W. 
W. members, were locked in with them. 
According to the I. W. W. secretary, 
whose statements are corroborated by 
the special investigator, the men were 
ordered out by the turnkey at about 
eleven o'clock, and placed in automobiles 
in charge of policemen. When they 
had proceeded a few blocks, a mob of 
masked men stopped the automobiles, 
took the men away from the police, and 
going with them to a point outside the 
city, first heat them on the bare backs 



with a rope and then tarred and feath- 
ered them and ordered them "to leave 
running and never come back." 

According to the report, one of the 
victims of the mob outrage, after spend- 
ing several weeks in jail, was re- 
leased on habeas corpus proceedings. 
Before he left the court room he 
was rearrested on a charge of carry- 
ing concealed weapons. The evidence of 
eight policemen who surrounded his 
house and swore they saw him coming 
down stairs with a pistol in his hand, 
led to his being fined $100. This man 
is now working out his fine on the 
streets of Tulsa. The report is that 
he will be arrested for vagrancy again 
as soon as this fine is paid, and this prac- 
tice will be continued until he leaves 
the city. He is not a member of the 
I. W. W. He is a carpenter by trade 
and has made his home in Tulsa many 
years. The same judge, in fining him, is 



declared by the investigator to have said, 
"You are not guilty, but I will have to 
fine you one hundred dollars," and again 
he added, "These are no ordinary 
times." Fifteen of the seventeen victims 
have scattered to different parts of the 
country. Most of them have obtained 
work but they "have suffered all sorts 
of privations and hardships, both physi- 
cal and mental. Some of them were in 
ill health at the time of the outrage, and 
others are not strong physically and they 
have been living in constant fear of an- 
other brutal assault by the tools of the 
employers." 

. Instances of mob violence have in- 
creased lately. Clippings telling of 
some that occurred last week are repro- 
duced in another column. On April 8, 
Congressman L. C. Dyer, of Missouri, 
introduced a bill in the House designed 
to make lynching a crime against the 
United States. 



Book Reviews 



Two War Years in Constantinople 

By Dr. Harry Stuermer. George H. 
Doran & Co. 292 pp. Price $1.50; by 
mail of the Survey $1.62. 

Of the many books which the war has 
brought forth none is more remarkable and 
significant than this. Nearly the whole 
world is at war with Germany, and Ger- 
mans as a rule, either outwardly or tacitly, 
are loyal to the Fatherland; but here is a 
different kind of German who is not afraid 
to hold opinions of his own. Early in the 
war he served in Galicia until his health 
made him unfit for further service. He then 
became correspondent of the Cologne Ga- 
zette and, after considerable experience at 
Gallipoli, where he was in close touch with 
the fighting, he went to Constantinople and 
spent two years studying and observing ev- 
erything that bore upon the relations be- 
tween Germany and Turkey. 

In reading this book we are convinced that 
the author is honest, has a conscience, forms 
his own opinions, :ind is not afraid to ex- 
press them even though they temporarily 
stand in the way of personal interest. It 
may further be said that this heroic and 
outspoken German who deliberately cuts 
loose from his country' and attacks with 
stinging words the duplicity, arrogance and 
cruelty of the German imperial government, 
is a common instance of what a real man 
will do under provocation. 

It also suggests, what many of us be- 
lieve, that among the Germans there is a 
vast number of thoughtful men and women 
who react most vigorously against the sui- 
cidal course which the military party has 
pursued, and who remain silent because to 
speak would mean death to themselves and 
their friends, or a position which would 
be hard for them to tolerate. In fact during 
the past few weeks, manv voices are being 
raised in protest. The whole German press 
seems ready to break out in denunciation 
of the blind fatalistic policy by mean-; of 
which the German imperial government is 



now pushing its fight for supremacy 
Dr. Stuermer traces the steps leading to 
the war with the full recognition of the ter- 
rible issues involved, and the utter deprav- 
ity and wickedness of the Kaiser's party, in 
refusing to negotiate, and in not encourag- 
ing Austria to come to an agreement with 
Serbia. He says: "The moment England 
entered the war, Germany lost the war." 
And again: "Never for a moment have 1 
believed in final victory for Germany. Slow- 
ly but surely I then veered round to the po- 
sition that I could no longer desire victory 
for Germany." He tells of the conduct of 
German officers and soldiers in Belgium 
and France, and confirms the stories man) 
times repeated of the treatment of innocent 
people, especially of women and girls. 

The author says he went to Turkey with 
an open mind, and in his observation at 
Gallipoli he came to have a high opinion 
of Turkish valor and found the soldiers 
more humane and chivalric than his own 
countrymen. To have a German review 
the deportations and massacres of the Ar- 
menians, a tragedy which has perhaps never 
been equalled in the world's history, is cer- 
tainly unique. He says that when the hor- 
ror of this great crime, which sought the 
destruction of a whole people, burst upon 
him, he lost his love for present-day Tur- 
key; he saw that nothing but the day of 
judgment would be sufficient to atone for 
this terrible outrage. 

Still more important is the conviction 
which soon possessed his mind that the Ger- 
man imperial government may properly be 
held responsible for this frightful exhibition 
of barbarism. He declares that over and 
over again he appealed to German officials 
to use their influence in arresting this mon- 
strous and murderous adventure, but got 
no satisfaction whatever. No one lias pic- 
tured this "drama of massacre and death" 
in clearer colors. It was undertaken, he 
savs. "with the cowardly acquiescence ot the 
German government in full knowledge of 
the fact." The unwillingness of Germany 



THE SU RFEY FOR APRIL 27 , 191 



103 



to appreciate her responsibility in this mat- 
ter impressed Dr. Stuermer as "a mixture of 
cowardice and lack of conscience on the one 
hand, and the shortsighted stupidity on the 
other." History, he says, will point out that 
this record of cruelty towards a people of 
high social development was contempora- 
neous with Germany's greatest power in 
Turkey. 

The Bulgarian question is dealt with at 
some length, and the author points out that 
King Ferdinand is a prince of opportunists, 
and that he was able to lead Bulgaria into 
war on the side of the Central Powers sim- 
ply because the Teutons were ready to prom- 
ise anything, while the Allies with proper 
reserve and a sense of justice were trying 
to consider not only the selfish interests of 
Bulgaria, but the proper claims of the other 
Balkan states. 

The attempt of Germany to incite a holy 
war is described with apparent glee. This 
undertaking acted like a boomerang; for, as 
a result, the Arabs have declared their in- 
dependence and taken away the primacy of 
Islam from the Turks. Moreover, the Mo- 
hammedans of Egypt and the Far East, in- 
stead of coming to the support of the Turkish 
regime, have in large numbers joined the 
Allies. 

The complex and serious situation in 
Greece which led up to the deposition of the 
king, and secured the aid of Greece for 
the cause of freedom and enlightenment, is 
an interesting feature of the volume. 

A chapter is devoted to the economic con- 
ditions respecting food supplies and the gen- 
eral welfare of the people. It appears that 
even in these times of storm and stress in 
Constantinople, as elsewhere, the activities 
of avaricious profiteers are unrestrained. 
Many fill their pockets with wealth, while 
the poor become poorer, and many have to 
starve for lack of the most ordinary neces- 
saries of life. 

It is amusing to note that the German 
embassy was often made the dupe of greedy 
adventurers who came making promises as 
to what they could do if they had money, 
and so here as elsewhere Germany sup- 
ported a vast number of spies and propa- 
gandists, many of whom accomplished little 
except to emphasize the degradation and du- 
plicity to which the German regime has de- 
scended. 

An outstanding factor in the observations 
made by the author is the general purpose 
of the Committee of Union and Progress to 
Turkify the whole country, and to get rid 
of all Christians as far as possible. Also, 
the government does not wish to see Ger- 
many get too strong a hold. While Turkey 
is an ally of Germany, and is working hand 
in glove with her at the present moment, 
there is among a large majority of the popu- 
lation a very keen dislike of things German. 
At heart many of the Turks are pro-English 
and pro-French. Many realize that after 
the war they will desire more than ever the 
friendship of these two nations and of 
America. They tolerate and fear, but in- 
wardly despise German friendship, and a 
collapse of the German machine is all that 
is needed to give them courage to show their 
true feelings. 

Dr. Stuermer gives illuminating descrip- 
tions of the two most powerful men in Tur- 
key today, Enver Pasha and Talaat. He 
says the former is "one of the most repug- 
nant subjects ever produced by Turkey." 
He shows him to be vain and cunning, over- 
weening in conceit and egoism. He is en- 
tirely unscrupulous and ruthlessly brutal. 
Talaat Pasha, while scarcely less danger- 
ous as a leader, is at least more intelligent 
and possesses a gift for organization and 
tireless energy. He is, however, narrow- 
minded and obsessed with the Pan-Turk 
idea. He worked his way up from a very 



humble position, and apart from native 
cleverness had no background of education 
or political knowledge to fit him to be, as 
he is, the leader of a nation. With two 
such men at the helm, it is hardly to be won- 
dered that Turkey is in a very bad way. 

In conclusion the author makes it quite 
plain that he believes the only salvation for 
the unhappy races of the Ottoman Empire 
is in being once and for all delivered from 
Turkish rule. Those portions of the em- 
pire having a predominating Christian popu- 
lation should be placed under European pro- 
tection. One last chance the Turks might 
have to work out a possible government for 
themselves in Inner Anatolia, but they 
should never be allowed to wield again the 
power which they have so atrociously mis- 
used these many years, and which has 
reached its awful climax during the world 
war. 

The author believes strongly in a definite 
limitation of Turkish influence, not only for 
the benefit of the subject Christian popula- 
tions, but for the good of the Turks them- 
selves, for whom as individuals he keeps a 
real affection. Their hope, he believes, lies 
in the rich undeveloped lands of Anatolia 
where he sincerely hopes they may build up 
a worthy nation. 

Since this book was written two events of 
enormous importance to the eastern question 
have taken place; namely, the break-up of 
Russia and the entry of America into the 
war. The first removes the menace of a 
Russian Dardanelles, which has always been 
the nightmare of Turkey, and the second 
brings into the struggle for civilization a 
nation strongly interested in near eastern 
affairs, with schools and colleges already 
planted in the Ottoman Empire and, above 
all, a calm and impartial attitude in inter- 
national affairs which will surely be a strong 
factor for justice when terms are finally dis- 
cussed around the peace table. 

Dr. Stuermer has written an unusually 
stirring book, full of sincere feeling and 
conviction, and the keen observation of a 
trained student of human affairs. No one 
interested in the Near East should fail to 
read this remarkable exposition of one of 
the most baffling and complex situations of 
the war. 

Samuel T. Dutton. 

A Parent's Job 

By C. N. Millard. Pilgrim Press. 225 
pp. Price $1 ; by mail of the Survey $1.10. 

In the changing manner of life of the last 
twenty years or so parents have more and 
more let the education of their children in 
the every-day practical things of life — in 
the arts of home-keeping and good citizen- 
ship — slip off their own shoulders and have 
expected such training to be taken over bodily 
by the schools. The schools, on the other hand, 
do not, and without great readjustments, can- 
not successfully assume this whole burden — 
for one reason because teachers are with 
their pupils for only a part, less than half, 
of the day. By neglecting the remainder 
themselves, parents are running the risk that 
other influences, important because young 
children are very active and acquisitive, 
may greatly handicap or completely undo 
the labors of the schoolroom. The only 
success-promising system is that in which 
parents and teachers cooperate with the same 
educational ideals and methods in mind. 

With this as a starting point, the author, 
a former assistant superintendent of schools 
in Buffalo, states the two major aims of his 
volume to be: first, to help parents better 
to understand the true aims of education and 
the methods of instruction now prevalent in 
the schools; and, second, to indicate ways 
in which parents can again get under some 
of their legitimate responsibility and co- 



operate more intelligently with teachers in 
the training of their children. 

Mr. Millard points out that the first "great 
barrier in the way of intelligent coopera- 
tion is examination percentages." They, 
after all, are no measure of education; at 
best they are mere tests of memory; and 
ability in memorizing is only one of many 
qualities that make for education. The 
real measure of education is the acquire- 
ment and possession of qualities that help to 
the highest self expression, and, what nat- 
urally follows, to the greatest service to 
others. Such qualities must therefore be 
put in the foreground. Teachers and the 
schools can do much to develop them ; but 
parents and the home can do much also. 
They must supplement each other, the par- 
ent's part, moreover, being as much a mat- 
ter of example and practice in the family 
circle as of precept or peachment. 

As part of such a union of effort, the 
author urges that, "instead of having the 
monthly report cards of pupils tell of their 
standings in reading, arithmetic, geography, 
and the other subjects taught," there should 
"be noted on them vital points under the 
headings, Studies, Habits of Address, Habits 
of Work, Habits of Health, and Habits of 
Character, holding up habit-formation as 
the greatest thing for which to strive from 
the beginning to the end of the school 
course." 

In reporting upon Habits of Work, for 
example, the idea would be to have teachers 
note from time to time their observations as 
to improvement or lack of it in such im- 
portant characteristics as concentration, 
promptness, industry, neatness, rapidity, ac- 
curacy, thoroughness and self-reliance. The 
point in the reporting is that by the act 
itself emphasis on the practical value of 
these things will be given to teachers, par- 
ents and children also. Similarly, under 
Habits of Health, would be included breath- 
ing, sitting and standing, position, diet, care 
of teeth, the use of water (internal and 
external), exercise, etc. All of the discus- 
sions include practical suggestions for par- 
ent and children. 

The report on studies would have noth- 
ing to do with "marks," but have to do in- 
stead with any important topic or principle 
in which the pupil should have help at 
home. Parents, of course, may, and many 
do, think that teaching methods nowadays 
are different and too difficult for laymen to 
understand. That they are so complex and 
so difficult the author denies. However, in 
order to help parents to assume their part 
in this educational partnership, a summary 
of the aims and methods of progressive 
schools in the kindergarten and in the more 
important studies beginning with the first 
grade and going through the first year of 
high school is presented. 

The book closes with a plea that, for the 
sake of making citizens and, therefore, the 
nation strong and capable, parents and peda- 
gogues alike should not only unite forces in 
training the oncoming generation, but they 
should also be ready to give up a number 
of educational fallacies which are more or 
less common and admit of change and prog- 
ress in ideas and methods in education as 
in everything else. 

It is altogether a good book. The idea 
of measuring teaching processes and educa- 
tional progress by development in the habits 
and qualities that make for the fullest life, 
I do not understand, however, to be en- 
tirely new. Such a policy has been followed, 
under the direction of Patty S. Hill, pro- 
fessor of kindergarten at Teachers College, 
in the kindergarten of the Horace Mann 
School, New York, for some time. But the 
idea deserves this additional emphasis; and 
the book deserves wide reading. 

Shelby M. Harrison. 



104 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 191 



American Democracy and Asiatic Citi- 
zenship. 

By Sidney L. Gulick. Chas. Scribner's 
Sons. 257 pp. Price, $1.75 ; by mail of 
the Survey $1.87. 

In spite of the assurances and reassurances 
of friendship and of mutual obligation, and 
despite the diplomatic correspondences and 
courtesies that have been exchanged be- 
tween the Tokio and Washington govern- 
ments, there are people on both sides of the 
Pacific who are dissatisfied, irritated and 
vexed over the still unsolved problem of 
Asiatic immigration and citizenship in 
America; and no one can predict what ag- 
gravated forms this problem may yet assume. 
After the present war, as the writer of this 
book says, it will be "the burning problem 
in America's future." 

The problem is of the gravest character 
inasmuch as it is radical, with economic 
and political aspects which require more 
than sheer fervor of patriotism or of senti- 
mentality for their consideration. In its 
principle it concerns the fundamentals of the 
American democracy; on its practical side it 
affects the honor of Japan and of the Asiatic 
races. A blundering policy based on an un- 
scientific, unscrupulous and biased ground, 
may in time disturb the peace of the Pacific, 
which from now on will be the world's arena 
of competition and conflict commercially and 
politically. Indeed the problem, if left neg- 
lected or handled slightingly, may ultimately 
imperil the destinies of all the promising 
nations whose land is washed by the waters 
of the Pacific. 

Therefore, it is extremely fortunate that 
Sidney Gulick, with his splendid interna- 
tional insight and intimate knowledge of 
conditions in the Far East and of the indus- 
trial situation in America should have turned 
his attention to this particular problem. He 
is singularly qualified for such a task and 
the solution he has formulated promises to 
be satisfactory to both. His twenty-six years 
of missionary service in Japan and his ex- 
periences as professor at Doshisha Univer- 
sity in Kioto have given to him a keen ap- 
preciation of the oriental point of view. On 
his return from Japan he was appointed by 
the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ 
in America a member of the Commission on 
Relations with Japan to study specially the 
nature, extent and solution of the Japanese 
problem, which then became critical along 
the Pacific coast over the California anti- 
alien law. The conclusions that he has 
reached as the result of these invaluable ex- 
periences have appeared in various maga- 
zine articles, pamphlets and volumes, but 
here we see his solution in complete form. 

The book is divided into two parts. The 
scientific, or technical, quality of the work is 
evidenced by the collections of statistical 
facts and historical summaries in the second 
part, although the author's convincing logic 
and basic argument are presented mainly in 
the first part, which is devoted to the con- 
sideration of political situations and their 
bearing on the American democracy. 

At the beginning he points out the signifi- 
cant fact that modern Asia has "rendered 
not only obsolete but dangerous any policy 
that ignores the problems, needs and essential 
rights" of the Asiatics. He forthwith de- 
clares that in the new oriental policy which 
America must adopt there must be two 
fundamental principles embodied, namely: 
"While, on the one hand, it should provide 
real protection for the Pacific coast states 
from the dangers of excessive Asiatic im- 
migration, it should also on the other hand, 
give to Asiatics the same courtesy of treat- 
ment and the same equality of rights as 
America readily accords to all other people, 
whether they come from Europe, Africa, or 
South America." 



Proceeding on this basis, he surveys briefly 
the problems and possibilities of the New 
Asia and their significance, he then reviews 
critically the history of America's relation 
with China and Japan and how America has 
been dealing with the problem of Asiatic im- 
migration and citizenship. His plea to the 
intelligence of America for revising the at- 
titude toward the Chinese people reveals the 
brilliant statesmanship which is so dominant 
and noteworthy in this Christian author. He 
states that in spite of the generous and just 
American policy in dealing with China, 
which undoubtedly and deservingly has won 
her warm gratitude, the Americans must be 
"filled with shame" when the story is told of 
what many Chinese have suffered here. He 
recalls "the treaties that have pledged rights, 
immunities and protection and which, never- 
theless, have been disregarded and know- 
ingly invaded." "This," he adds, "is not 
only by private individuals but by legisla- 
tures and administrative officials." 

In a historical sketch of legislation dealing 
with naturalization in this country, he refers 
to numerous instances of self-contradictory 
procedure of the American judiciary. 
"America aims to be a thorough-going dem- 
ocracy," he declares, and on the basis of 
this American ideal, after analyzing what 
constitutes the rights and duties of nations, 
he urges finally, as the solution of the perti- 
nent problem, the regulation of all immigra- 
tion on a common principle, the specific train- 
ing of all immigrants for citizenship and the 
grant of citizenship to all who qualify, re- 
gardless of race. 

He gives a comprehensive program for 
constructive immigration legislation, and this 
is perhaps the chapter of crucial importance 
in the entire volume; it contains a detailed 
outline of proposed legislation, suggesting 
five or six important provisions, namely, 
regulation of the rate of immigration; estab- 
lishment of a federal bureau for the registra- 
tion of aliens; a federal distribution bureau 
and a federal bureau for the education of 
aliens; congressional legislation for the ade- 
quate protection of aliens; and amendment 
of the naturalization laws. 

In the concluding paragraph he asserts 
that the alleged unbridgeable chasm between 
the East and the West is in fact non-existent, 
and that the minds and hearts of men are 
essentially the same, whatever the race. If 
there is a chasm, may we not hope that a 
plan like his will bridge it and nullify the 
difference? Iwao F. Ayusawa. 

American City Progress and the Law 
By Howard Lee McBain. Columbia Uni- 
versity Press. 268 pp. Price $1.50; by 
mail of the Survey $1.60. 

Professor McBain has written a book that 
no one interested in the affairs of cities can 
afford to he without. In his preface Profes- 
sor McBain says that the book "deals with 
certain of the more important rules of law 
that are involved in some of the forward- 
looking movements in American cities. . . . 
The scope of this volume is limited to an ex- 
amination of legal principles. In what re- 
spects does the law as it now stands facili- 
tate or obstruct the city in its endeavor to 
apply this or that new policy to the solution 
of an existing problem?" While he savs 
that with the policv itself he is not primarily 
concerned, he nevertheless indicates the paths 
that are most hazardous and those along 
which progress is most likely to be achieved 
without obstruction by the courts. 

The book is divided into nine chapters. 
The first two deal with the general powers 
of cities as conferred by constitutional or 
statutory grants, and judicial construction 
of such powers together with the implied 
powers that may or may not flow from 
constitutional or statutory provisions. The 



next four chapters discuss the power that the 
city may exercise over land by the exercise 
of the police power, by condemnation, or by 
control of public utilities. 

In the last chapters he discusses the power 
of the city to control living costs by regula- 
tion of prices, by the establishment of mar- 
kets, and by engaging in the business of 
buying and selling goods. Municipal recrea- 
tion is considered and the promotion of 
commerce and industry by the development 
of water power, advertising the city, and ex- 
tending financial aid to private enterprises. 

The whole subject of the expressed and 
implied powers of cities has been discussed 
at greater length by Professor McBain in 
other publications. In this book, however, 
he has brought together highly important 
decisions that must serve to guide those who 
seek further powers for cities either by di- 
rect legislative or constitutional grant or 
by the broad power to enact their own 
charters. 

Professor McBain distinguishes between 
the exercise of the police power in respect 
to social and in respect to economic sub- 
jects. His attention is chiefly given to its 
exercise upon economic subjects. The con- 
test really turns upon the extent to which 
private rights of landowners may be lim- 
ited for the benefit of other landowners 
and the public generally. If we start with 
Thomas Jefferson's point of view that the 
land belongs in usufruct to the living, we 
then regard all laws affecting real estate 
as designed to bring about the most effect- 
ive use of a common heritage. 

When decisions of the highest courts have 
set aside as unconstitutional laws which im- 
posed restrictions upon the private use of 
land, it has usually been because the courts 
have not distinguished between land as a 
subject of ownership and things which may 
indefinitely be reproduced. Further, the 
courts have only just begun to perceive that 
the police power may appropriately be ex- 
ercised to protect the value of the land be- 
longing to some persons from such use of 
their land by others as would detract from 
the value of their neighbor's land. 

The author first discusses the smoke nuis- 
ance, analyzing numerous ordinances and 
decisions. He concludes that while progress 
has been made the smoke problem has by 
no means been completely solved in any 
city. 

The progress of billboard regulation 
is encouraging. Rather radical ordinances' 
have been upheld prohibiting the erection 
of billboards in residential districts under cer- 
tain conditions. Professor McBain thinks 
that "in the course of time American courts 
will reverse their earlier decisions and 
frankly include aesthetics among the subjects 
for which the police power may be prop- 
erly exercised." 

The height, bulk, and use of buildings 
may be regulated, and there is no difficulty 
in sustaining height regulations. It is hard- 
er to sustain bulk regulation and to prevent 
the establishment of retail stores in resi- 
dential districts. It by no means appears 
impossible to sustain bulk regulations, how- 
ever, if they are well conceived and ably 
defended. 

Excess condemnation is considered. While 
a number of states have adopted constitu- 
tional amendments to make it possible it has 
been but little used as yet. The value of re- 
plotting is rather inadequately discussed. The 
power to re-plot was the main argument 
of those who sought to secure the power of 
excess condemnation for the city of New 
York. 

Professor McBain supplies a table of cases 
of great value ami convenience. The book 
has a good table of contents and an adequate 
index. It is commended to all those who 
seek to make cities safer, richer, and hap- 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 27 , 191 



105 



pier. These are they for whom the author 
wrote it. Lawson Purdy. 

Social Problems and Christian Ideals 
Edited by E. A. Wesley and J. H. Darby- 
shire. Longmans, Green & Co. 115 pp. 
Price 1 ; by mail of the Survey $1.06. 

This little book is described in the sub- 
title as consisting of short papers on points 
of importance in the reconstruction of so- 
ciety on Christian lines. It is a by-product 
of the Mission of Repentance and Hope, con- 
ducted in 1916 by the Anglican church 
throughout England, which is proving its 
fruitfulness rather in the stimulus it gave 
to thought upon various aspects of the prob- 
lems of society and religion than by what 
was immediately achieved. 

The present book is a composite produc- 
tion by a company of Liverpool churchfolk, 
clerical and lay, and is a plain unpreten- 
tious statement of the case for social recon- 
struction and of some of the lines along 
which reconstruction should proceed. That 
the book is elementary and amateurish is 
no fair criticism of it, for it pretends to be 
no more. But it is unfortunate that, at this 
time of day, writers on this subject should 
not perceive that the problem has already 
passed beyond the stage of seeking improve- 
ments within the existing social framework 
to that at which it is plain that the hope 
of the future is bound up with a radical 
transformation of the framework itself. 

Consequently the problem of the church 
is whether it is going to be content with 
extending its functions as a dispenser of 
anodynes and unguents or is going to as- 
sist at the rather drastic surgical opera- 
tions on the social corpus vitce which move- 
ments like, say, the British Labour Party, 
propose. 

If the church knew today the things that 
belong to its place, it would dedicate itself 
to the creation of those moral and spiritual 
conditions with which the impending eco- 
nomic changes must be accompanied if they 
are to become a process of genuine and 
radical social regeneration. But there is 
little evidence that the church is aware of 
the magnitude of its opportunity and respon- 
sibility. It is still wading in the shallows; 
and it is time to launch out into the deep. 
Richard Roberts. 

A Social Theory of Religious Education 
By George Albert Coe. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. 361 pp. $1.50; by mail of the 
Survey $1.62. 

Religious Education and Democracy 
By Benjamin S. Winchester. The Abing- 
don Press. 293 pp. $1.50; by mail of the 
Survey $1.62. 

Religious Education and American Democ- 
racy 

By Walter S. Athearn. The Pilgrim 
Press. 394 pp. $1.50; by mail of the 
Survey $1.62. 

The number and quality of new books 
discussing the relation of religious educa- 
tion to democracy register an encouraging 
sign of the new and better times coming. 
Three volumes from as many influential 
educational centers affiliated with different 
churches are worthy of very special atten- 
tion and general use. 

Prof. George Albert Coe, of Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, New York city, leads the 
way in a fundamental treatment of that 
relationship. Basing his discussion upon the 
conviction that "there is, or is coming to 
be, a distinctive religious principle, that of 
a divine-human industrial democracy," he 
contends that the function of religious edu- 
cation is not merely to transmit ancient 
standards, but to have a part in revising 



the standards themselves. Therefore the 
church has a "motive for self-criticism, and 
for making its educational organization and 
methods living and moving parts of the 
collective life." From this point of view 
the curriculum is transformed into "a graded 
series of experiments for the pupil to make 
in social living," while "the present relations 
and interactions between persons" are the 
primary objects of his study 

For the order and use of the biblical and 
other material a basis is found in "the 
changing social situations incident to the 
pupil's growth, with their inevitable prob- 
lems of social adjustment." From this point 
of departure constructive criticism of other 
types and practices of religious education 
proceeds throughout the • volume, and the 
psychological ground and practical organi- 
zation of a socialized religious education are 
wrought out. The Christian reorganiza- 
tion of the family as a determiner of the 
social type of democratic relationships is one 
of the most significant and suggestive dis- 
cussions of the volume, involving the iden- 
tification of church and family with all pro- 
gressive movements for improving the con- 
ditions of life and labor. 

Prof. Benjamin S. Winchester, of the Yale 
School of Religion, in his very timely and 
useful volume treats more historically and 
concretely the fundamental aims both of the 
democratic state and the church, and their 
interdependence upon each other's vitalizing 
support. Heartily accepting all that democ- 
racy demands and implies as "a challenge" 
to the Protestant churches of America, with 
equal loyalty he accepts for the churches 
their "community task," holding both church 
and state up to their mutual relations in 
providing education for democracy. The 
difficulties and exactions of the task, and 
the attempts of state and church, apart and 
together, in this country and abroad, to 
fulfil it are thoroughly and interestingly 
discussed. > 

The documentary description of plans 
and program for week-day religious instruc- 
tion and the tabulations of their typical cur- 
ricula, with full bibliography, are of per- 
manent reference value. The consciousness 
of the present world situation as compelling 
serious re-examination of the foundations of 
democracy, and of the relation of Christian- 
ity to it contributes a mental alertness and 
a spiritual urgency to the volume which in- 
spire its thorough educational method with 
agitational power. 

Prof. Walter Scott Athearn, of Boston 
University, with more emphasis upon meth- 
ods and less reference to history and theory, 
deals with what the public and the church 
schools are doing and should do. He, too, 
proceeds upon the conclusion that religion 
cannot be taught directly by the public 
schools. He, therefore, contends for a sys- 
tem of church schools for the masses, train- 
ing schools for teachers, and a system of 
educational supervision, all strictly corre- 
lated with and supplementary to the public 
school system. The church system should 
correspond to that of the state at every point 
from the kindergarten to the graduate 
school, with local, county, state and national 
superintendents of religious education. The 
correlation between the two systems is 
traced through all the plans under which it 
is now attempted, and to all the possibilities 
which are thus suggested as practicable. 
The references to books, articles, texts and 
administrative details, as sources of infor- 
mation and suggestion, are very full and 
valuable. 

Each of the three volumes usefully sup- 
plements the others, all serving the state as 
truly as the church in showing democracy's 
rootage in religion and religion's fruitage 
in democracy. 

Graham Taylor. 



Medicine as a Profession 

By Daniel W. Weaver and E. W. Weaver. 
A. S. Barnes Co. 214 pp. Price $1.50; by 
mail of the Survey $1.58. 

As a volume giving a survey of the op- 
portunities for medical service, the one by 
the Weavers has much to recommend it. 
There is an excellent analysis of the nature 
of the duties and of the financial rewards 
possible in a large variety of salaried posi- 
tions in federal, state, municipal and county 
service, in the service of corporations or 
fraternal societies, in research work, and 
in urban or rural private practice. 

A number of items serve to mar the value 
of the book, although they do not interfere 
with answering the queries of those who 
may seek it, in order to learn the advan- 
tages and disadvantages of choosing medi- 
cine as a profession. The chapter on the 
history of medicine is too brief to be use- 
ful, lacks inspiration, and appears to be 
merely an introduction, born of formality. 

The chapter on the place of the physician 
in society contains several inaccuracies and 
indicates in places a lack of real knowledge 
and understanding of the all too limited 
part physicians have played in the develop- 
ment of social reforms. To attribute, for 
example, the protection of working men in 
hazardous occupations to the efforts of medi- 
cal societies, is far from the real fact. 

According to the authors, the native abili- 
ties requisite for a successful medical career 
are represented by the gift of observation, 
facility in adapting means to ends, skill in 
reasoning, readiness in extracting informa- 
tion, and the ability to acquire the essential 
scientific spirit of medicine. 

Chapters devoted to the financial rewards 
and the prospects in medicine fail to give 
adequate consideration to the essential re- 
wards that cannot be estimated through 
financial calculations. 

More careful proofreading would have re- 
moved some of the numerous typographical 
errors. A revision of the subject-matter is 
necessary to secure the elimination of ex- 
traneous and comparatively irrelevant ma- 
terial. A revised text should merit a place 
in the literature of vocational guidance. 

Ira S. Wile. 

Creating Capital 

By Frederick L. Lipman. 72 pp. Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co. Price $.75 ; by mail of the 
Survey $.81. 

Higher Education and Business Standards 
By Willard Eugene Hotchkiss 109 pp. 
Houghton Mifflin Co. Price $1 ; by mail of 
the Survey $1.06. 

These two little works are the first titles 
appearing under the Barbara Weinstock 
Lectures on the Morals of Trade, given at 
the University of California. They present 
delightfully contradictory points of view, and 
if the managers of the lectures had variety 
in mind, they certainly secured the end they 
sought. 

Both books present one aspect of the mod- 
ern business viewpoint, however, on which 
there is agreement. Both argue for the long- 
time point of view in business. Beyond this 
single agreement it would be hard to find 
one essential basis in common. Mr. Lipman 
recognizes certain tendencies in the world of 
business, and he is well aware that business 
success is no longer its own justification, but 
he seems to overlook the fact that a single 
generation has forced a revolution in trade 
ethics— an objective rather than a subjective 
phenomenon — and that the homilies on per- 
sonal thrift don't have the same old virtuous 
ring in this new impersonal era. 

The author finds himself put to attributing 
a social motive to the business man's profit- 
{Continued on page 107) 



106 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 1918 




The right answer to the housing 
problem in war means the saving 
of thousands of lives — millions of 
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The wrong answer 
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120 large pages, including 
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showing the marvelous 
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England has built for 
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Fifty Million Dollars 
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Houses for shipyard workers to live in 
— so we can build ships — and win the 
war! 

Congress has given the money. 

Congress will give MORE money. 

How will it be spent? 

How SHOULD it be spent? 

How did England spend $700,000,000 for 
houses for HER war workers? 

Why is she planning to spend another 
$1,000,000,000? 



What is France doing? 

What have other countries done? 

What must WE do? 

This is a new publication, entitled " The 
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Issued by the Journal of American Insti- 
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Every citizen of the United States who 
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[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 27, 1918 



107 



(Continued from page 105) 
making in "creating capital," which creation, 
the author points out, is a duty to society as 
well as to one's family. 

While Mr. Lipman ably uses the present- 
day phraseology and attitude in his apologia 
for the business man, he shows a lack of 
sympathy and understanding here and there 
for the workingman, which might suggest to 
the latter that the book has a "middle-class" 
point of view. For instance, he is quite 
ready to accept, as a general fact, "stories" 
to the effect that increasing income induces 
certain wage-earners to work only four days 
instead of six. In this part of his discussion 
it does not occur to him to inquire whether 
rising living costs have offset rising wages, 
but a little later on he realizes that the high 
cost of living is "burdensome to the man on 
fixed income," when he is thinking primarily 
of him who lives on his investments. 

There are other similar views in the book 
— that under our present order "rewards ap- 
proximate the value of contribution; indi- 
vidual instances of cruelty" are merely al- 
luded to; the doctrine of caveat emptor is 
justified, the economic function of the spec- 
ulator is justified, and so on. 

In contrast, Dean Hotchkiss is by no means 
a wild radical, but he sees business as an 
activity in an evolving society. He interprets 
laissez faire as the natural concomitant of an 
era in which boundless resources and the 
demand for big results were the only factors 
to be considered. The change from that era 
to the one in which social control is not only 
recognized as inevitable but desirable is 
made interestingly clear. 

That the new order in business requires 
efficiency, but efficiency with a moral and 
social viewpoint, is demonstrated, and the 
importance of the application of the methods 
of science to business is emphasized. Dr. 
Hotchkiss makes clear that human relations 
underlie all problems of business and that 
business is therefore comparable to the social 
rather than the physical sciences. 

For training business executives the author 
protests against the differentiation between 
the so-called "cultural" and "vocational" 
subjects. Business executives of the future, 
he suggests, should have a general college 
training of two, three or four years, followed 
by mastery of the "fundamentals of business 
organization and management, including 
. . . accounting, finance. . . ." From 
this he would proceed to increasingly inten- 
sive specialization. 

On the whole, Dean Hotchkiss' little book 
admirably catches the spirit of progress and 
community responsibility now in the air, and 
furnishes stimulating food for thought both 
for the man of business and for the student 
of society. Frederick P. Gruenberg. 

The Aims of Labor 

By Arthur Henderson, M.P. Headley 

Bros. 108 pp. Price 50c; by mail of the 

Survey $.56. 

The enterprise of Mr. Huebsch has re- 
cently introduced to the American reading 
public quite a number of original political 
and social thinkers. The present volume is 
probably the most important of these con- 
tributions. Composed in the main of articles 
published in November and December, 1917, 
it summarizes forcefully the present ma- 
jority program of British labor. 

Readers of the editor's articles in the 
Survey for March 2 and 9 will find in it 
further illustration of the robust and yet in- 
tellectual grasp of both foreign and domestic 
issues which characterizes Henderson — until 
recently one of the rank and file of trade- 
union organizers and representatives, now 
next to President Wilson perhaps the most 
powerful figure in world politics. 

B. L. 



Theories of Social Progress 

A Critical Study of the Attempts to Formulate 
the Conditions of Human Progress 

By ARTHUR JAMES TODD, Ph. D. 

Professor of Sociology in the University of Minnesota 

After the present war it will be imperative that the world be 
rebuilt according to sounder principles which will make it safer 
and insure its improvement. Hence, the study of the underlying 
facts of human progress is now imperative. 

The author presents the sociological foundations for this educational policy 
of reconstruction, gives a general resume of the opinions of other authorities as to 
what constitutes social progress, and presents his own view that social progress 
is theoretically possible, but by no means inevitable. The book is arranged in 
four parts — Human Nature and Social Progress, The Concept and Criteria of 
Progress, The Prophets of Progress, and Implications and Conclusions. 



Cloth, crown octavo, xii + 579 pages. $2.25. 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers 



New York 



DO YOU NEED EARLY VOLUMES OF THE 
SURVEY FOR YOUR LIBRARY FILE? 

If so, write us at once. We have available in unbound form volumes 
XIII to XXXII inclusive and in bound form volumes III, VII, VIII, 
IX, XIII, XIX, XX, XXI, XXII. We can also furnish recent volumes 
either bound or unbound. 

THE SURVEY, 112 East 19 St., New York 





ALEXANDER 
DANA NOYES 

Financial Editor ot the 
N. Y. Evening Post 
whose articles on 
finance are read oy 
hankers, orokers, and 
investors from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific. 



FINANCIAL 
INFORMATION 



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It is important these days, as never before, to have depend- 
able financial information. 

Mr. Noyes knows finance in practice and in history. He 
is the author of books such as "Forty Years of American 
Finance," "Financial Chapters of the War," "The Free 
Coinage Catechism" (2,000,000 copies sold). / 

He writes the daily financial article in The New ' 

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108 



THE SURVEY FOR A PRIL 27 , 191 



Training and Rewards of the Physician 
By Richard C. Cabot. J. B. Lippincott Co. 
153 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $1.33. 

The literature of vocational guidance con- 
stantly grows. Cabot's book was prepared 
not so much for the guidance of individuals 
into medicine as for the information of those 
who already have made up their mind to 
join the "profession, which can use the 
whole of a man, as no other profession can." 

Medical work is divided by the author into 
four large groups involving research and 
teaching, the family physician, the expert 
middleman or specialist, the public health 
officer. The underlying qualities, necessary 
for service in each of these subdivisions, is 
carefully presented, while due stress is 
placed upon the nature and character of 
training and experience to be sought in order 
to fit oneself for each and all of these groups. 

As might be expected, the social vision of 
the author is constantly in the foreground, 
his recognition of the needs of society as 
superior to the shortcomings of individuals. 
In referring to the family physician, he em- 
phasizes the necessity for "the prepared- 
ness for treating a human being as if he 
possessed a mind, affections, talents, vices 
and habits, good and bad, as well as more 
or less diseased organs." 

There is considerable constructive criti- 
cism, with reference to the inadequacy of 
medical training and the necessity for young 
physicians to till many fields of experience 
through their own initiative, enthusiasm and 
social conscience. 

The second part of the book discusses 
various helps and hindrances in the doc- 
tor's development. Fortunatelv. failure is not 
interpreted in terms of dollars and cents, but 



in terms of satisfaction, enthusiasm and so- 
cial adjustment. There are very suggestive 
chapters discussing the chances for the young 
doctor in competition with older groups, and 
the many problems which arise in arriving 
at a determination to set up a practice in the 
city or in rural districts. 

The influence of cults upon success in the 
future is not overlooked, but various cults 
are welcome, so far as medicine is concerned, 
because their criticisms and competitions 
challenge the authority of orthodox medicine 
and thus aid to force its development. The 
future of medicine is in part undergoing 
marked alterations, because medical tradi- 
tions are being annihilated through the 
greater education of laymen, under the in- 
fluence of public health crusades and cam- 
paigns of health education. Preventive medi- 
cine and the health movement combine to 
decrease disease bv the wholesale and thus 
lessen the opportunities for physicians accus- 
tomed to dealing with patients upon a retail 
plan. 

Group medicine in all its various phases 
represents an advance in the socialization of 
medicine which is bound to increase the sat- 
isfactory results of medical practice but to 
decrease the necessity for large numbers of 
physicians. 

As a result of such visions of the future 
medicine, the rewards of medical practice, as 
described in Part Three, are bound to be 
uncertain. Money, gratitude and technical 
success are not to be the satisfying rewards 
for physicians. The only certain comfort that 
the young entrant into medicine may look for- 
ward to is social approval and sympathy, if 
his life work is attuned to the call of human 
service and conscientious leadership towards 
the philosophy of life that sees health in 
everything. Ira S. WlLE. 



Ask for the Index 

THE index for Volume XXXIX of the 
SURVEY (October. 1917-March. 1918). 
is now in press. It will be sent free on 
request. Libraries and others on our index 
mailing list for other volumes will receive 
this one without further request. Volume, 
stoutly bound in red cloth with leather cor- 
ners. $2.50 ; subscribers' copies bound at 
$1.50; carriage extra. 

THE SURVEY. 
112 East 19 Street. New York 



For Employers in War- 
Time 

17 XPERT advice on labor prob- 
lems. "Retainer" basis. Labor 
relations, employment methods, labor 
supply, plant sanitation, hygiene, 
pensions, insurance, female labor, 
wages, "welfare work," industrial 
democracy. Address 

"CONSULTANT," care Survey. 




K1D11C 

A Journal of Den 



THE PUBLIC in its editorials and special articles 
interprets for its reader the developments of the day 
in Washington and in the European centers where his- 
tory is being made — and always with relation to their 
THE PUBLIC bearing on democracy 

122 E. 37th St., New York, n.y. Authoritative special articles in recent issues of The 

Send me The Public for 26 weeks' Public have covered— "Newspapers in Wartime," by a radi- 
trial, and a free copy of "The Law cal city editor, "On the trail of the Packers." by George 
of Human Progress." by Henry p. West, "Reform and the Constitution," "What is hap- 
Ceorge. I enclose $ 1 .00. pen|ng fe I re land," "Anglo-American Labor." "What 

("The Law of Human Progress" is a /-. KT 1 ** u A \T7 A 1 ' *\»» u A r- 1 

brilliant analysis of the iaw» governing Congress Needs, Are Women Advancing? An hduca- 

tht> development <>f civilization. Beau- . • i p. r. •• 
tilully printed, and bound in cloth.) tional Urait. 

"The Public is a compass — always true and pointing in the same 
ff me direction." — Brand Whitlock, U. S. Minister to Belgium. 

"The Public is the most dynamic factor in our home." — Harriet 
Address Taylor Treadwell. 

Published Weekly. $2.00 a year 



JOTTINGS 



LAST week's cover picture was reproduced 
from a poster kindly lent by John Wana- 
maker, whose courtesy we are glad to 
acknowledge. 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, New York 
city, is conducting a course of lectures on 
Community Centers and Democracy under 
the immediate supervision of Prof. Herbert 
Shenton. 



THE full court of the United States Supreme 
Court listened last week to arguments on the 
constitutionality of the federal child labor 
law The test case was brought by the father 
of two children, one between fourteen and 
sixteen years of age, the other below four- 
teen, whose employment was interfered with 
by the law. The court's decision will, it is 
thought, be rendered at an early date. 



AT the sixth conference of industrial physi- 
cians and surgeons held at Harrisburg, Pa., 
April 9, it was almost unanimously agreed 
that the Pennsylvania workmen's compensa- 
tion law ought to be amended so as to pro- 
vide compensation to the physician during 
the entire period of treatment of the injured 
worker, to decrease the waiting period for 
compensation to the injured person and to 
give a larger percentage of wages in com- 
pensation than is awarded under the present 
act. Mrs. Samuel Semple, member of the 
Pennsylvania Industrial Board, warned 
against the employment of women in occu- 
pations demanding the lifting of heavy 
weights and similar hardships. 



WITH the closing of red light districts and 
with the need for taking prostitutes off the 
streets in towns near the camps, the lack of 
provision for suitable correctional treatment 
in many states, especially in the South, has 
become a matter of national concern. In this 
connection, Martha P. Falconer, superintend- 
ent of the Reformatory for Girls at Sleighton 
Farms, N. J., has been selected by the Com- 
mission on Training Camp Activities for a 
very special task. Mrs. Falconer, who has 
been granted a leave of absence for six 
months, is visiting these states and, by using 
all available influences and resources, is try- 
ing to induce them to provide reformatories 
of an approved type so that courts may not 
have their present justifiable excuse for let- 
ting girls and women of the character named 
go free. 



THE recent death of Carleton H. Parker, 
professor of economics in the University of 
Washington, removes one of the keenest and 
most sympathetic students of labor problems 
among the younger university men of this 
country. WTiile a member of the economics 
faculty of the University of California some 
years ago, he became executive secretary of 
the California Commission on Immigration 
and Housing. This gave him an opportun- 
ity to study the problems and habits of the 
unskilled and migratory laborers typical of 
the Pacific coast. He thus came into con- 
tact with the I. W. \V. movement and be- 
came one of its most intelligent and dis- 
criminating interpreters. His article on the 
Industrial Workers of the World in 
the Atlantic Monthly of November, 
1917, attracted wide attention and \\.i<; 
accorded general praise for its sympa- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2 f , 191 



109 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travels, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various 
headings "Situations Wanted," "Help Wanted," 
etc., five cents each word or initial, including 
the address, for each insertion. Address 
Advertising Department, The Survey, 112 East 
19 St., New York City. 



WORKERS WANTED 

OSHKOSH, Wisconsin, Associated 
Charities, wants competent secretary. 

WANTED— A Settlement Director by a 

neighborhood center in a large eastern city. 
Address 2763 Survey. 

WANTED — Jewish case worker as resi- 
dent by Philadelphia child-caring agency. 
Address 2764 Survey. 

WANTED — Trained matron and house- 
keeper at Texas State Training School 
for Girls, Gainesville, Texas. 

A CHILD-PLACING Agency in New 
Jersey desires Matron for its Receiving 
Home. Experienced. Send photo. Ad- 
dress 2765 Survey. 

YOUNG man for Director of Men's and 
Boys' work at Jewish Educational Alliance, 
1216 E. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Md. 
Salary, eighty dollars monthly and room. 
Write, Mr. Jess Perlman, Resident Di- 
rector. 

WANTED — Woman worker to assist 
with the Summer schedule of a specialized 
Settlement in Philadelphia, Pa., for July 
and August. Must have experience in 
group development and general settlement 
activities as well as executive qualities. Ad- 
dress 2768 Survey. 

WANTED — Trained social worker thor- 
oughly experienced for medical social serv- 
ice work, one who has had some hospital 
training preferred. Address Social Service 
Dept, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Conn. 

WANTED — Working Housekeeper — 
good character, good health, for position 
in a country home institution. Address 
2773 Survey. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

CAMP Director — experienced in branches, 
college graduate and physical training in- 
structor, seeks position for summer. Ad- 
dress 2770 Survey. 

SOCIAL worker (woman), eight years 
experience in Settlement work, desires posi- 
tion in Medical Social Service or C. O. S. 
work. Address 2769 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE — Jewish young man, Uni- 
versity and Philanthropy school graduate, 
experienced in relief, research and Ameri- 
canization work, seeks position as head of 
philanthropic organization. Well qualified 
and highly recommended. Ready May 15. 
Address 2758 Survey. 

COLLEGE woman, experienced in pub- 
licity and organization work, desires posi- 
tion. Address 2772 Survey. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



TEACHER of much experience and abil- 
ity with mental defectives desires a pupil 
after June first. Address 2771 Survey. 



TWO women,, one a social worker, want 
by June first, small unfurnished apartment, 
preferably where meals are served in house. 
Below 110th St. Address 2774 Survey. 



VICTORIAN ORDER OF NURSES: 

Post-Graduate course in District Nursing, 
four months, is given at the four training 
centres of the Order at Ottawa, Montreal, 
Toronto and Vancouver. Salary during the 
course and good openings after successful 
terminations. For full information apply to 
the Chief Superintendent, 578 Somerset St., 
Ottawa. 



"Why the Nations Rage" 

and other Unitarian publications <m( tret. Addreii FIRST 
r'HTJRCH. Cor. Marlborough and Berkeley 8t« . Boiton. Mall 



thetic insight and clear analysis of the 
causes that lead to the development of the 
I. W. W. philosophy. His illuminating re- 
port on the riot that took place on the Durst 
Hop Ranch, at Wheatland, California, in the 
summer of 1913, was published in the Sur- 
vey for March 21, 1914. Last fall Profes- 
sor Parker was asked by the War Depart- 
ment to act as its representative in connection 
with labor disturbances in the lumber camps 
of Washington and Oregon. He served in this 
capacity so capably that one large employers' 
association has revolutionized its labor 
policy and has settled its difference with the 
workers. His untimely death cuts him off at 
what was, apparently, just the beginning of 
a career of unusual usefulness. 



THE War Department has ordered an in- 
vestigation of the treatment received by 
Ernest Gellert before his death by suicide 
at Fort Hancock, N. J., early in April. 
Gellert was a conscientious objector to war, 
twenty-two years old. He left a diary de- 
scribing the manner in which he was 
treated. Beside his body was a note read- 
ing: "I fear I have not succeeded in con- 
vincing the authorities of the sincerity of 
my scruples against participation in the 
war. I feel that only by my death will I 
be able to save others from the mental tor- 
tures I have gone through." The case was 
called to the department's attention by the 
Civil Liberties Bureau, New York city. 



CONTINUING its insistence that teachers 
should be given a larger voice in educa- 
tional policies, the Teachers' Union of New 
York city has addressed an open letter to 
the Board of Education, asking the board to 
consult its teachers in regard to a successor 
to Superintendent William H. Maxwell. The 
letter points out that teachers in Minneapolis 
were recently consulted in a similiar mat- 
ter and that nine-tenths of them endorsed 
the man finally chosen. This whole ques- 
tion of participation by teachers in decisions 
affecting the schools came to the fore recently 
when three New York teachers were dis- 
missed for insufficient loyalty. [See Giving 
the Teachers a Voice, the Survey, December 
8, 1917.]. Meanwhile, the board itself has 
issued a statement inviting everyone who de- 
sires to make recommendations regarding a 
superintendent to do so. 



CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly insertions, 
copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Order pamphlets from publishers. 

Consumers' Co-operation During the War. Al- 
bert Sonnichsen. 5 cents. Co-operative League 
of America, 2 West 13 St., New York. 

The Disgrace of Democracy. An Open Letter to 
President Wilson by Prof. Kelly Miller. "The 
best argument that any Southerner, white or 
black, has contributed to American Governmental 
theory in a half century." — Editor Smart Set, 
in the Evening Mail. 10 cts. a single copy. On 
orders over ten, 5 cts. a copy. Address Kelly 
Miller, Howard University, Washington, D. C. 

Girls and Khaki. Winthrop D. Lane. Reprinted 
from the Survey. 10 cts. Survey Associates. 
Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Helping Hoover. A Business Man's Synopsis of 
Food Values, Food Combinations and Simplified 
Dietetics. Free on request from Richard Mayer, 
200 Summer St., Boston. 

Immigration Literature distributed by Nation*! 
Liberal Immigration League, P. O. Box 1261. 

New York. Arguments free on request. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings ot 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitcb. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Wheatless — Meatless Meals. 84 menus, 124 
recipes, directions, food values, substitutes, timely 
suggestions, etc. 10c, or FREE for two names 
interested in Domestic Science. Am. School of 
Home Economics, 519 W. 69th St., Chicago, 111. 

The Wheels of Organized Charity: or The 
Work of a District Committee. 5 cts. a copy; 
15 for 50 cts. Address Charity Organization 
Society, Buffalo. 

You Should Know About Credit Unions. A 
manual furnished gratis upon request. Massa- 
chusetts Credit Union Association, 78 Devon- 
shire Street, Boston. 



PERIODICALS 



Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

American Physical Education Review; nine issue* 
(October to June) ; $3; official organ for the Amer- 
ican Physical Education Association. Original 
articles of scientific and practical value, new* 
notes, bibliographies and book reviews. Amer- 
ican Physical Education Association, 93 West- 
ford Avenue, Springfield, Mass. 

The Child Labor Bulletin; quarterly; $2 a year; 
National Child Labor Committee, New York. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; published 
by The National Committee for Mental Hy- 
giene. 50 Union Square, New York. 

The Negro Year Book; published under the aus- 
pices of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.; an 
annual; 35c. postpaid; permanent record of cur 
rent events An encyclopedia of 450 pages of 
historical and sociological facts relating to the 
Negro. General and special bibliographies; full 
index. 

Public Health Nurse; quarterly; $1 a year; na 
tional organ for Public Health Nursing, 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. 

Southern Workman, illustrated monthly; $1 for 
700 pages on race relations here and abroad; 
Hampton Institute, Va. Sample copy free. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2: 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 



COMING MEETINGS 



(.Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month.) 

Charities and Corrections, Tennessee State 
Conference. Memphis, May 12, 13, 14. Sec'y, 
Mary Russell, Associated Charities, Memphis. 

Public Health Nursing, National Organiza- 
tion for. Hotel Hollenden, Cleveland, May 
6-11. Sec'y, Ella Phillips Crandall, 156 Fifth 
avenue, New York city. 



I 10 



ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



SURYBV 




Associates 
Inc. 



KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknoivn source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you want to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed ; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply) and 
pamphlets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



WARTIME SERVICE 
H TTOIV the Survey can serve" 

■Lj- was the subject of an infor- 
mal conference held early in the war, 
in our library, to which we asked the 
executives of perhaps twenty national 
social service organizations. The con- 
ference was a unit in feeling that as a 
link between organized efforts, as a 
means for letting people throughout 
the country know promptly of needs 
and national programs — how, when 
and where they can count locally — the 
Survey was at the threshold of an 
opportunity for service such as has 
seldom come to an educational enter- 
prise. 

The development of this directory is 
one of several steps in carrying out 
this commission. The executives of 
these organizations will answer ques- 
tions or offer counsel to individuals 
and local organizations in adjusting 
their work to emergent wartime de- 
mands. 



Listings $3 a month for card of five lines (in- 
cluding one listing in SUBJECT INDEX by full 
name and three by initials), fifty cents a month 
for each additional line. No contracts for less 
than three months. Additional charge of $1 for 
each change of copy during three-month period. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Animals, Amer. Humane Education Soc. 
Birth Registration, Aasfim. 
Blindness, Ncpb. 
Cancer, Ascc 
Charities, Ncsw. 



CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Sbo. 

CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Child Welf. Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept of Child Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Praa. 

CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 
Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Bureau of Municipal Research 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Commission Government, Sbo. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 
Correction, Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 

COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca. 
County Ywca. 

Credit Unions, Mass. Credit Union Assn. 

Crime Sa. 

Cripples, Red Cross Inst, for Crippled and 

Disabled Men. 
Disfranchisement, Naacp. 

EDUCATION 

Amer. Humane Education Soc. 
Amer. Physical Education Assn. 
Cooperative League of America. 
Natl. Board of the Ywca. 
Public Ownership League of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 
Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 

Efficiency Work. Bmr. 

Electoral Reform, Ti, Aprl. 

Employment. Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Eugenics, Er. 

Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb. 

Feeblemindedness, Ncmh. 



FOUNDATIONS 

Russell Sage Foundation. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Amer. Red Cross. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl. Or*, for Public Health Nursing. 

Ncsw, Ncwa. 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
Home Economics, Ahea. 
Home Work, Nclc. 
Hospitals, Naspt. 
Humane Education. Ahes. 
Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca, Apea. 

IMMIGRATION 

Im. Aid, Council of Jewish Worn. 
International Institute for Foreign-born Womea 

of the Ywca. 
Industrial Education, Rcicdm. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 
Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 
Natl. Child Labor Com. 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 
Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 
Ncsw, Ncwa, Nlws. 

Insanitv. Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Anti-Imperialist League. 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will. Fccca. 

Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept 
Labor Laws. Aall., Nclc 
Legislative Reform, Aprl. 



LIBRARIES 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 

Mental Hygiene, Cppm, Ncm-h 

Mountain Whites, Rsp. 

Municipal Government, Aprl, Nps. 

Negro Training, Hi, Ti. 

Neighborhood Work, Npg. 

Nursing, Apha, Nophn. 

Open Air Schools, Nastt. 

Peace, Ail. 

Peonage, Naacp. 

Playgrounds, Praa. 

Physical Training, Apea, Praa. 

Prostitution, Asha. 

Protection Women Workers, Ntas. 

Public Health, Nophn. 



RACE PROBLEMS 
Er, Ail. 

Hampton Institute. 
Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peon. 
Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 
Tuskegee Institute. 

Reconstruction, Ncsw. 



RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 
Nbywca, Nwwcymca, Apea. 

REMEDIAL LOANS 
Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans, Mcua 

Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Savings, Mcua. 
Self-Government, Nlww, Ail. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Nat. Fed. of Settlements. 

Sex Education, Asha. 
Schools, Ahea. Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Social Hygiene, Asha. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca. 
Nwwcymca. Pola. 



SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Statistics, Rsp. 

SURVEYS 
Bureau of Municipal Research. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sor. and Ex. 
Ncmh, Praa, Ncwa. 

Thrift, Mcua. 



TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers Aid Society. 
Iacjw. 

Tuberculosis Naspt. 

Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsp. 

Unemployment, Aall. 



WAR RELIEF 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of Ywca 
Nwwcymca, Rcicdm. 

WOMEN 

Amer. Home Economics Assn. 
Natl. Board of the Y. W. C. A 
Natl. League for Woman's Service . 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Work for Soldiers, Nat'.. War Work Counci 

Y. M. C. Assns. of U. S. 
Working Girls, Iacjw, Ntas, Nlww. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION — John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St.. 
New York. For national employment service for 
mobilizing and demobilizing war workers; main- 
taining labor standards; workmen's compensation; 
health insurance; efficient law enforcement. 

AMERICAN ASSN. FOR STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrud. 
B. Knipp, exec, sec'v; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature. Exhibits. Urges prenatal in- 
struction; adequate obstetrical care; birth registra- 
tion; maternal nursinir; infant welfareconsultationn. 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



1 1 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 

— Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y, Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
tions in home, school, institution and community. 
Publishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN HUMANE EDUCATION SOCIETY 

— Founded by Geo. T. Angell. To promote kindness 
to animals through schools, press, and societies for 
young and old. Organ, Our Dumb Animals. Free 
literature. 180 Longwood Ave., Boston. 

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION — William Burdick, M.D., pres., McCoy 
Hall, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Persis B. McCurdy, 
acting sec'y, 93 Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 
Object to awaken a wider and more intelligent 
interest in physical education. Annual member- 
ship fee $3 includes magazine. 

AMERICAN PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TION LEAGUE — C. G. Hoag, sec'y; 802 Franklin 
Bank Building, Philadelphia. Advocates a rational 
and fundamental reform in electing representatives. 
Literature free. Membership $1. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION— William F. Snow, M.D., gen. sec'y; 
10S W. 40 St., New York. For the repression 
of prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotion of sound sex education; pam- 
phlets upon request; membership $5; sustaining 
$10. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Miss Marion H. Mapelsden, acting 
exec, sec'y; 25 W. 45 St., New York. To dissemi- 
nate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free on 
request. Annual membership dues, $3. 

ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE— Founded Nov. 
19, 1898. Moorfield Storey, pres. (first pres., 
George S. Boutwell) ; David Greene Haskins, Jr., 
treas., 10 Tremont St., Boston; Erving Winslow, 
sec'y. Object: To protest and agitate against ex- 
tension of sovereignty over peoples, without their 
own consent. 

BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH— 261 

Broadway, New York. Has a department of field 
work to make surveys of governments and institu- 
tions anywhere at cost. Efficiency systems in- 
stalled. Twelve years' experience. Estimates fur- 
nished. 

COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St., New York. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice concerning all phases of 
consumers' cooperation. Annual membership, $1. 
includes monthly, Cooperative Consumer. 

IMMIGRANT AID, COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL)— Headquarters, 242 East 
Broadway, New York. Helen Winkler, ch'n. 
Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. Has international system of safeguarding. 
Conducts National Americanization program. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic pos- 
sibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
gen'l sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service; 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Rev 
Clyde F. Armitage, asso. sec'y; Herbert M. 
Shenton, special sec'y; Miss Grace M. Sims, 
office sec'y. 

Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 

Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 
Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life: Rev 
Charles O. Gill, -—»-■ '"" » "«---4 »- 



Columbus, Ohio. 



sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 



Campaign for the Conservation of Human Life; 
Charles Stelzle, sec'y. 

■AMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal- 
elect; G. P. Phenix, vice-prin.; F. K. Rogers 
treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, Va! 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State 
nor a Government school. Free illus. literature. 



MASSACHUSETTS CREDIT UNION ASSOCIA- 
TION — J. C. Bills, Jr., managing dir.; 78 
Devonshire St., Boston. Gives information con- 
cerning credit unions, and assists in their organ- 
ization and development. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Moor- 
field Storey, pres.; John R. Shillady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American citizen- 
ship. Furnishes information regarding race dis- 
crimination, lynching, etc. Membership, 10,000, 
with 100 branches. Membership, $1 upwards. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY 
AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS— 

Charles T. Hatfield, M.D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph.D., ass't sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New 
York. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational methods. 



NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOM- 
EN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexing- 
ton Ave., New York. To advance physical, social, 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county centers; 
physical education; camps; rest-rooms, lunch-rooms 
and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; 
Bible study; secretarial training sohool; foreign 
work; war work councils. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22 St., New 
York, 35 state branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration; education: delinquency; health; recrea- 
tion; children's codes. Publishes quarterly Child 
Labor Bulletin. Photographs, slides and exhibits. 



NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION 
— Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Aye., 
New York. Cooperates with hundreds of social 
agencies. Headquarters for child welfare mate- 
rials, exhibits, literature, etc. Inquiries invited. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq., 
New York. Pamphlets on mental hygiene, mental 
disorders, feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, 
criminology, war neuroses and re-education, social 
service, backward children, surveys, state societies. 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director; Gordon L. Berry, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22 St., 
New York. Objects: To furnish information, ex- 
hibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish literature 
of movement — samples free, quantities at cost. . In- 
cludes New York State Committee. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 

— Robert A. Woods, pres., Boston; William T. 
Cross, gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago. 
General organization to discuss principles of hu- 
manitarian effort and increase efficiency of agencies. 
Publishes proceedings annual meetings, monthly 
bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information bureau. Mem- 
bership, $3. 45th annual meeting Kansas City, 
May 15-22, 1918. Main divisions and chairmen: 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Mrs. Jessie D. 

Hodder. 
Health. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 

Johnstone. 
The Family, Gertrude Vaile. 
Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 

Florence Kelley. 
The Local Community, Charles C. Cooper. 
Mental Hygiene, Frankwood E. Williams, M.D. 
Organization of Social Forces, Allen T. Burns. 
Social Problems of the War and Reconstruction, 

Prof. George H. Mead. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
—Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state, and na- 
tion, for meeting the fundamental problems dis- 
closed by settlement work; seeks the higher and 
more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR WOMAN'S SERVICE 

— Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'n; 257 Madison Ave 
New York. To mobilize and train the volunteer 
woman power of the country for specific emer- 
gency service; supplemental to the Red Cross; co- 
operating with government agencies. 



NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS— 
Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New York. 
Evening clubs for girls; recreation and instruction 
in self-governing and supporting groups for girls 
of working age. Magazine, The Chtb Worker, 
monthly, 30 cents a year. 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING — Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Object: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of technique; 
to maintain a central bureau of information. Bul- 
letins sent to members. 



NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 
—Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22 St., 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations with 
trained workers. 



NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil- 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y; rooms 20-21, 465 Lexington Ave., 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of travel- 
ers, especially women and girls. Non-sectarian. 



NATIONAL WAR WORK COUNCIL OF THE 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS 
OF THE UNITED STATES— 347 Madison Ave., 
New York. To promote the physical, social, in- 
tellectual, moral and spiritual interests of men in 
uniform. Wm. Sloane, ch'n; Cleveland H. Dodge, 
treas.; John R. Mott, gen. sec'y. 



NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703), Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ. Life and Labor. 



PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSN. OF 
SlMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 Madison Ave., 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with War 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 



PUBLIC OWNERSHIP LEAGUE OF AMERICA 
— Organized to secure the public ownership and 
operation of railroads and other public Utili- 
ties and natural resources. Inquiries solicited. 
Address Albert M. Todd, pres., Westorv Building, 
14th and F Sts., Washington, D. C. 



RED CROSS INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND 
DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir.; 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Makes studies of re-education 
for disabled soldiers and industrial cripples. Pub- 
lishes reports on reconstruction work at home and 
abroad, and carries on propaganda to inculcate 
a sound attitude on the part of the public toward 
the physically handicapped. 



RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
dir.; 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics, Recreation. Remedial Loans, Surveys 
and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, Southern 
Highland Division. 



SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Childs, sec'y; 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. Clearing house for in- 
formation on short ballot, commission gov't, city 
manager plan, county gov't. Pamphlets free. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES. INC.— Robert W. de 
Forest, pres.; Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y; publishers 
of the Survey; Paul U. Kellogg, editor; Edward 
T. Devine, Graham Taylor. Jane Addams, associate 
editors; departments: Civics. Graham R. Taylor; 
Industry, John A. Fitch; Health. Alice Hamilton, 
M.D., Gertrude Seymour; Education. Crime, Win- 
throp D. Lane; Foreign Service, Bruno Lasker. 
112 East 19 St., New York. 



TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment in race 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; fur- 
nishes information on all phases of the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 



CHARLES FRANCIS PRESS, NEW YORK 



{Continued from page 83) 

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Jiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiu out niiriitiii tiui niTiiiTiiri Minn )iiiiiiriiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii>iiT riiiitniij. § 

I 1 SPECIAL I 

SUMMER 

I SESSIONS I j 

I ^IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMMIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIirillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllR; § 

I TRAINING GAMP FOR NURSES 

For college women only. Classes 1909-1918 eligible 

At Vassar College, June 24 to September 13, 1918. | 

Under the auspices of the American Red Cross and | 

the Council of National Defense. = 

A three months intensive course in theory of nursing, E 

preliminary to two years training in hospitals. Fee, = 

including board, room, living expenses and tuition § 

I — $95. I 

Our country's need 1 

Apply at once to Dean Herbert E. Mills, Vassar College, = 

I PoUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y. | 

Summer Session, June 24 — August 3, 1918 f 
I University of Southern California 1 

More than 100 courses by 40 specialists. Visiting professors § 
include some of America's foremost educators. 

= Social aspects of government war program given special proml- = 

nenoe. George E. Howard, ex-president American Sociological E 

= Society (Social Psychology) ; Richard Burton, of Minnesota E 

(American Literature and the War) ; Emory S. Bogardus i 

(Americanization) ; Ernest C. Moore (Educational Administra- E 

tion) ; Dr. Louise Stanley (Household Problems and Dietetici) : | 

Rockwell D. Hunt (National Conservation) ; and many others. = 

Unusual opportunity for teachers in unexcelled environment. i 
For Bulletin with full announcements, address 
J. H. MONTGOMERY, Registrar, Los Angeles, Cal. 

I THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA j 

Summer Session, 1918 

June 24 — August 2 

The Summer Session of the University of Minne- = 

sota will be maintained as usual. | 

I Colleges offering instruction: Agriculture, Chemis- | 

= try, Dentistry, Education, Engineering, Graduate S 

School, Medicine, Science, Literature and the Arts. 

Numerous undergraduate and graduate courses = 
leading to bachelor's and advanced degrees. 
Special Feature : The Social Service 

| Plattsburg I 

Special training for social workers in war time by = 

experts of national reputation. Courses on Child | 

Welfare, Care of Dependents and Defectives, Hous- | 
ing and Town Planning, Social Progress; special three 

weeks' institutes on Case Work, Problems of the E 
Family, and Thought Currents in Modern Social 

Work. The Director of the University's Training 1 

Course for Social and Civic Work will conduct the | 

| Plattsburg and also the Red Cross Home Service In- | 

| stitute which it includes. | 

= Women students may engage rooms in Sanford = 

Hall by making application before May 1st. 

For bulletins containing detailed information, address I 

The Registrar, University of Minnesota 

I T.HE SUMMER QUARTER OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

Affords opportunity for instruction cz the same basil 
as during the other quarters of the academic year 

The undergraduate colleges, the gradu- | 
ate schools, and the professional schools 
provide courses in Arts, Literature, Science, 
Commerce and Administration, Law, Medi- 
cine, Education, and Divinity. Instruction 
is given by regular members of the Uni- 
versity staff which is augmented in the 
summer by appointment of professors and 
instructors from other institutions. 

Special War Courses 
Military Science, Food Conservation 

1 Spoken French, etc. 

SUMMER QUARTER, 1918: First Term 
June 17-July 24; Second Term July 25- 
August 30 

= A detailed announceme nt will be sent upon application to the 
s Dean of the Faculties, THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, Chicago, 
| Illinois | 

2 = 
^immiiiiiiniiiiiirtmMiMiMiiMiuiiiiMiiiiiiiNiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiMiiMuiuitiiriiiiiniiiuiMniiiHMiiiiiiitiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ? 



Overnight! Social Work 
in National Action! 



EIGHTEEN months ago many would have said 
"Impossible!" But today we face the fact. 
Principles of social readjustment that have 
required a generation to develop are in demand for 
nation-wide application. 

Are you a professional worker? A volunteer? A 
member of a governing board? Are you in the 
Home Service of the Red Cross, doing Council of 
Defense work, driving a motor, or serving on a 
committee? Then you are helping make history, 
and the National Conference of Social Work at 
Kansas City May 15-22 concerns you. 

Prepared to explain the amazing new social facts 
of the day and principles that otherwise might cost 
weeks of experiment and many heart-aches to ac- 
quire, are recognized professional leaders, govern- 
ment officials and experts in community service. 

There are no formalities affecting your attend- 
ance. Dozens of carefully arranged meetings — a 
practical university — and opportunities to meet your 
colleagues from a distance, are offered you. Nearly 
every session is an open forum. 

The National Conference does not formulate 
platforms — it does more — it develops ideas, plans, 
programs, in the minds of workers and executives 
capable of quickly translating them into immediate 
effective action. Now must there be quick adapta- 
tion of tried and true methods to new problems. 

Should you not avail yourself of the fellowship, 
the directly-applicable, helpful facts to be obtained 
at this conference? 

Glance at this little corner full of subjects from 
the larger program: 



A Few Topics 

The Children's Year and 
After 

Socialization of Government 
in War Time 

\fter-War Programs of Eura- 
pean Countries 

The Volunteers of the Future 

Gathering War-Time Social 
Data 

Victims of Shell Shock 

Returning Mentally Afflicted 
Soldiers to Civil Life 

Red Cross Reconstruction in 
France 

Universal Physical and Vo- 
cational Training 

The International Labor 
Movement 

Industrial Reorganization Af- 
ter the War 

Home Service Problems 

Budget Making 

Resources of Fatherless Fam- 
ilies 

Americanization 

The Foreign Born as Politi- 
cal Assets 

Training Camp Communities 

The American Farm After 
the War 



A Few Speakers 

Robert A. Woods, South End 
House, Boston 

Maj. Robert M. Yerkes, M. 
O. R. C, Washington 

Julia C. Lathrop, Federal 
Children's Bureau 

W. Frank Persons, American 
Red Cross 

S. K. Ratcliffe, London 
Daily News 

Mary E. Lent, Nat. Org. for 
Public Health Nursing 

Prof. George H. Mead, Uni- 
versity of Chicago 

Jane Addams, Hull House 

Lawrence Veiller, National 
Housing Assn. 

Katherine B. Davis, Med. 
Brd. Council of Natl. 
Defense 

Allen T. Burns, Dir. Cleve- 
land Foundation 

Gertrude Vaile, Red Cross, 
Denver 

Maj. Richard H. Hutchings, 
M. O. R. C, Washington 

Graham Taylor, Chicago Com- 
mons 

George W. Simmons, Mgr. 
S. W. Div. Red Cross 

L. A. Halbert, Board of Pub- 
lic Welfare, Kansas City 



./ 



Send for Program (Free) and Help 
Distribute Literature of the 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE 
OF SOCIAL WORK, 
KANSAS CITY, 
MAY 15-22 



y 



/ 



y William 

f T. Cross, 

/ General 

f Secretary, 

V* 315 Plymouth 

Court, Chicago. 

Send me a free copy of 
/' the program and details of 
S the National Conference ot 
Social Work at Kansas City. 
Also copies for distribution. 



y Name. 
Address..., 



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NOTICE TO READER. 
When you finish reading this magazine, 
place a one-cent stamp on this notice, 
mail the magazine, and it will be placed 
in the hands of our soldiers or sailors 
destined to proceed overseas. 

NO WRAPPING— NO ADDRESS. 



A. S. Burleson, Postmaster General, 



SOTWE9* 



Photograph by Courtesy of Harry B. Lachman 




A RED CROSS MAN HELPING CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHER FROM THE RECENTLY EVACUATED REGION IN FRANCE 



Negroes Move North 

By George E. Haynes 



Reconstruction Under Fire 

By Mary Ross 



a 



My Money Won't Reach" 

By Emma A. Winslou/^ \ & L— 



Price 25 Cents 



MAY 7 M18 w 



THE UNWILLING VESTAL 

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of Rome in the years between 100 and 200 A. D. is related mostly by episodes. But the story does not lack continuity. 
And it has suspense to a notable degree, to a degree far beyond the power of many novelists to achieve." 



GONE TO EARTH 



By MARY WEBB, Author of "The Golden Arrow," "The Spring of Joy." 



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BEFORE THE WIND 



By JANET LAING. 



Net $1.50 



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TO ARMS ! 

By MARCELLE TINAYRE. Translated into English by 
Lucy H. Humphrey. Net $1.50 

San Francisco Chronicle says — "The book has caught the 
real spirit of France, and reading it will help us to 
understand better that valiant undaunted fighting line, 
and the equally valiant army of loyal civilians behind it." 

FRONT LINES 

By BOYD CABLE, Author of "Action Front," "Between the 
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N. Y. Herald says — "Few of the multitude of war books 
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pen picture of trench life and trench fighting as the 
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THE LOST NAVAL PAPERS 

By BENNET COPPLESTONE. Net $1.50 

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William Dawson, that deserves to rank with the re- 
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MY TWO KINGS 

By MRS. EVAN NEPEAN. A novel of the Stuart Restora- 
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The Times-Picayune says — "The charm of the historical 
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All the color, romance, adventure, and intrigue of the 
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CHILDREN OF PASSAGE 

By FREDERICK WATSON. Net $1.50 

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A Tale of the Western Frontier 

BY DANE COOLIDGE. Net $1.50 

A story of cattle thieves, train robbers, ineffectual pur- 
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THE FOUR HORSEMEN OF 

THE APOCALYPSE Net $1 so 

From the Spanish of VICENTE BLASCO IBANEZ. Au- 
thorized Tranlation by CHARLOTTE BREWSTER JORDON. 
A superb drama of modern life, leading up to and describ- 
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Four Horsemen are Pestilence, War, Famine, and Death, 
who precede the great beast of the Book of Revelation. 
The work of a great genius stirred to the bottom of his 
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culminated in the great epie of the Battle of the Marne. 

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SALT, OR THE EDUCATION OF GRIFFITH ADAMS 



By CHAELES G. NOERIS, Author of "The Amateur." 



Net ?1.50 



This novel tell the story of an American boy who went through school and college but who was not educated until later. 
It is a startling commentary on the methods of which our young men are fitted for life. Griffith Adams is an Amer- 
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POSTAGE EXTRA. AT ALL BOOKSTORES 

E. P. DUTTON & COMPANY, 681 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 




Negroes Move North 

I. Their Departure from the South 
By George Edmund Haynes 

PROFESSOR OF SOCIAL SCIENCE, FISK UNIVERSITY; EDUCATIONAL SECRETARY 

NATIONAL LEAGUE ON URBAN CONDITIONS AMONG NEGROES 

THE present migration of Negroes from the South is During this time the rate of increase for the total Negro 
another chapter in the story of the masses struggling population was as follows: 1860 to 1870, 9.9 per cent; 1870 
to secure better conditions of living and larger life. to 1880, 34.9 per cent; 1880 to 1890, 13.5 per cent; 1890 to 
This movement northward is vitally changing the 1900, 18.0 per cent; 1900 to 1910, 11.2 per cent. A corn- 
South, the North, and the Negroes themselves, North and parison of the increase of the Negro population in these north- 
South. The facts should be studied therefore sympathetically ern cities with the increase of the total Negro population 
and frankly to arrive at "a complete understanding and co- shows that the increase in the northern cities in four decades 
operation of all forces, North and South, white and black, has been from nearly three times as large to about five times 
that are in the last analysis necessary to the right solution of as large as the increase over the whole country. 
a nation-wide problem with its nation-wide responsibility." The increase of the Negro population in southern cities 
The geographical and numerical extent of this migration which may be compared with the increase in northern cities 
has been large. The movement is due to fundamental eco- for the same decades is as follows: From 1860 to 1870 about 
nomic and social forces. It has already produced such far- 90.7 per cent (for 14 cities) ; from 1870 to 1880 about 25.5 
reaching effects in the South that remedies are now being per cent (for 15 cities); from 1880 to 1890 about 38.9 per 
sought and applied. The part of this question which pertains cent (for 15 cities) ; from 1890 to 1900 about 20.6 per cent 
more nearly to the South will be discussed here, and the part (for 16 cities) ; and from 1900 to 1910 about 20.6 per cent 
which relates to the North in a later article. ( ror 16 cities). The southern cities included are Wilming- 
This migration during the past two years is the second ton » Baltimore, Washington, Norfolk, Richmond, Charleston, 
large exodus since Lincoln's memorable Emancipation Proc- Augusta, Savannah, Louisville, Chattanooga, Nashville, 
lamation. A constant, fluctuating stream, a part of the drift Memphis, Birmingham (1900-1910), Mobile, New Orleans, 
of the general population from the rural districts to the cities, A comparison of the figures for northern and southern 
was moving northward from 1875 until 1915. This followed cities shows clearly that the movement northward has been 
an exodus between 1865 and 1875 similar to the present one. and is a P art of a general movement to cities. The migrants 
The breaking up of the plantation system based upon slavery irom rural districts, however, prefer northern cities. This is 
and racial friction of Ku Klux and Reconstruction days were evident from the fact that in three of the five decades since 
the moving causes of the striking increase of that period. 186 ° the increase for northern cities exceeded that for south- 
Between 1890 and 1900 there was also a considerable increase ern cities, being 24.6 per cent greater between 1870 and 1880, 
in the movement, probably due to the economic and social dis- 53 - 8 P er cent greater between 1890 and 1900 and 16.8 per 
turbances of the decade. cent greater between 1900 and 1910. 

The fact that there has been a constant movement north- The Negroes' preference for northern residence is even 

ward is shown by the percentage of increase, based upon the more clearlv shown in the percentage increase of the Negro 

United States census figures, of Negro population during each P P ula *>on by geographic divisions for ten-year periods from 

decade since 1860 for nine of the northern and border cities, 1880 t0 191 °- The following table shows this fact: 

as follows: Boston, Greater New York, Philadelphia, Pitts- PER CENT increase 

burgh, Chicago, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Evansville and St. geographic divisions 1880-1890 1890-1900 1900-1910 

Louis. Between 1860 and 1870 the Negro population in- *■ New England 11.7 32.6 12.2 

,~- a u .. ci rs. ■ u. v \ c. 1C7A * 2 - Middle Atlantic 18.9 44.6 28.2 

creased about 51 per cent (for eight cities); from 1870 to 3< East North CentraI 12 . 9 2 4.5 16.7 

1880 about 36.4 per cent (for eight cities); from 1880 to 4. West North Central 10.8 6.2 2.0 

1890 about 36.2 per cent; from 1890 to 1900 about 74.4 per *• South Atlantic . . 10.9 14.3 10.3 

j r inrvn mm l t* a r 6. East South Central 10.1 17.9 6.1 

cent and from 1900 to 1910 about 37.4 per cent. 7. West South Central 25.0 22.9 17.1 

The Survey, May 4, 1918. Volume 40, No. 5. 112 East 19 street, New York city 115 



116 



T II E SURVEY EOR MAY 4, 19 18 



The New England, Middle Atlantic and East North Cen- 
tral divisions have had the largest increases in Negro popula- 
tion with two exceptions, and these two exceptions may be 
partly due to the large increase of Negroes in the Rocky 
Mountain and Pacific Coast geographical divisions. It is also 
significant that the increase during the last two decades has 
been greater in the New England, Middle Atlantic and East 
Central divisions than the increase of the total Negro popu- 
lation. 

The extent of southern territory affected by the migration 
now in progress lies mainly east of the Mississippi river. 
Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas seem not to have 
suffered as yet. In fact, some of the migrants from Missis- 
sippi have gone to the rich "cotton-bottoms" counties of 
Arkansas along the Mississippi river, and to Oklahoma. Ala- 
bama and Georgia probably have been the biggest losers. Mis- 
sissippi probably comes third ; Florida probably fourth. The 
order of other southern states cannot now be approximately 
ascertained. However, North and South Carolina, Tennessee, 
Kentucky and Virginia have all furnished a considerable quota 
of the Negro migrants. During the past two years the writer 
has made extended visits to cities, towns and rural districts of 
all these states and has seen the character and effects of the 
movement of Negroes from these sections. 

Perhaps there is no means of telling accurately how many 
have left the South. Numerical estimates have been made 
by some persons, based upon the statements of observers who 
have watched the trainloads leave, and upon the growth of 
numbers in different northern cities. Estimates based upon 
the records of insurance companies, railway ticket offices and 
of other sources have been made by others. These estimates 
have ranged from 250,000 to more than 750,000. The Negro 
population of some of the northern centers has increased from 
about one- to four-fold during the past eighteen months. For 
instance, careful estimates show that the Negro population of 
Detroit, Mich., has increased from about 6,000 to about 
25,000. A conservative estimate at Cincinnati places the 
number of those arriving at about 25,000 during twelve 
months ending September, 1917. Cincinnati has been a dis- 
tributing point for other centers, so that probably less than 
a fifth stayed in that city. A study of the Negro Migrant 




il< 1 Hi KM HOUSING FOR NEGROES 



Opened in Detroit, Mich., through efforts of the Detroit 
League on Urban Conditions Among \'c</rocs. 



in Pittsburgh by Epstein estimates' a "total probable new 
Negro population of 18,550 in 1917." This is an increase of 
nearly 50 per cent. Estimates for Philadelphia range from 
12,000 to 40,000: "Some weeks they have come almost by 
the trainload." Weighing all the estimates and information 
from the various sources, it is probably safe to say that be- 
tween 400,000 and 500,000 Negroes have migrated North 
during the past two years. 

These migrants are composed apparently of three types of 
people. First, there are the less responsible characters, 
younger men for the most part, who readily respond to the 
promises of high wages and free transportation made by labor 
agents. A representative of one large railroad company re- 
ported that in 1916 they chose anyone willing to come and 
thus brought up about 13,000 Negro men. They reported 
they still had in their employ in January, 1917, less than 2,500 
of them. From this type of migrant develops the "floater" 
or "bird of passage." 

The second type of migrants consists of the industrious, 
thrifty, unskilled workers. Many of them are men with fam- 
ilies or other dependents. They are looking for new homes. 
The men usually go first to earn money and look over the 
ground. Their families soon follow. Dissatisfied with the 
low wages, treatment and other conditions of their southern 
communities, many of these people accepted offers of work 
and free transportation. Considerable numbers had small 
savings, which were used to pay their traveling expenses. The 
writer visited several small towns in South Carolina and in 
Alabama, and saw companies of Negroes of this type leaving. 
Some parties included wives and children ; in some groups 
only wives were accompanying their husbands and leaving 
their children with relatives. Neighbors were helping them 
pack their belongings and were sending them away with fare- 
well greetings. 

The third type of Negro migrant consists of skilled artisans 
business and professional men who share the dissatisfaction 
and restlessness of the southern Negro group. They feel also 
the necessity of going with the rank and file on whom they 
largely depend for patronage. Many of these people had con- 
siderable property. Highly skilled workmen and other new 
arrivals are known to have come to Michigan, Ohio and 
Massachusetts with fairly large sums of money from the sale 
of their possessions in the South. One professional man who 
had left Georgia summed up the feeling of this type by saying, 
"They are thrifty, have accumulated something out of their 
meager earnings. . . . They have gladly sacrificed their 
holdings to make this great step in the process of their eman- 
cipation." 

The fact that these three types of migrants have been going 
North and that the present migration is only an increase of a 
movement that has slowly been in progress for more than a 
generation leads naturally to a full discussion of the causes 
for this mass movement. The forces producing such an effect 
must be deep-seated and fundamental. 

A study of the problem of migration to both northern and 
southern centers as it stood in 1912 and 1913 developed the 
thesis that the Negro is in the general population stream, and 
that, wherever similar causes operate under conditions similar 
to those moving the white population, the Negro, like the 
Caucasian, is coming to the city to stay. The divorce of the 
Negro from the soil and the call of commercial and industrial 
centers were the economic influences moving him, then, as 
they were moving his white fellow citizens. To these eco- 
nomic forces were added social and individual causes, such as 
the strained relations of landlords and tenants on southern 
plantations; "Jim Crow" legislation and other restrictions of 



THE SURVEY J OR MAY 4, igi 



117 



Vtmitesy Xewaik Evening News 




THESE ARE THEY WITH HOPE IN THEIR HEARTS 

The boll weevil caused this southern colored family to lose their cotton crop in Florida 

and they came North chiefly, they say, to give their children better schooling. The 

picture was taken shortly after their arrival in Nczvark, N. J. 



the rights and privileges of persons of color. Influences such 
as the coming of labor agents, going North to join relatives, 
receipt of letters from those who had gone, visits from friends 
and relatives who had previously migrated North were noted 
as moving causes. 1 The dramatic movement to northern in- 
dustrial and commercial centers during the past two years 
has shown the effects of such forces and restrictions as those 
mentioned. 

The whites have moved North in large numbers during the 
same time. Some of the causes moving the Negroes they have 
not felt; others they have. Their movement cannot now be 
easily traced, but the nativity figures of the next census may 
bring some interesting facts to light. 

Observation and information gotten from various sources 
and during visits to seven of the southern states in 1916 and 
1917 make the motives of the present migration clear. Those 
parts of Alabama which suffered from the effect of the boll- 
Weevil were among those that felt the Negro migration most. 
When a month's rain during the summer of 1916 gave the 



'See discussion by the writer in The Negro at Work in New York City; 
Columbia University Studies in History. Economics and Public Law. Vol. 
XLIX. No. 3; Also Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science, Vol. 49, Sept. 1917. 



knockout stroke to the cotton crops that year, many planters 
are known to have advised their tenants to go somewhere to 
find work because the landlords could not "furnish them" 
until the next cropping season. The boll-weevil helped like- 
wise to release the Negroes from the soil of Mississippi and 
Georgia. It is a sound inference then that those districts hard 
hit by boll-weevil, floods and other economic hardships for the 
past two years were among the districts that lost large numbers 
of their Negro population. 

Simultaneous with these unfavorable economic conditions 
in southern districts there came an unusual demand for labor 
in northern industrial centers. As is well known, these indus- 
trial centers were formerly supplied thousands of semi-skilled 
and unskilled European immigrants. The great war not only 
shut off an increase of this supply of laborers but also called 
some of those already here to the armies of their respective 
nations. At the time that foreigners went to join their colors, 
northern manufacturers received an unprecedented demand for 
war supplies. Northern railroad authorities, manufacturers 
and mine operators went in search of laborers. Imported 
Mexicans for railroad work were not successful. By careful 
selection and direction, one large railroad company found that 



118 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 1918 



Negroes were satisfactory. Of about 3,000 brought North 
in 1916, about three-fourths were in their employ in 1917. 

Soon labor agents were threading the South. They became 
the means of spreading information about the northern indus- 
trial opportunities, offering two dollars, three dollars, four 
dollars and five dollars a day. To southern Negro workmen 
who were averaging only one dollar to two dollars a day, and 
many of them less, the offers seemed magnificent, and few 
questions were asked about the cost of living, housing or other 
conditions. 

These new economic influences have been important and 
power fal; they have not, however, been the only fundamental 
causes of the exodus. The Negro has sought larger protection 
to life and property and larger liberty. As the University 
Commission on Southern Race Questions said in 1917 in its 
Open Letter to the College Men of the South: "The dollar 
has lured the Negro to the East and North, as it has lured the 
white man even to the most inaccessible and forbidden regions 
of the earth. But the human being is moved and held not 
by money alone. Birthplace, home-ties, family, friends, asso- 
ciations and attachments of numerous kinds, fair treatment, 
opportunity to labor and enjoyment of the legitimate fruits of 
labor, assurance of even-handed justice in the courts, good 
educational facilities, sanitary living conditions, tolerance and 
sympathy — these things and others like them make an even 
stronger appeal to the human mind and heart than does 
money." 

These words suggest to us another set of fundamental 
causes which have moved the Negroes to the North. The 
Negroes look to "the North" as to a "promised land" where 
these benefits may be obtained. This state of mind is clearly 
shown in reviewing a large number of letters they have writ- 
ten to persons in the North asking and urging to be given a 
chance to "better their conditions." These letters express 
the desire to get a better job, to have a better home and to live 
a larger life. From Majette, Fla., a correspondent writes, "I 
no it is a good place in the North"; another from Atlanta, 
Ga., said, "My ambitions are such that (I) should be willing 
to do any kind of decent work in order to realize them" ; an- 
other from Appalachia, Va., wrote, "It is a wearisome thing 
to work all the time and kan't see or enjoy the fruits. . . . 
I wants to be some wheres I kin go to night school or day 
school either one." Here is one from Raleigh, N. C. : "Will- 



ing to work at anything or place if there is a chance for ad- 
vancement." One from Macon, Ga., said, "I desire to go 
North to better my present condition." Scores of others from 
various parts of the South wrote in the same strain. 

A survey of the seven states mentioned in a preceding para- 
graph shows, furthermore, that those sections which have had 
lynchings, mobs and other race disturbances in recent years 
have lost large numbers of Negroes. Of course, the revolting 
cases of injustice at the hands of mobs occur in different 
localities at different times and therefore come directly under 
the attention of a limited number of Negroes. But two facts 
should be clearly understood. 

We may look at these two facts in detail. First, the racial 
friction and lack of cooperation between many individuals 
in matters of everyday concern breed general discontent. The 
expression of good-will from the higher impulses of the two 
races is largely blocked by a multitude of petty restrictions 
and injustices that affect hundreds of Negroes in many 
localities. The inability to protect themselves against these 
many little injustices and indignities of everyday dealing 
in business and civic life is the cause of much unrest and 
bitter feeling. A typical condition is shown in a Negro 
tenant's reply to an inquiry about his affairs: "Boss, I jes 
kan't make enuff to feed my fam'ly." "You seem to be pretty 
much alive," answered his questioner, "how are you getting 
by?" "Why, my landlawd is a'vancin' [furnishing rations] 
me. He's done got me bought already fur nex' yeah." A bit 
of doggerel from the cotton fields shows the state of mind 
produced in the Negro: 

De white man he got ha'f de crap [crop]. 
Boll-weevill took de res'. 
Ain't got no home, 
Ain't got no home. 

And at the first suggestion he is ready to go North to try to 
find a home. 

The fee system and lack of defense for the Negro in the 
inferior courts is also a great source of dissatisfaction and a 
great barrier to good-will. So generally is the court situation 
understood that some white men in one southern city have 
proposed starting a legal defense league with payments like 
industrial insurance to employ able lawyers to represent de- 
fenseless Negroes in the courts. Negroes also regard the denial 
of a voice in the government to which they pay taxes and to 




TYPICAL OF THE HIGHER CONSIDERATION THAT COLORED EMPLOYES ARE RECEIVING 

Girls' lunch room in the plant of the Banner Garment Co., Detroit. Mich, 



THE SURFEY FOR MAY 4, J 9 18 



119 




THE THIRD TYPE OF NEGRO MIGRANT CONSISTS OF SKILLED ARTISANS 

Factory given over to colored workers in the Banner Garment Co., Detroit, Mich. 



which they loyally give themselves and their treasures in every 
emergency as another very serious matter. 

The Negro has shown himself worthy of the measures of 
justice and expressions of good-will from his white fellow 
citizens. He has never attempted to assassinate an official 
of the government. He has never organized a strike when 
his country was at war. He has never been guilty of burning 
homes, arsenals, grain elevators and munition plants, even 
when, war was being waged about his own enslavement. He 
would not poison or put glass into foodstuffs, or blow up 
hospital ships. He has given his blood and treasure in every 
war. Yet Negroes are lynched, burned at the stake and 
mobbed with impunity North and South, besides suffering the 
general exploitation of the weak the world over. Of course, 
conditions in different localities vary. In some sections rela- 
tions of the races are amicable, and daily affairs move along 
in a more contented stream. The border states and the tide- 
water have many such communities. 

In some sections of the South the best white citizens are 
voicing their belief in the Negro's worth and their conviction 
against mob violence. For example, a statement was pub- 
lished recently in Memphis and Nashville signed by Bishop 
Gailor, Episcopal Bishop of Tennessee; by W. H. Litty, the 
mayor of Memphis ; by Bolton Smith and Charles Haase, two 
prominent business men of Memphis. They said : 

We are enlisting Negroes in our armies by the hundred thousand 
and sending them to France to fight for us. The Negroes furnish 
most of the labor for our farms and in our homes. We want them 
to stay in the South. Thoughtful southern men, who know condi- 
tions, want to give the good and respectable Negro a fair deal, and 
protect him in his life, liberty and property, and so encourage him 
to live and work among us. We believe that the mobs, who are 
yielding to their mad passions are working a terrible injury to the 
peace and prosperity of our country, and especially to this sec- 
tion of it. 

Some of us are determined, therefore, to create if possible, a public 
opinion, that is just and enlightened, and that will frown down this 
evil ; and with this in view, we ask you to meet with some of your 
fellow citizens on Friday, March 8, at 5 P. M., in Committee Room A, 
second floor, Chamber of Commerce, and discuss ways and means. 

We may now consider the second fact in these reactions 
and opinions of Negroes about southern conditions. Negroes 
are more and more reading the white and Negro newspapers. 
The vivid descriptions of lynchings, mobs and other race dis- 
turbances are glaringly set forth in these newspapers. Little 
is said in the white press of the cooperation and good will 



between the races and the many excellent achievements of the 
Negroes. In homes, in barber-shops, pool-rooms and other 
places these accounts are read and discussed by Negroes. They 
make and leave the impression of insecurity to liberty, life and 
property. Certain lynchings in South Carolina, Georgia and 
Tennessee, in 1916, 1917 and 1918 were widely reported and 
discussed in Negro newspapers and periodicals. Not only vivid 
descriptions of the facts but also vigorous editorials against 
such outrages were widely circulated. Thousands of Negroes 
directly or indirectly all over the South felt the disturbance 
of mind produced by such occurrences. In the mind of the 
average Negro it is not the probability of being assaulted on 
slight provocation with little chance for defense or of being 
mobbed whether guilty or not, with no opportunity to prove 
an alibi, but it is the possibility of either occurrence that makes 
life and liberty uncertain and happiness impossible. 

That the average southern Negro says little or nothing in 
protest against these injustices is no evidence that he does not 
feel them and remember them. His protest is not of the 
militant, Anglo-Saxon type. At his first opportunity he "folds 
his tent like the Arab and as silently steals away." Scores 
of illustrations are available to show that the Negro has re- 
acted to the situation and is in a dissatisfied state of mind. 
The interpretation of a Negro in Mississippi is that the Negro 
has two privileges — "ter pay his taxes and ter git out o' de 
road." 

It is no exaggeration to say that the feeling of dissatisfaction 
with such conditions is widespread. Conversations with Negro 
leaders, artisans, laborers, railroad porters, farmers, tenants 
and field-hands have left this strong inference. Other persons 
besides the writer furnished some of the reports of these con- 
versations. One of the foremost Negro leaders said: "The 
present administration of law in the South removes from the 
colored man the hope of protection in the right and from the 
white man the fear of punishment in wrong. This is a fact 
of mal-adjustment that double crosses both races." One 
southern white man says, "The striking fact was the uni- 
formity of the answers given by country Negroes and by 
Negro leaders alike. And fully half of the representative 
white men with whom I talked agreed with the Negroes." 
This dc~s not mean that the masses of Negroes have done any 
great reflection and philosophizing about the race problem. 
They have not. They have merely felt the pain and the 



120 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 191 



pleasure of everyday life in their own localities. They have 
made immediate reactions to these concrete conditions. And 
many of them, when the chance came, silently moved away. 
A southern field-hand showed his idea of the cause of these 
reactions by singing as he followed the plow : 

Boll-weevil in de cotton, 
Cut wurm in de cawn [corn] 
Debil in de white man, 
Wah's [war is] goin' on. 

The education of their children is another matter which is 
disturbing the Negroes. During the past twenty years a 
widespread and well managed propaganda has been made to 
arouse the Negroes of the South, especially the rural popu- 
lation, to educate their children. In public mass meetings and 
conferences, in pulpits, in pamphlets and in the Negro press, 
in season and out of season, the importance of educating their 
children has been thoroughly impressed upon them. They 
have sought the facilities with which to do it. In most sec- 
tions of the South these are very inadequate. 

The large body of facts presented in the Report on Negro 
Education by Thomas Jesse Jones, issued recently by the 
United States Bureau of Education, leaves no doubt about the 
meager educational provision for these millions. This report 
says: "Public schools for Negroes have shared comparatively 
little in the educational advance that has taken place in the 
southern states during the past 15 years. . . . Teachers' sal- 
aries for each child 6 to 14 years of age range from $15.78 to 
$36.50 for all pupils in the northern and western states repre- 
sented in this table [p. 23, Vol. I of the report], and from 
$5.27 to $13.79 for white pupils and from $1.44 to $8.53 for 
colored pupils in the southern states here listed. It is impor- 
tant to note in studying these figures that the South is main- 
taining a double system of schools on finances limited both by 
the poverty of rural conditions and by an ineffective system 
of taxation." Improvements have been made through cooper- 
ation of the state departments of education and the General 
Education Board in the maintenance of state supervisors of 
Negro schools, and through the work of the Jeanes Rural 
School Fund, the Slater Fund and the Rosenwald rural school 
building activities. But these improvements have necessarily 
touched as yet only a limited number of places ; they take time, 
and the masses of the Negroes know of them only here and 
there. They think of the miserable schools they see and hear 
much of magnificent provisions in the North. 

After all this movement of the southern Negro population 
someone asks, What is going to be the outcome? What is 
going to be done in the South ? The South has seen the Negro 
laborer in a new light and is setting a new value upon his 
labor. Wages have been raised in many parts. The increase 
in many sections has been'small. It has not kept pace in most 
cases with the high cost of living; but wages have been raised. 
Many plantation owners are reported as having expressed 
their intention of making and as having taken steps to make 
some improvement in their methods of dealing with tenants. 
The touching of the pocket nerve is calling forth response. 
The sense of justice and fair play is asserting itself also among 
the liberal and enlightened white citizens. Negroes in many 
localities agree that the treatment received at the hands of 
white people has improved. 

A most significant thing in this connection is the effect of 
the liberal, fair dealing and good treatment of some em- 
ployers preceding the present migration. Case after case of 
such employers has come to the writer's knowledge. They 
have not suffered so seriously from loss of employes as have 
others in the same locality. For example, some employers in 
the Birmingham industrial district and soms in the Virginia 



tidewater have suffered comparatively little from loss of 
laborers. The wages of these firms have been reasonably ad- 
vanced from time to time; and a policy of fair, liberal treat- 
ment from bosses and superintendents has been the rule for 
years. Planters in Georgia and Mississippi of the same liberal 
type have had similar experience. 

Practically ' every southern state has attempted to stop the 
migration by laws against labor agents. Many of the states 
already had laws to regulate or prohibit the exodus of laborers 
through the activity of labor agents. Some of these were re- 
vised and new ones passed. 1 The laws have usually taken 
two forms: excessive labor agents' license or requirements of 
residence. One state law passed in 1917 has a unique pro- 
vision which requires the agent or agents to make surety that 
each laborer removed from the state shall not return as a 
charity charge. 

School authorities are gradually awaking to the need of 
better school provision. One member of a county school board 
said, "We propose to improve the Negro schools in the same 
proportion and manner as the white schools." The strongest 
public statement at a national conference on Negro education 
held under the auspices of the Bureau of Education last 
August was an expression for justice to Negroes in public edu- 
cation which was made by the state superintendent of educa- 
tion of Louisiana. This state has very large illiteracy among 
Negroes. 

Perhaps the two most far-reaching and encouraging accom- 
paniments of the migration movement are the beginning of 
frankness and plainness of speech by the leading white south- 
ern newspapers and of southern white men and women, and 
the open conferences and frank conversations between the 
thinking men and women of both races in the South. A sum- 
mary of interviews had by several persons with editors of 
thirty-one leading newspapers in eighteen cities of eight south- 
ern states shows that nearly all of these editors are in sympathy 
with liberal views of democratic justice for Negroes. Many 
of these editors have embraced the times and have given ex- 
pression to views quite in advance of the conventional opinions 
of their communities. The high-water mark has been touched 
by a number of them. 

Commenting on the Houston riots, the Memphis Commer- 
cial-Appeal said: "The peace depends upon the conduct and 
intelligence of the white people. . . . We have the big ad- 
vantage of education, and we have other advantages. There- 
fore the duty rests upon white people to see that there is peace 
and order." The Richmond Times-Dispatch said: "The 
South needs the Negro, and to keep him must be just to him." 
The Nashville Tennessean and American in an editorial on 
Negro migration said: "Then, having made higher wages 
the main material of our dam, we must throw in a rip-rap of 
better treatment. Something ought to be done about better 
housing conditions. . . . But bullying, bulldozing and blus- 
tering on the part of officers will have to stop. The officer 
who manhandles or mistreats a Negro who is behaving himself 
is not worth nearly as much to the community as the Negro. 
. . . The Negro is not to be blamed for going. The North 
is not to be blamed for asking him to go. . . . All the blame 
falls upon the southern people, who permit conditions that will 
allow the Negro to be lured away." In an editorial against 
mob violence, the Nashville Banner said: "It is not the Ne- 
gro's fault that he is here. . . . He is a native of this soil 
as much as the whites. He is a human being and he is en- 
titled to full recognition of his living rights and his humanity. 
He is in many ways exceedingly useful. The South needs 

'See twenty-second Annu.il Report of the Commissioner of Labor. Labor 
Laws of the United States. 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, >9'S 



121 



his labor and prefers it to any other. There is serious objec- 
tion to his emigration, and without any regard to his social 
and political status, he is entitled to humane treatment and 
the full protection of the law. Anything else reflects on white 
people and works to their detriment more than it does to that 
of the Negro." Commenting on a sermon on suppression of 
lynching, the Atlanta Constitution said: "In mob violence 
and the spirit of the mob there is nothing that a law-abiding 
citizen can condone; nor that is not repulsive and abhorrent. 
If we are going to have mob rule, we may as well abolish 
our courts. But we are not going to abolish our courts, and 
therefore we have got to abolish the mob." 

Gradually the silence of the liberal South is being broken. 
The conscience of this class is speaking its highest convictions. 
No less important than press utterances have been the state- 
ments of white southerners in public addresses and public 
gatherings. Two notable utterances were voiced the summer 
of 1917 at the Law and Order Conference of White South- 
erners held at Blue Ridge, N. C, and in the meeting of the 
University Commission on Southern Race Questions in Wash- 
ington, D. C. In the letter mentioned in a preceding para- 
graph the University Race Commission said : "The South 




IDEAL NEGRO HOMES IN HAMPTON, VA. 

The second house from the comer took first prize in a 
county home-beautiful contest in 1915. 

cannot compete on a financial basis with other sections of the 
country for the labor of the Negro, but the South can easily 
keep her Negroes against all allurements if she will give them 
a large measure of those things that human beings hold dearer 
than material goods." The Blue Ridge Conference said in a 
resolution: "We pledge to each other and to the people of 
both white and black races in the South our utmost endeavors 
to allay hurtful race prejudice, to promote mutual understand- 
ing, sympathy and good-will, to procure economic justice, and 
in particular to condemn and oppose all forms of mob vio- 
lence." 

Recent lynchings in Tennessee have led not only to vigorous 
protests from the white press, pulpit and individuals, but has 
resulted in the formation of a Law and Order League for 
the suppression of mob violence. (Reported in the Survey 
of March 16.) Starting in a local organization at Nashville 
and composed of the leading business and professional men, 
the movement in less than a month has drawn white men 
from all over the state. Representatives of thirty-three cities, 
towns and counties of the state met and formed a statewide 
organization. They propose to create a public opinion by 
means of literature, lectures and the press and to secure en- 
forcement of existing laws and the enactment of new ones 
by all lawful means to stop these outrages. Their proclama- 
tion rings with conviction and decision for action. One sen- 




UNDER A NEGRO BOSS 



tence shows its quality: "We have a strong conviction that 
lynching is unjustifiable under any and all circumstances, and 
is wrong in the sight of man and in the sight of God." 

Reports of many private conversations and conferences of 
white and colored citizens show that many white people with 
open minds are talking with Negroes and inquiring what may 
be done to accord what they now agree is simple justice to 
Negroes. Many of the Negro spokesmen are saying frankly 
what they believe to be the mind of the group and what they 
want as a just share of democratic advantages of wages, hours 
and conditions of work, schools and protection of "life, liberty, 
property and the pursuit of happiness." One report from 
Alabama stated that, at a conference, a Negro farmer in try- 
ing to express the desires of his people said to the leading 
white banker who was presiding, "And, sir, we, we wants the 
ballot fer to help say who governs us." When the banker 
replied that the good citizens of the state proposed to see that 
their desires were met, the Negroes present rose in a body 
and applauded loudly. 

Perhaps in these stirring days when "the old order changeth, 
giving place to new," no other one thing has made more for 
the improvement of race relations in the South than the readi- 
ness with which Negroes have responded to the national draft 
law. Southern newspapers have said they responded more 
readily than the whites in many localities. To the rank and 
file of Negroes the present world war means a war for free- 
dom. They see in it a promise of greater freedom for all 
weaker peoples, themselves included. The departure of the 
drafted colored men has given evidence of the newer cordial 
relations between the races that is developing. Many locali- 
ties have made the departure of the Negro conscripts a festal 
day. In Birmingham and in Mobile, Ala., the leading citizens 
took charge of the ceremonies, and the Confederate veterans 
headed the procession of Negro recruits as they marched to 
the railroad station to entrain. 




WHITE AND COLORED SWITCHMEN WORKING TOGETHER— RICHMOND, VA. 



122 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 1918 



The sequel of the migration, then, is bearing fruit by 
making for better wages, better treatment of Negro laborers, 
a more liberal expression of opinion from the southern press 
and from white leaders a freer exchange of views between 
the white and Negro leaders and action for law and order. 
These ch rages will surely bring greater amity and content- 
ment to ihe South, white and black, and thus make migration 
unnecessary. 

In closing an account of the southern part of this important 
movement, one may venture to propose a few constructive 
plans: 

1. Progressive Negroes in the South may use the present time for 
frank interviews with white people with whom they have business 
and personal relations. 

2. It is a most expedient time for the thinking persons of color to 
get together and in closer touch with the masses of their own people. 
They can help them to understand the economic and community ques- 
tions involved in the present national situation and help to organize 
fhemselves for race advancement. 

3. The local committees and conferences of white and colored 
people that have sprung up spontaneously should now be purposely 
planned and organized with a definite program of community better- 
ment for Negroes. Progressive white citizens will readily find 
capable, devoted Negro leaders, if they make known their willing- 
ness to cooperate with them for community improvement. Racial 
cooperation should become a community program. 

4. The community needs of the colored people are definite and con- 
crete. The following things can be done by the two races working 
together in almost every locality: improvement of wages, tenant con- 
ditions on the farms and labor conditions in industrial enterprises; 



betterment of housing, health and sanitary conditions; promotion of 
justice in the courts; extension of civil rights and privileges on an 
impartial basis ; the moulding of sentiment against mob violence 
and the promotion of legislation to insure obedience to law and 
order; the improvement of the Negro schools and the development 
of a better understanding on the part of both the Negro and the 
white man of the feelings and aspirations of each race. 

5. The opportunity for the training in general intelligence and 
for full experience in all the business, professional, philanthropic and 
civic affairs of community life should be afforded the large number 
of capable Negroes now eager to serve their people and their country. 
An essential part of this work is to recognize, encourage and support 
the good work being done by a number of the struggling Negro col- 
leges and schools of the South. 

6. No greater step could now be made in race adjustment than 
widespread response, North and South, to the strong movement for 
law and order started in Nashville in February. It has already 
spread to other parts of Tennessee. 

White and Negro citizens have formed organizations to 
carry on such activities in both rural districts and urban cen- 
ters in several parts of the South. These examples demon- 
strate that such a plan will work. It will speed up the pro- 
gressive changes taking place in the South. It will increase 
the number of southern white persons who believe in fair 
play for the Negro and will stimulate public opinion in the 
same direction. It will tend to satisfy the Negroes of the 
South by removing the causes for their departure. It will 
help toward that democratic adjustment of race relations so 
essential to the future of the nation and so vital to the future 
of civilization. 



"My Money Won't Reach 



5* 



Showing that It Is Not True that All Working- Class Families Are 

Better Off than Ever Before l 



By Emma A. Win slow 



SECRETARY COMMITTEE ON HOME ECONOMICS, CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 



it 



M 



Y man is working steady and we ought to be 
getting on fine, but my money won't reach 
even though I look at every penny twice 
before I spend it!" "I used to go to work 
when my man was sick or couldn't get a job, but this is the 
first time I ever had to go to work to get enough money to 
feed the kids, when he was working regular." "It's terrible 
times. Prices go up and up all times, and pay stays the same. 
If it gets much worse it will be like the end of the world!" 
"I scrimp along and buy as little as I can, but I am always 
going in debt now. Once in so often I go and open my bank 
and pay things up, and then I just begin going in debt all 
over again." 

These quotations are from actual statements by members 
of families who were interviewed during January and Febru- 
ary, 1918, in a study of wage changes and household budget 
readjustments, conducted by the Home Economics Committee 
of the New York Charity Organization Society in cooperation 
with a group of settlements. Reports were secured from 377 
families of fourteen different nationalities, living in four dif- 
ferent blocks in Manhattan. The families were not a selected 
group except that they happened to live in one of the selected 
blocks, and happened to be at home and willing to give the 
desired information when an investigator called. 

'Issued today with additional material as a pamphlet by the Committee on 
Home Economics of the Charity Organization Society of the City of New 

York. 



The purpose of the study was to secure a picture of the 
present economic situation among a varied group of wage- 
earners, which could be used to support or to help to contra- 
dict the frequently made statement: "The condition of all 
working-class families is better than ever before. There is 
practically no unemployment and wages have been almost 
universally increased. Even with the high cost of living these 
people are able to spend more freely than ever before, and 
are also able to save as never before." 

This statement is doubtless true among certain wage-earning 
groups, but the quotations in the earlier paragraph would seem 
to indicate that the statement is not true with reference to all 
wage-earning groups. This is also indicated by the facts pre- 
sented graphically in Charts I and II. Two-fifths of the 
families visited in this study, reported that they were having 
approximately the same total family income as a year ago. 
One-fifth of the families said that they were living on a 
smaller income than a year ago, because of a wage decrease 
or the loss of the wages of one of last year's workers. Only 
two-fifths of the families reported an increase of total family 
income, and this was sometimes because the women and the 
children had gone to work as well as because of individual 
wage increases. 

Of the 574 individual workers in these families employed 
both during January, 1917, and January, 1918, 57 per cent 
were reported as earning the same amount as last year, 12 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 1918 



123 



per cent were earning less, and only 31 per cent had apparently 
received a wage increase. 

During this same year an investigation by the United States 
Bureau of Labor Statistics into the cost of living among 608 
families in the New York shipbuilding district shows the fol- 
lowing increases in living costs: clothing, 26 per cent; furni- 
ture and furnishings, 23 per cent ; food, 34 per cent ; housing, 
3 per cent; fuel and light, 8 per cent; general living costs, 26 
per cent. Assuming that these increases may be taken as a 
fair indication of increases in cost for the New York work- 
ing family in general, 26 per cent would seem to be a safe 
estimate of the increased living costs for the families here 
studied. Expressing this increase in a somewhat different 
form, the wage-earner's dollar of January, 1918, had slightly 
less than four-fifths the purchasing power of the wage-earner's 
dollar of January, 1917, being now worth only seventy-nine 
cents in comparison with last year's dollar. If a worker hap- 
pened to be earning $20 a week each year, the purchasing 
power of his wage would have become only $15.80 in Janu- 
ary, 1918. If the standard of living of his family were not 
to be proportionately decreased, his wages should have been 
increased during the year, not by fifty cents or a dollar a week, 
as frequently happened among these families, but by a con- 
siderably larger amount. 

If wage increase has been as infrequent > among similar 
family groups as in this particular group, is it any wonder 
that under-nourishment is reported to be rapidly increasing 
among school children, and that the struggle to make both 
ends meet is apparently becoming acute in homes where there 
was previously a comfortable margin? 

The situation would be serious enough if this were the first 
year of high living costs, but this is the fourth year during 
which prices have been rapidly rising, and there is no indica- 
tion in the reports from these families, of increases in income 
during the previous years which would help to counterbalance 
the lack of increase during the year especially studied. 

Desirable living standards must surely have been affected 
by such economic pressure as has been increasingly exerted on 
these comparatively stationary incomes. It would, therefore, 
seem essential for health and national well-being that every 
effort be made to keep living costs and incomes in more nearly 
their normal relationship. Also, the reports of household 
budget readjustments would seem to indicate that there is 
considerable need for a greater educational effort to guide 
people towards the type of economy which will not interfere 
with wheat saving and other necessary war conservation, and 
also not endanger health, especially the health of little 
children. 

Many different occupations were represented among the 
345 men who were in the same type of employment last year 
and this. There were about thirty who owned small busi- 
nesses, about seventy skilled trade workers in nearly thirty 
different trades, thirty truckmen or drivers, and about twenty 
each of office employes, clerks, semi-skilled factory workers, 
hotel and restaurant employes, chauffeurs, and porters or 
elevator men. There were only about ten day laborers and 
but few longshoremen. Eight men were foremen or business 
managers. Federal employes were represented by three post- 
men and a postal clerk; city employes, by two detectives, a 
policeman, two street cleaners, an inspector, and a clerk. 
There were eleven railroad employes. There were also bill 
collectors, a librarian, several musicians, an optician, two scene 
shifters, and a sign-hanger. 

The facts concerning wage increase, lack of wage increase, 
and wage decrease are shown in Table I on the next page. 
Because of the wide range in occupations and the few repre- 



CHART I 

Proportionate Change in Total Family Income 

January, 1917 and January, 1918 

377 Families, New York city 



Increase 40 per cent 

(149 families) 

No Increase 40 per cent 
(ISO families) 

Decrease 20 per cent 
(78 families) 



CHART II 

Proportionate Change in Wage of Individual Workers 

Employed during both January, 1917 

and January, 1918 

574 Workers, 377 Families, New York city 



Increase 31 per cent 

(163 workers) 

No Increase 57 per cent 
(302 workers) 



(63 workers) 
Insufficient comparative wage data (46 workers) 



sentatives in each occupational group, it has seemed unwise 
to discuss wage tendencies according to occupation, except 
in a general way, and it has also seemed unwise to present 
detailed wage figures. 

The most striking fact indicated by the study of present 
tendencies in men's wages is that none of the small business 
owners reported an income increase this year, and that the 
great majority reported radical decreases in income. In fact, 
a large proportion of all the income decreases among men 
came from this group of owners of coal cellars, food stores, 
tailor and barber shops, newsstands, saloons, tobacco stores, 
taxicab businesses, and blacksmith, tinsmith, ironworking, and 
carpenter shops. All complained of lessened business, high 
costs of material and labor, and lessened margins of profit 
because of the necessity of keeping selling prices as low as 
possible. 

The present problem of these men is a serious one. They 
have often considerable money invested in their businesses and 
have worked for years trying to make them successful. 
Naturally they hesitate before giving them up even though 
their present incomes may be absolutely inadequate, and make 
every effort to "keep going" in the hope that business condi- 
tions will soon become normal again. There are many owners 
of small businesses here in New York. If the story of these 
men is typical of the present situation among other small 
business owners, what is the solution of their problem of pro- 
viding adequately for their families? 

In the three hundred and seventy-seven families there were 
one hundred and two women who were engaged in January, 
1917, in wage-earning occupations. During the year, three 
ceased to work and twenty-six other women became wage- 
earners, so that there were one hundred and twenty-five 
women workers in January, 1918, or one in every three 



124 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, ' 9 ' 



families in this particular group being studied. Last year in 
the same group there was only one working woman in every 
four families. What will be the situation next year? 



TABLE I. 










Change in Occupation and Wage 
Boys and Girls. 377 Families, 


s of Men, Women, 
New York city 




Workers in same occupation 
January, 1917, and Janu- 
ary, 19.18 

At a higher wage 

At the same wage 

At a lower wage 

Giving insufficient com- 
parative wage data. . . . 


Total 
Workers 

141 

287 

46 

46 


Men 

99 

178 

38 

30 


Women 

13 

72 
6 

7 


Boys 
14-21 

13 
9 


4 


Girls 
14-21 

16 

28 

2 

5 


Total workers in same occu- 


52(1 


345 


98 


26 


51 


Workers in different occupa- 
tion, January, 1917, and 
January, 1918 

At a higher wage 

At the same wage 

At a lower wage 


22 
15 
17 


12 
13 
10 


1 


3 


8 

2 
2 


.1 


2 


Total workers in different 












occupation 


54 


35 


4 


12 


3 


Total workers employed dur- 
ing both January, 1917, and 
January, 1918 


574 


380 


102 


38 


54 


Additional workers, January, 
1918 


64 
21 

+43 
617 


1 

12 

— 11 


26 

3 

+23 

125 


23 

+21 
59 


24 


Workers of January, 1917, not 
employed January, 1918.... 

Net gain or loss in workers 
during year 


4 

+ 10 

64 


Total workers, January, 1918 


369 



A set of suggestive questions concerning probable budget 
readjustments was given to the investigators but no special 
place was provided on the schedule blank for the recording of 
separate budget facts. The advantage of this method was 
that it left the family and the investigator free to discuss in 
detail any method of economy which was being especially prac- 
ticed and any pressure of high prices which seemed especially 
difficult or irritating. The disadvantage of the method was 
that it brought in such widely varying reports that a detailed 
statistical summary has proven impossible. Certain tendencies 
seem clearly indicated, however, and they are, perhaps, all the 
more striking as the facts were secured by such informal ques- 
tioning by so many different investigators. 

Unusual economy in clothing was reported most frequently. 
The coal shortage during January enforced a fuel economy 
in many homes, and a number of families reported that they 
were unable, because of the shortage, to secure sufficient coal 
to keep warm. That the food shortage in many homes is also 
acute is indicated by the fact that almost as many families re- 
ported that high living costs made it impossible for them to 
get the customary amount of food as reported that the coal 
situation prevented them from getting sufficient fuel. Money- 
saving was no longer possible in many homes, and often the 
report was made that previous savings were being exhausted. 

The reports also show with what splendid spirit these people 
are making what they think to be their war sacrifices. Com- 
plaints were but few. As one woman said, "What you can't 
get you just do without. The only thing that's hard is know- 
ing what you can best leave out." A man reported: "We'd 
like to have some of the things we used to have, but every- 



body ought to be willing to make some sacrifices to win 
the war." 

With such a spirit it would seem that there should be little 
fear at present of a breakdown in morale among wage-earners 
of this type. The danger would seem to be that they will 
bear considerable hardship for so long a time without com- 
plaining that health, especially the health of little children, 
will be definitely impaired, and that the power to think clearly 
and logically will be exhausted by the constant nervous and 
mental strain of making two ends meet when they are as far 
apart as are certain wages and all living costs today. 

The food readjustments among the families seem to have 
been practically the ones which are normally made under 
economic pressure. Meat, milk, butter, eggs, fruits and vege- 
tables were reported as being used in much smaller amounts, 
and frequently certain or even all of these foods were left out 
of the diet completely. Bread, macaroni, tea and coffee were 
being often used in increasing amounts, supplemented to a 
larger or smaller degree by other foods according to the 
amount of money available for food and the family's personal 
likes and dislikes. 

Reports concerning milk consumption are especially inter- 
esting in view of the present milk situation. Fully as many 
of the families reported that they were using the same amount 
of milk, although often a cheaper grade, as reported that 
they were using less or none. In many cases there seemed 
to be a sufficiently strong impression of the value of milk, 
especially in sickness, so that every effort was made to get it. 
This was true even among the Italians, who are ordinarily 
considered as not being especially enthusiastic users of milk. 
"Johnny, who's sixteen, has been sick with tuberculosis for 
two months. We're buying milk and eggs for him, but the 
rest of us eat no milk or eggs, just a little meat, and a lot of 
macaroni." This is the report of one Italian woman, and 
another Italian woman said, "We are still using the same 
amount of milk but we have to go without meat to get it." 

Among other families milk was used with less apparent 
appreciation. For instance, one woman was buying milk for 
Willie, aged four, because he didn't like coffee! 

In quite a number of instances, condensed milk was being 
used in place of fresh milk, partly, as one woman explained, 
because it was sweet, and if you used it you did not have to 
buy sugar for tea and coffee. 

Only three women spoke of making any effort to save 
wheat through the use of corn or other cereal, or of making 
any effort to reduce their consumption of wheat bread or 
macaroni. In fact, in many families there seems to have been 
a radical increase in bread and macaroni consumption, not 
because of any unpatriotic feeling, but because to them the 
lessened use of other foods and the greater use of bread or 
macaroni is the best way to feed a family when every penny 
has to be considered. Among this group of people, the method 
of securing greater wheat conservation would seem to be 
partly educational and partly economic. With income and 
living costs in more nearly their normal relationships and 
with a certain amount of educational guidance, it would seem 
to be a simple matter to have these people return to a wider 
use of milk, eggs, fruits, vegetables and other foods not espe- 
cially to be conserved, thus automatically using less bread. 
Without lessening the economic pressure it would seem much 
more difficult to secure this essential conservation. 

Food waste is negligible among this group if the following 
statements are accepted as typical of their present feelings 
towards waste: "The Food Administration people came and 
asked us to save food. We were already doing that, because 
we know that if we don't save today, tomorrow we go with- 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 191 



125 



out!" "It makes me sick! I never had to be so stingy with 
food before." "When I think how much I have to pay for 
my food, it makes me feel wicked to eat as much as I want. 
You can bet yer life, I don't waste any food, or anything else!" 

The problem of securing adequate clothing had proven a 
difficult one in nearly all families visited. One woman re- 
ported that she had been able to afford only one set of under- 
wear for each child this winter, and had had such a difficult 
time trying to keep it washed out at night and fit to wear. 
Others told of keeping the children in the house on cold days 
because of their lack of sufficiently warm clothing. 

Reducing living costs by moving to less expensive rooms does 
not seem to have proven a practicable form of economy for 
many of these New York families, for during the year only 
twelve moved into rooms for which less rent had to be paid. 
Three moved into apartments for which more rental was paid. 

In twenty-one instances, the families reported that their 
rents had recently been raised fifty cents to two dollars a 
month. One man said that he understood that the landlords 
did not dare to raise rents while the gas and water pipes were 
still frozen in their houses but that when things were once 
thawed out and repaired, the rents were to go up decidedly. 

If the rental increase does become more universal, as seems 
likely, still another burden will be added to the living costs 
of the small wage-earner, and the food and clothing allow- 
ances will be still further pushed down towards the danger 
point. 

The shortage of coal and its high price made it very precious 
this winter, and great economies were practiced in its use. 
Many families reported that fewer rooms were being heated 
than usual, and often the fire was kept for only the fewest 
possible number of hours. One woman told of trying to do 
a little washing every day while she was cooking, in order to 
save fuel. Others spoke of greatly reducing the amount of 
cooking for the same reason, the making of corn bread being 
stopped, for instance, and the cooking of cereals. Cinders 
were often washed and used for keeping the fire at night, and 
several janitresses spoke of securing enough cinders from the 
ashes of their tenants, so that they had had to buy almost 
no coal. 

"We used to go to shows and movies, but we don't dare 
spend a cent foolishly now." A young couple reported that 



they always used to go to "a show" every week, but now they 
went only about once a month. An Irish woman said that 
she still went to the movies regularly but she had to go in 
the afternoon now when it cost only six cents. An Italian, 
who is devoted to music, according to his wife, used to go 
regularly to the opera, then he went only to "little shows." 
Later he could afford only the movies and these he has now 
had to give up. In the same family the little girl began last 
year to take music lessons. She has continued with them up 
to the present time but the mother fears that she cannot let 
her have them much longer. 

Several families reported that they were no longer able to 
afford to buy a newspaper. The loss of this seemed to be felt 
much more among the Irish and Germans than among the 
other nationalities. One woman said that she would rather 
do without her breakfast than her morning paper, but that she 
had finally given it up. Others said they bought newspapers 
to read the advertisements in the hope that they might find 
lower prices somewhere, and so did not think them an ex- 
travagance. 

As would be expected, savings have proven difficult with 
the slight increase in wages in comparison with living costs. 
Several men had subscribed for Liberty bonds through their 
employers but were finding it hard to meet the payments and 
the wives expressed doubt if they would dare to subscribe to 
another bond issue. 

In certain Italian families every effort was being made to 
continue to send money regularly to Italy, even if the strictest 
economy had to be practiced here. Almost no other families 
reported being now able to save even though previously they 
had been able to save on even smaller incomes. As already 
indicated, a number reported that they were being forced to 
use former savings although it worried them greatly to have 
to use this reserve fund for ordinary living expenses. 

All these facts show vividly the seriousness of the present 
situation among self-supporting families of the type here in- 
terviewed, and should stimulate work for an intensification 
of peace-time effort in lowering living costs, raising industrial 
standards, conserving health, and increasing general thrift, as 
the best possible means of improving the present situation and 
laying the foundation for successful economic and social re- 
construction when the war ends. 



Wanted— Social Workers 

By Edith Shatto King 

MANAGER NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 



THERE is a marked labor shortage in social work. 
War conditions have brought this about. Where 
are the trained social workers? What can be done 
to recruit and train promising material? 
A few days ago the National Social Workers' Exchange re- 
ceived an S. O. S. call from the director of a home service 
bureau of the American Red Cross. She telephoned, "I must 
secure five case workers before twelve o'clock tomorrow to 
meet an emergency." 

The exchange telephoned diligently to thirteen people and 
was able to produce five workers at the appointed time. Of 
the five, only one had had case work training, the others being 
willing persons, trained along other lines, or not trained at all, 
but sifted as the most promising from a large number of appli- 
cants. These five placements were really an attempt at draft- 



ing social workers from other fields of work, and on the whole 
the attempt was not successful. 

Under the caption Changes In Our Staff, the Social Ser- 
vant, published by the Associated Charities of Columbus, 
Ohio, printed the following item: 

"The last three or four months have witnessed the exodus 
from our ranks of the entire staff of visitors, including the 
supervisor. Of course this has made necessary the bringing 
into the office force a number of new people who, while they 
are all trained in the theory of the work, are now getting the 
much needed practical training that a visitor must have for 
successful service to the needy." 

Recently the American Association for Organizing Charity 
felt the dearth of workers so keenly that it circularized its 
members throughout the country asking for names of trained 



126 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 



people not now in active work who might be available and 
might respond to needs created by the war. Just six names 
were secured by this urgent call. 

Nowadays, executives of social organizations do not ask in 
the usual way for one or two new workers ; they ask for such 
workers in groups. A representative from an important gov- 
ernment department in a large city recently put in a call for 
200 workers for possible immediate openings. At that time, 
the exchange did not have even a tenth of this number free to 
accept such positions, and was forced to advertise for appli- 
cants with but indifferent success. 

At the same time the exchange had no fewer than 100 other 
positions somewhat similar in character that could be made 
available provided there were workers to fill them. For ex- 
ample, one organization asked to be notified at any time of men 
equipped by experience and personality and willing to travel, 
to do organizing. Another agency wanted at least twenty-five 
young women fitted to organize social activities for girls in 
industrial cities. Another executive of a national organization 
asked for thirty-two workers with very special training for 
handling delinquent girls. 

In the midst of studying the records, with the idea of care- 
fully selecting twenty-five social workers for protective work 
for girls, and fifteen for home service of the Red Cross, a tele- 
gram came from Houston, Texas, saying that two matrons 
must be secured immediately for an industrial school for girls. 
Three telegrams were sent out to persons supposed to be avail- 
able, and not one could take the position. Before that was 
arranged, a hurry call came in from the superintendent of a 
children's home where there was an epidemic of measles. 

In response to the question, "How are you getting along 
now?" an executive in one of the charity organization societies 
said, "Well, we're fairly comfortable because we have all new 
workers and no one wants them until they are trained." 

All of this illustrates the sudden demands made by war 
conditions for persons trained professionally in handling prob- 
lems of other people who are in trouble. The present experi- 
ence of the exchange in attempting to fill positions with the 
demand so great, emphasizes in no uncertain terms what indi- 
vidual organizations have found true through sad experience, 
namely, that half-trained and only fairly endowed persons can- 
not by any hook or crook be made to fill jobs calling for real 
ability and training. 

Applicants there are in large numbers. Too frequently, 
however, they resemble in type the woman who came to the 
office of the exchange the other day and applied for a position 
in social work because she had been told in a public employ- 
ment agency that she had insufficient education for clerical 
work. Women of education and refinement, for the first time 
in their lives forced to earn a livelihood through war necessity, 
also apply, seeking to enter social work. There is little use in 
believing that older women who have never held a paid posi- 
tion in their lives can suddenly blossom out in a profession for 
which they feel that "experience in life" has fitted them. Only 
a few can secure even a beginning position (which they are 
frequently unwilling to consider) because they are not adapt- 
able or able to benefit by training, as is the young college girl. 
The sifting out process is an important part of recruiting 
social workers. 

In any line of work there are two ways of meeting a labor 
shortage. One is by recruiting and training new workers, the 
other is by raising salary standards to attract different types 
of workers. Just now, war conditions have affected the cost 
of living to such an extent that salaries everywhere have had 
to be raised to meet the demands. Not only in the field of 
labor, but in business, clerks, stenographers and general 



workers are receiving higher wages than ever before. In 
many lines of social work, however, salaries fixed before the 
war have remained stationary. Visitors and case workers in 
charity organizations receive less than competent stenog- 
raphers, while settlement and civic workers in many instances 
are earning less than men and women in trades. 

One difficulty with regard to salaries in social work is that 
the missionary ideal still persists in the minds of boards of 
directors despite the fact that social work has become a recog- 
nized profession, requiring special training. Then, too, 
salaries have been fixed in the process of budget making and 
there is seldom any provision for an increase. 

While we believe that the appeal of social work must and 
will continue to be that of service, if the right people are to do 
the work, we must admit that often the right people are not 
financially endowed. If they had been, undoubtedly they 
would have been found in the ranks of volunteers. Very few 
social workers are even hoping, much less seeking, to become 
rich. Most of them are satisfied if the opportunity is great 
and the compensation fairly equal to the demands of living 
conditions. But in facing new times, salary standards must be 
increased to meet the cost of living so that workers can be 
guaranteed a reasonably comfortable living, with some margin 
for the preservation of health and some guarantee for old age. 

The necessity for definite training was never more impor- 
tant. Short courses are being given for special pieces of work, 
and these are valuable. However, they do not make trained 
social workers. The two-year course of training is still im- 
portant, and those who are able to take it must be encouraged. 
There are not enough people, however, planning for that 
training. On the basis of last year's enrollment in the five or 
six leading training schools for social workers, 500 is a gener- 
ous estimate of the number of students who will be in training 
for future positions next year. The fact that available posi- 
tions will probably be double and perhaps treble that number 
indicates the problem set by the shortage. Moreover, the usual 
demand for trained workers is augmented by the exodus of 
the most highly qualified men and women for service abroad. 
No one knows definitely how many executives have left their 
regular positions for war work, but the roster of the Red 
Cross has been said to resemble the Charities Directory. 

The possibility of getting young college men and women 
interested in social organization and the question whether 
social agencies can plan definite training for these people 
should be given serious consideration. Executives of social 
agencies in the United States can assist by making it their 
business to send to the National Social Workers' Exchange 
the names of social workers who might be drawn back to the 
work, or of people who can qualify by education and person- 
ality if training were provided. Every one knows that this 
serious shortage of trained workers exists. The exchange is 
attempting to collect exact data on the number needed, the re- 
quirements of different types of work as well as the salaries 
paid social workers, the increases made necessary not only by 
the demand but also by the cost of living, the range of salary 
and the whereabouts and experience of workers who may be 
available in the future. Only by exact information can new 
workers be attracted and organizations efficiently served. 

The real point is the selection of good material. There are 
several possible methods for broadening the field of choice. 
The first is to draw back into the field of social work retired 
professional workers. The second is to use the established 
schools to their maximum capacity, and the third is to train 
more people by the apprenticeship system. In this way social 
organizations would become their own training schools for 
local people who could not leave their homes. 



Reconstruction Under Fire 

By Mary Ross 



a 



W 



HEN we go back you'll go with us and help 
us again?" they said to him as he left them in 
Brittany, a trainload of fugitives before the 
German army, laden with knobby bags and 
bundles which were their only worldly possessions. And he, 
one of the Quaker boys who had been re-slating shell-torn 
roofs in the Somme, promised that when the lines were pushed 
back once more and the villages freed they would find the 
Americans there to work with them. 

"I never thought that the building was the real thing about 
our being there," he said later when some one asked him if 
the venture in reconstruction had been worth while. "It was 
the other thing, the coming into touch with the people — the 
something they gave us and we gave them. They loved us, 
you know, and still do. Somehow we manage to give them 
such hope that they are planning now on getting back again, 
and they have perfect faith that we shall be the ones who will 
get them back." 

Thirty outposts of the American Red Cross are in the 
hands of the gray army, and as this is written menacing lines 
before others have not yet been rolled back. There are Ham 
and Nesle and Noyon, where were warehouses from which 
Red Cross delegates gave out clothing, food, seeds, furniture, 
and farm implements, to help the returning farmers to recon- 
struct home and land ; at Nesle there was also a little twelve- 
bed hospital, the Pavilion Joffre and a traveling dispensary 
that visited seven devastated villages to which one family after 
another had crept back. There were the fifteen little villages 
about Grecourt, from which the girls of the Smith College 
Unit of the American Red Cross sent their doctor and nurses, 
their traveling store which carried household utensils, cloth- 
ing, and seeds to villages where no shops had been re-estab- 
lished, and their playground workers who taught games to 
children who could hardly remember the days before the con- 
stant booming of the guns. And there were the equipes or 
units of the English and American Friends, whose members, 
most of them university graduates, have been patching together 
the old stone and brick houses and barns, setting up portable 
houses, or running motor plows to reclaim the wheatfields. At 



Gruny they had bricked up the holes in the schoolhouse so 
that the twenty children of the village might begin studies 
again after more than three years of enforced vacation ; at 
Esmery Hallon there was a row of little maisons demontables 
about the town square; from Golancourt the land had been 
sown to spring wheat, and in a dozen other villages their labor 
had helped to start life going again. 

Not one of the men and women who have come down from 
the lost villages feels that the adventure in reconstruction is 
lost. Some hundreds of children left their homes the better 
for the care of American doctors and nurses; thousands of 
families may have been obliged to leave the precious kettle or 
sheets or table that had come as the gift of the American Red 
Cross, but they carried with them the feeling that Americans 
had helped them and would help them again ; and when the 
second terrible separation from home became inevitable the 
organization in the devastated area was quickly knit together 
into a chain of emergency relief stations, working parallel to 
the army line for the civilians as they were forced backward 
behind it. 

When the news of the invading army reached Paris on 
Friday, March 22, the chief of the Bureau of Reconstruction 
and Relief, Edward Eyre Hunt, went immediately to Com- 
piegne, where emergency headquarters were established for 
the devastated area, and from there to the villages of the 
Somme and the Aisne. Ham — furthest out of the larger 
centers — was the first to be evacuated, and trucks of the Red 
Cross and the English and American Friends' Unit carried 
civilians and their pathetic baggages, and the first of the stream 
of wounded Tommies back to Nesle. Later they had to go on 
from Nesle to Roye, from Roye to Montdidier, and Mont- 
didier to Beauvais, as each advance of the Germans pressed 
the line further back and increased the crowds that choked the 
southbound roads. One delegate even drove out the cows 
that belonged to the Smith College Unit. Little merchandise 
had been stored in the Red Cross warehouse at Ham; at 
Nesle the supply consisted chiefly of food and blankets; be- 
fore the Germans reached Nesle the food had been distributed 
as rations to hungry British soldiers and the blankets given 




American Red Cross military ambulance transporting 
persons wounded in a recent Paris explosion 



"Paris has seen no sadder procession than the dispossessed 
people streaming through its stations" 



127 



128 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 19 18 




Where Paris mothers who work in munition factories left 

their babies when they went to work. Of twenty babies 

in this creche when it was destroyed by a recent explosion, 

six were injured — none dangerously 

to the refugees and the emergency stations for the wounded. 
By Sunday a temporary organization, with communication 
by courier, had been perfected, with stations at Amiens, Mont 
didier, Lassigny, Noyon, Blerancourt, Soissons, and Com- 
piegne. A messenger from Mr. Hunt reached Paris Sunday 
night to arrange for supplies and bring this hastily-scrawled 
message : 

You will be proud of the organization if ever there is leisure to 
write what they have done. All American Red Cross out in de- 
vastated regions evacuating civilians, old men, women and children, 
finding them milk. Driving out Smith College cows, for example. 
Giving exhausted Tommies food, taking camion loads of wounded 
soldiers to hospitals and helping the British Intelligence Service to 
transport refugees to safe places. Quakers rendering invaluable 
service. Thousands saved by Red Cross efforts. When the enemy 
is driven back we will begin patching, mending and sewing up the 
seams again. 

That night eight camions started for Compiegne, carrying 
2,000 blankets, 14,000 pounds of condensed milk, 7,000 
pounds of tinned meat, 1,500 pounds of cheese, 1,000 pounds 
of cheese, 1,000 pounds of canned beans, 1,000 pounds of figs, 
1,500 pounds of chocolate, 1,000 pounds of dry salt pork, 500 
pounds of sugar, 500 pounds of coffee, 500 pounds of sweet- 
ened biscuits, and money for local purchasing. 

The next day Noyon had to be evacuated, and after that 
Montdidier, but the organization kept on. At Compiegne a 
portable kitchen established near the station served 5,000 
soldiers and civilians ; chocolate, figs, and meat were given out 
from Red Cross headquarters to passing convoys of hungry 
soldiers, and a temporary hospital was installed in the station 
buffet to care for persons wounded by bombs and other in- 
jured civilians or soldiers, while they were waiting to be 
taken to a regular hospital. The members of the Smith Col- 
lege Unit, the Friends' Unit, and other war-zone organiza- 
tions were detailed to the railroad centers through which the 



refugee stream was passing, to help in organizing emergency 
canteens, giving out food, searching for lost luggage, reuniting 
separated families and evacuating the ill and infirm to rail- 
road trains. More than once a camion brought in its last load 
of helpless old people from a village where the advancing 
columns were so near that shots from the machine guns already 
were pattering in the deserted streets. 

Paris is the knot through which pass all the refugee trains 
from the north on their way to tranquil French towns in 
Brittany and the southern cities — and Paris has seen no sadder 
procession than the lines of dispossessed people streaming 
through its stations. There are the incredibly ancient, men 
and women of eighty and ninety, who had made their way 
back to their ruined homes because they had not the vigor to 
take up life in a new place ; women with white, set faces and 
children who cringe in terror at the occasional distant ex- 
plosion of one of the shells which the long range German gun 
is sending into the city. One group brought a man of sixty- 
seven in charge of two women, one eighty-three, the other 
ninety-two. In another was a boy of fourteen, piloting a be- 
wildered old grandfather, a little sister, and a chubby brother 
of four who had been a baby when the Germans took the 
mother away during the first months of the war. The father 
is still a prisoner in Germany, but the mother has been re- 
patriated recently, and the family was going on to rejoin her 
at St. Etienne. 

Some of these people had lived under one wave of an in- 
vading army, and this time they left no living thing behind. 
Many an old grandmother was piloting her dog, and one 
family of twelve had refused to stir unless their white goat 
was brought too. They hoisted it triumphantly into the train 
at Amiens and lifted it down at Paris, where it stood 
bewildered in the rush of a metropolitan terminal. A 




Another view of the same creche. These txvo occupants 
were cut by flying glass. Hozv the American Red I 
brought efficient relief to the hundreds of f$OpU injured 
by this explosion was told by Miss Ross m the Survey 
for April 20 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 191 



129 



hen cackled gaily from beneath its owner's rusty black cape. 

To meet these people and see that they had food and rest 
before they went on — where, they did not know — the Ameri- 
can Red Cross organized its Paris staff into an emergency 
relief service. The nurses in the Department of Civil Affairs 
were divided into three squads; some of them were always on 
duty at each of the important stations; assistants in the 
bureaus, clerks, and stenographers volunteered to work one 
night in three on one of the two night shifts in the station 
canteens ; the camions did duty night and day carrying the 
refugees and their luggage from station to station, to the hos- 
pital, or to a temporary refuge. 

There are canteens for soldiers at all of the large stations, 
and additional supplies and volunteer workers from the Ameri- 
can Red Cross enabled them to serve hot food to everyone. 
Men and women who had worked all the day in Red Cross 
offices spent most of the night opening cans of condensed milk, 
carrying luggage, heating water for babies, and doing the 
thousand and one things to be done to assist the able French 
women in charge or the kindly policemen who carried the 
heavy boxes and bags and in many cases practically carried the 
exhausted old people who reached Paris after twelve, fifteen, 
occasionally twenty hours in the blocked trains. Mattresses 
were rushed to make station dormitories where the ill and the 



fatigued women and children could rest immediately and 
where many had to spend the night before continuing the 
journey. 

As the pressure of refugees on Paris is lessening, Red Cross 
workers are being sent to the departments outside Paris to aid 
the prefects in establishing these unhappy war victims in 
homes. The first emergent call came from one town in the 
South to which six hundred senile and insane persons were 
being sent from an asylum near Amiens; ten members of the 
American Friends' Unit left immediately to aid in caring for 
them and for two thousand other refugees who were expected 
later. 

The full story of American aid to France in this emergency 
cannot be written until the brunt of it is passed and the men 
and women who have been working without sleep in the 
frontier posts, the railroad centers, in Paris and the South, 
can stop to tell the story of what they have done. The most 
important thing, however, is clear — at every stage in their 
tragic flight from home the refugees found the Red Cross 
emblem, its workers sharing their dangers and doing every- 
thing humanly possible to make their way easier. Now they 
know as never before, that the Americans are standing with 
them and will work with and for them until the way back 
to their homes and countryside again is open and ready. 



The Health Crisis in New York 



CHARGING in effect that New York city was being 
made unsafe for soldiers and sailors as well as for 
the civilian population by the arbitrary interference 
of Mayor John F. Hylan in the work of the city's 
health department, Dr. J. Lewis Amster, head of the depart- 
ment, resigned on Monday of this week after a long period 
of tension between himself and the city's chief executive. 
This action may mark the crisis that will compel the long 
arm of the United States government to reach out to safe- 
guard health conditions in New York city. As a port of 
embarkation for troops and a place where thousands of sol- 
diers seek recreation, New York is of vital concern to the 
federal government in the matter of health. 

Some days ago [see the Survey for April 20, page 63] 
Mayor Hylan demanded that Commissioner Amster dismiss 
the heads of a number of bureaus in the health department. 
The effect of this would have been to cripple the department's 
work. Another demand by the mayor, according to Dr. 
Amster, was for the abolition of baby health stations as 
"unnecessary." The final demand, and the one that seems 
to have brought about Dr. Amster's decision to resign, was 
for the removal of Dr. Abraham Jacobi and Dr. S. S. Gold- 
water, physicians of international reputation, from the Medi- 
cal Advisory Council of the department. 

The gathering crisis in this vital activity of city govern- 
ment has been watched with interest throughout the country. 
Dr. C. H. Mayo was one of those who urged Mayor Hylan 
not to bring such a "catastrophe" upon the city. Surgeon- 
General Rupert Blue, of the United States Public Health 
Service, sent the following telegram to Mayor Hylan on 
Sunday: 

Publicity is an essential of public health work. Urge you will not 
curtail activities of city health department of New York in inform- 
ing public concerning disease and disease prevention. 

Dr. Amster quoted Mayor Hylan as having said in regard 
to this telegram: 



I do not give a darn for these federal governmental letters or let- 
ters from other people who are interested in public health education. 
As long as I am mayor of the city of New York, the health depart- 
ment will be run as I see fit. 

Dr. Blue's telegram is regarded as a possible precursor to 
federal interference. Several newspapers have pointed out that 
if Congress passes the Overman bill (it passed the Senate on 
Monday) President Wilson will have authority to create a 
federal health administrator with powers similar to those 
possessed in their respective fields by the food administrator, 
the fuel administrator and the director-general of railways. 
Such an administrator would undoubtedly be in a position 
to interfere in any attempted disorganization of a city health 
department. 

Examples of federal interference with local administration 
have been supplied since we entered the war. The United 
States marshal from New York city arrested several saloon- 
keepers in New Rochelle, N. Y., and closed resorts where, in 
spite of protests, liquor had been sold to men in uniform. 
The action of the War Department in serving notice upon 
San Antonio, Texas, and other cities that their red-light dis- 
tricts must be closed or the army encampments would be taken 
away are well known. In Philadelphia, Secretary Daniels 
recently complained that liquor was sold to men in uniform 
and that the police failed to protect them from open solicita- 
tion by women. This was denied by Mayor Smith, but an 
investigation by an officer of the United States Marine Corps 
gave voluminous evidence of its truth. Mayor Smith was 
compelled to send his political police commissioner on a vaca- 
tion and to appoint as acting chief a lieutenant whose record 
gave promise that he would enforce the law. 

Meanwhile, Dr. Royal S. Copeland has been appointed 
Dr. Amster's successor. Dr. Copeland says he will not remain 
if he is interfered with. He is dean of the Medical College of 
Flower Hospital. He is further said to be the first homeopa- 
thist who has headed the health department of an important 
American city. 



C092920 




A POLITICAL LABOR PARTY 
IN ONTARIO 

A MEETING was called in To- 
ronto a few weeks ago to organ- 
ize a labor party for Ontario. The 
significance of this event lies in the 
unrest in labor circles, in many parts of 
Canada and for many years, which pre- 
viously had resulted in the running of 
occasional Socialist candidates — usually 
of a somewhat academic type — but had 
not become crystallized in constructive 
permanent political organization. 

Invitations to the Toronto meeting 
were sent to representatives of various 
socialistic societies, including the Fabian 
society, trades and labor councils, trade 
unions, independent labor parties — local 
Socialist bodies, for the most part un- 
stable in membership and of an ephe- 
meral nature — cooperative societies and 
the United Farmers of Ontario, a body 
of 15,000 energetic members. In spite 
of not a little difference of opinion, it 
was evident that everyone present was 
determined to secure the formation of a 
real labor party. The following party 
objects were adopted: 

To organize and maintain in parliament, 
provincial and federal, a political labor 
party; to cooperate with kindred organiza- 
tions, in joint political or other action in 
harmony with the party constitution and 
standing orders; to give effect as far as 
may be practicable to the principles from 
time to time approved by the party con- 
ference; to secure for the producers by hand 
or by brain the full fruits of their indus- 
try and the most equitable distribution there- 
of; generally to promote the political, social 
and economic emancipation of the people, 
and more particularly of those who depend 
directly upon their own exertions by hand 
or by brain for the means of life. 

Several radical amendments to these 
resolutions were defeated, especially 
some emphatic socialistic statements. 
These were opposed because it was de- 
termined to include nothing upon which 
all the groups could not unite; this, 
of course, with special relation to the in- 
fluential farmers' organization. The 
membership rule was as follows: 

Membership: That the labor party sha' 1 
consist of all its affiliated organizations, in- 

130 



eluding trade unions, Socialist societies, 
trades councils, local labor parties and 
farmers' organizations, together with those 
men and women who are individual mem- 
bers of a local labor party and who sub- 
scribe to the constitution and program of 
the party. 

This is a fairly comprehensive mem- 
bership, but it is still narrower than that 
recently adopted by the British Labour 
Party, which enables individuals to join 
without belonging to any Socialist or 
labor organization outside. A strong 
committee was appointed, representing 
the various groups, to draw up a plat- 
form. 

A social worker in Toronto writes: 

The war has taught us many things, and 
there is now a genuine desire to get to- 
gether. In addition, many of the trade 
unions have become utterly disgusted with 
the old parties for whom so many of them 
have devoted all their lives. As a result, 
just previous to our last general election, a 
number of labor candidates were nomi- 
nated in various constituencies throughout 
the Dominion by organizations which in 
most cases called themselves the Inde- 
pendent Labour Party. The immediate cause 
of this was the resolution passed by our 
last Trades and Labour Congress at Ottawa, 
where the need for such a party was stated 
in a resolution which received only five 
dissenting votes. The efforts of the party, 
however, were not very successful at the 
last election, as the other two parties were 
practically united in what is called a "union" 
government. Nevertheless, a great deal of 
good propaganda work was accomplished, 
and a real get-together spirit manifested. 
The movement has now got up one stage 
farther. 



May -4, 1918 



Vol. 40, No. 5 



THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street, New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 
U. Kellogg, editor; Arthur P. Kellogg, 
secretary; Frank Tucker, treasurer. 
25 cents a copy; $3 a year; foreign 
postage, $1.50; Canadian, 75 cents. 
Copyright, 1918, by Survey Associates, 
Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 
25, 1909, at the post office at New York, 
N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



THE NATIONAL CONFER- 
ENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 

THREE and a half years ago social 
work in this country might have 
been called a minority movement. To- 
day the necessities created by the war 
have made it a majority movement. Its 
standards of common welfare and pro- 
cedure have been applied on a scale that 
could not have been hoped for at the 
earlier time. Hundreds of thousands of 
soldiers' families are being safeguarded, 
or may be safeguarded if the need arises, 
in accordance with the principles of 
family rehabilitation worked out by 
charity organization societies every- 
where. Conditions of work in muni- 
tions plants and under government con- 
tracts are responding to the standards 
long advocated by consumers' leagues 
and other similar bodies. The lessons of 
mental hygiene and vocational guidance 
are being drawn upon to make the whole 
army of the United States more efficient. 
Public health efforts are being set for- 
ward decades by the revelations of medi- 
cal examination in the draft and the de- 
sire to keep both soldiers and civilian 
communities free from disease. Indus- 
trial housing has turned in part to the 
established housing ' movement for in- 
struction. Social insurance, the care and 
education of the blind and crippled, em- 
ployment methods — these and a dozen 
other aspects of national well-being are 
undergoing similar transformation. 
Agencies that were once struggling 
against the inertia of an individualistic 
conception of life have, by uniting them- 
selves to one part or another of the gov- 
ernment's program, won a hearing for 
their causes that will count heavily in 
the years to come. 

All of this has been keenly appreciated 
by the makers of the program of the 
forty-fifth National Conference of So- 
cial Work, which convenes in Kansas 
City May 15-22. The officers of the 
conference and division chairmen have 
obviously set themselves to show both 
the reaction of the war upon social ser- 
vice and of social service upon the war. 
More than this, they have tried to bring 
out the permanent fruits of this reaction 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 191 



131 



— at the same time that they have given 
a large hearing to the immediate and 
vital tasks put before the social agencies 
of the country by the military program. 
While "reconstruction" looms large up- 
on the conference program, so also do 
the two words "war time," and not in- 
frequently the wording of a topic carries 
with it the suggestion that what is being 
worked out in the stress of war emer- 
gency may be found good for later adop- 
tion and perfection. 

Among the topics more particularly 
connected with the war are: the social- 
ization of government in war time ; 
labor problems of the war and recon- 
struction ; wartime developments in pub- 
lic health nursing; the local community 
and the military training camps; the 
future prospect of leading war-time 
efforts and movements, such as food con- 
servation, soldiers' insurance, war re- 
creation, prohibition and the Red Cross ; 
results and significance to the commun- 
ity of mental hygiene work in the army ; 
the church, the community and the pres- 
ent crisis; the housing program in war 
time ; the role of the volunteer in the so- 
cial work of the future (under the divi- 
sion on social problems of the war and 
reconstruction) ; industrial reorganiza- 
tion after the war; effect of the war on 
family solidarity, and war and prisons. 

In addition to many leaders in social 
work who have been prominent on 
former programs of the conference are a 
number of speakers who have not often 
heretofore addressed themselves directly 
to the profession. Lincoln Steffens will 
speak on the international labor move- 
ment. S. K. Ratcliffe, correspondent of 
the Manchester Guardian in England, 
will bring a message from a nation now 
in the fourth year of war. George H. 
Mead, professor of philosophy at the 
University of Chicago, who is chairman 
of the division on social problems of the 
war and reconstruction, will address the 
general session of that division. Prof. 
Robert E. Park, of the department of 
sociology of the same university, will 
discuss methods of forming public 
opinion applicable to social welfare pub- 
licity. An official from the United 
States surgeon-general's office will dis- 
cuss the rehabilitation of invalided sol- 
diers. Frederick C. Howe, commis- 
sioner of immigration at the port of 
New York, will speak on the foreign- 
born and American community life, and 
Henry J. Waters, editor of the weekly 
Kansas City Star, will discuss the 
American farm after the war. 

Some of the old friends of the con- 
ference will come this year with new 
messages gathered in the course of 
months already spent in the war-time 
service of their country: Katharine B. 
Davis, member of the General Medical 
Board of the Council of National De- 
fense ; Graham Taylor, who as head of 
one of Chicago's local draft boards has 



Courtesy, Our Dumb Animals 




SOLDIERS' CHIVALRY 

pHlLIP GJBBS and other war 
correspondents have related 
many stories recently to show that 
the danger of war's brutalizing 
effect upon the warrior, feared by 
many at home more than physical 
hurt, has possibly been exagger- 
ated. Millions of animals — horses, 
mules, elephants, camels, dogs — 
are employed by the armies in 
Europe, and the general testimony 
is that in no previous war has 
there been as much concern for 
the welfare of these animals as 
there is in the allied armies. 



GOOD BYE, OLD MAN 



come into personal contact with over 
6,000 drafted young men of nineteen 
foreign stocks; Mrs. Florence Kelley, 
chairman of the conference division of 
industrial and economic problems, who 
was called upon by the government to 
see that Uncle Sam's uniforms were not 
made under conditions inimical to health 
and a decent standard of living ; Julia 
C. Lathrop, head of the federal Chil- 
dren's Bureau, who as part of her pro- 
gram for "children's year" has drawn a 
lesson from the Liberty loan campaigns 
and assigned to each state its quota of 
babies' lives to be saved during the com- 
ing year; Maude E. Miner, secretary of 
the National Probation and Protective 
Association, who has undertaken for the 
War Department's Commission on 
Training Camp Activities to organize 
the resources of the country in behalf of 
girls ; and W. Frank Persons, director 
general of civilian relief of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross, who if he returns in 
time from France will tell of the home 
service work recently organized by that 
organization. 

A petition signed by upwards of 
twenty-five members of the conference 
was addressed to the president, secretary 
and program committee of the confer- 
ence early in April, calling their atten- 
tion to alleged vital omissions in the 
tentative program of issues connected 
with the war. Arrangements for includ- 
ing many of these were already under 
way. Some of the topics mentioned in 
the petition were women in industry, 
demobilization or "the right to work 
after the war," the abolition of poverty 
after the war, and the insuring of a na- 
tional minimum. 

At a session of the division on indus- 



trial and economic problems there is to 
be a discussion of social work and radi- 
cal economic movements. Roger N. 
Baldwin, vice-chairman of the division, 
will preside, and Mrs. Kelley, chairman, 
will make a "statement of the present 
situation." Hornell Hart, research fel- 
low of the Helen S. Trounstine Founda- 
tion, Cincinnati, will discuss the "chal- 
lenge of mass facts to the social worker." 
Other speakers will present a criticism 
of social work and of the reform pro- 
gram "in the light of the complete in- 
dustrial revolution demanded by the 
radicals." Another question to be 
raised is, What Social Workers Can Do 
to Help Advance Radical Political and 
Industrial Movements? 

CHILD DELINQUENCY AND 
THE WAR 

AT the end of the first year of the 
J~\ war, it is becoming possible to see 
that in more than one part of the coun- 
try juvenile delinquency is increasing. 
The figures showing increases in Eng- 
land and Germany during the first year 
or two of hostilities have already become 
familiar. [See Delinquency in War- 
Time in the Survey for August 25, 
1917.] Apparently, the United States 
is having the same experience. The in- 
formation at hand is scattered and mea- 
ger but suggestive. 

The latest facts are supplied by the 
eleventh annual report of the New York 
State Probation Commission, recently 
published. The commission finds that 
the number of young girls placed on 
probation from the courts of the 
state began to increase markedly at 
about the time that the United States 
entered the war, and that the number 



132 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 1918 



has remained abnormally large ever 
since. This increase is due, it is said, 
"to greatly increased temptations to 
young girls about soldiers' camps and 
to the attractiveness of the uniform. 
Probation officers have been kept busy in 
certain localities dealing with 'girl-and- 
soldier' cases." During the statistical 
year ending June 30, 1917, a total of 
21,847 persons were placed on proba- 
tion, an increase of 13 per cent over the 
number placed the year before. The 
greatest increases were shown among 
young girls and men. The commission 
points out the need for increased super- 
vision of amusements, the prevention of 
the promiscuous meeting of young girls 
and strange soldiers, and the immediate 
need for more probation officers, espe- 
cially women, to deal with these cases. 

The statement has been made by A. C. 
Crouse, chief officer of the Court of Do- 
mestic Relations of Hamilton county, 
Ohio, which contains Cincinnati, that 
juvenile delinquency had increased 21 
per cent in that county since the United 
States entered the war. It is interest- 
ing to note that during the first three 
months of 1917 there was an actual 
falling off of cases before the juvenile 
division of the court, compared with the 
same three months of the year before. 
From April 1 to November 1, however, 
there were 384 cases as compared with 
316 during the same period in 1916. 
The Juvenile Protective Association re- 
ports a decided increase also. 

From Chicago comes record of a sim- 
ilar showing. In one month the num- 
ber of petitions filed for delinquent chil- 
dren in the Juvenile Court of Cook 
county was 54 per cent greater than 
those during the same month in 1916. 
The figures for four months are as fol- 
lows: 

DELINQUENT PETITIONS FILED 

1916 1917 

April 195 232 

May 196 303 

June 281 326 

July 234 292 

The filing of a petition means in 
practically every case that the child ap- 
pears in court. Hence, the table may 
be taken as substantially the same as that 
for cases appearing in court. 

The annual report of the Children's 
Court of New York city shows that 
14,519 children came before the court 
last year, an increase of 2,094 over the 
previous year. It was stated that to- 
ward the end of 1917 there was a per- 
ceptible increase, due to the scarcity of 
food and fuel and the difficulty of ma- 
king proper provision for some children. 

None of these figures, of course, have 
been correlated with the growth of the 
communities in child population, nor do 
the facts show the nature of the offense 
committed. Some of the increase may 
doubtless be attributable to dependency. 



This increase in New York has been 
offset to a large degree by greater vigi- 
lance on the part of probation officers, 
thinks the New York State Probation 
Commission. Probation was used with 
success for all sorts of offenses from 
truancy and malicious mischief to grand 
larceny and burglary. The system has 
proved its usefulness, the commission 
thinks, both for juvenile delinquents and 
adult criminals, although the methods 
used by the officers are different in dif- 
ferent cases. While a total of 6,820 
children under sixteen were dealt with 
on probation during the year, more than 
twice as many adults were so dealt with. 
Seventy-six per cent of all cases placed 
on probation completed their probation 
with improvement, 13 per cent were re- 
turned to court, and 5 per cent were 
lost from oversight. 

The probation system was used in the 
higher courts of all but nine of the coun- 
ties of the state last year and in all but 
six of the fifty-eight cities. It is also be- 
ing used increasingly by the village 
judges and justices of the peace of the 
towns. Thirty-four counties now em- 
ploy regular salaried county probation 
officers who are authorized by law to 
serve in any court in their counties. 
There are 202 salaried probation officers 
serving throughout the state in addition 
to many unsalaried volunteers. 

The commission believes there is a 
direct connection between the recent 
marked decrease in the population of the 
correctional institutions of the state, es- 
pecially the reformatories and state pris- 
ons, and the steady increase in the use of 
probation. The population of the state 
prisons was almost 1,000 less in 1917 
than it was in 1916. An even greater 
decrease in the population was shown in 
the reformatories. Better industrial 
conditions have partly contributed to 
this. 

A JAPANESE AMBASSADOR 
OF SOCIAL WELFARE 

THE Home Department of the 
Japanese imperial government es- 
tablished last August a new bureau for 
the supervision and promotion of social 
welfare throughout the empire. The di- 
rector of the bureau, I. Tago, is now 
in this country in pursuance of his offi- 
cial commission during a year's leave of 
absence. Before returning to his native 
country, he hopes to acquaint himself 
with social work in America, the British 
empire and Europe and to meet social 
workers in both official and voluntary 
agencies in the various countries. 

Mr. Tago has been preceded by three 
prominent pioneers in the social work of 
Japan, Dr. Ogawa and Messrs. Namai 
and Takata, whose previous visits 
abroad led recently to the appointment 
by the Home Department of the Com- 
mittee for Inquiring into Human Wel- 
fare Work. 



The committee will be advisory to the 
new bureau, the broad scope of which, 
as stated by Mr. Tago, includes poor 
relief and legislation, the improvement 
of dwellings, labor conditions and laws, 
the prevention of infant mortality, the 
care of defective and delinquent chil- 
dren, the provision of facilities for play 
for both children and adults and homes 
for soldiers and sailors. Mr. Tago is 
extending his inquiry also to methods of 
dealing with unemployment, the pro- 
hibition of alcoholic liquors, the Big 
Brothers movement, juvenile courts and 
all other agencies tributary to child wel- 
fare. 

Next June the Japanese government 
opens a reformatory school at Saita- 
maken, where teachers will be trained 
for the service of the fifty-six reform 
schools scattered throughout the coun- 
try. The president of this school is 
Kosuke Tomeoka, who is said to be the 
greatest social worker in Japan. 

NEGRO EDUCATORS AND 
OUR WAR EFFORTS 

IF there had been many manifesta- 
tions of sullen or half-hearted parti- 
cipation by Negroes in the war efforts of 
the nation, a discriminating policy of 
government with regard to them might 
have been justified. The curious fact is, 
however, that in spite of race distinction 
in disfavor of the colored soldier and in 
spite of the recent reappearance of lynch- 
ings and personal abuse on a large scale, 
the Negro is making new and consider- 
able additions to his claims upon the 
nation's gratitude. Not only has he 
waived such opportunities as presented 
themselves to sell his loyalty for a larger 
share of social recognition, but he has 
wholeheartedly entered the patriotic 
tasks at home and abroad. 

Evidence of this lies in the part taken 
in the war by Tuskegee college. This 
compares favorably with that of any 
other educational institution in the coun- 
try, Negro or non-Negro. Tuskegee's 
service flag has 470 stars; in addition, 
many of its faculty, graduates and stu- 
dents are serving in civilian war activi- 
ties. Emmet J. Scott, secretary of Tus- 
kegee Institute and for eighteen years 
confidential secretary of the late Booker 
T. Washington, has been lent to the 
secretary of war as a special assistant in 
matters affecting Negroes. Principal 
R. R. Moton, in addition to his duties 
as head of the college, finds time to be 
the active chairman of the committee in 
Alabama that promotes the sales of 
thrift stamps among colored people. 

Moreover, Mr. Moton is leading the 
movement for food conservation and in- 
creased production among the Negroes 
of his state. He is seconded by George 
W. Carver, director of Tuskegee's ex- 
periment station, who, by the way, was 
recently called to Washington to con- 
sult with the Department of Agriculture 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, igi 



133 



on wheat substitutes. Several other 
officers of the institute are aiding in the 
food conservation campaign, and in this 
they are eagerly assisted by the senior 
students. The ground and buildings of 
the college have been offered the govern- 
ment as a training camp for Negro 
officers. 

The influence of the institute on the 
colored population of the state, espe- 
cially through the rural schools, is 
heavily exerted in support of the gov- 
ernment program. Corn and pig clubs 
flourish as never before; the quantity of 
fruits and vegetables canned by the 
10,000 girls and mothers organized in 
Alabama clubs is prodigious. This suc- 
cess is attributed by the men who are 
running these various activities to the 
fact that the national program for in- 
creased and more scientific production, 
as well as for economy and thrift, mere- 
ly accentuates what has been taught at 
Tuskegee in season and out of season. 

These facts about Tuskegee illus- 
trate the contributions that are be- 
ing made by many Negro institutions. 
George Edmund Haynes, professor of 
social science at Fisk University, who 
publishes in this issue of the Survey 
the first instalment of his investigation 
of the northward migration of Negroes, 
has been called to Washington to act as 
director of Negro economics for the 
United States Department of Labor. 
He will take charge of the adjustment 
of such social and economic issues as 
may arise from the employment of 
Negroes in war industries and from 
their migration, and especially of the 
hiring and housing of Negroes required 
for war work by the government itself. 

THE CHICAGO CITY PLAN 
PROGRESSING 

CHICAGO has still to contend with 
its world reputation as America's 
most sordid city. Nevertheless it is in 
a fair way of becoming an example of 
replanning and reconstruction on a scale 
not anywhere else attempted and in a 
spirit that goes far to wipe out the 
blunders and neglect of the past. Chi- 
cago never has seen a congestion of 
traffic comparable with that along the 
North River in New York city where 
vans often have to stand half a day be- 
fore they can unload and through-traffic 
is sometimes almost impossible, yet Chi- 
cago goes ahead with her city-planning 
while New York reformers well nigh 
despair of effecting any material changes. 
Only a few weeks ago the Committee 
on Congestion of Population in New 
York city closed its office and suspended 
its activities, unable to make headway. 
Meanwhile Chicago is going ahead with 
the recommendations of her city plan 
commission and is embodying them 
piece by piece in monumental public 
undertakings. 



Fancy Linens 
from Italy 





at 

Reg. Trade Mark 

We are pleased to announce the recent arrival of several large 
shipments of Italian Art Embroidered Linens. 
A notable feature of the goods in that they come largely from 
Art Needlework Schools which in normal times catered to an 
exclusive clientele, thus insuring originality of design and dis- 
tinctiveness in workmanship. The following list will indicate 
some of the more popular sizes and prices: 




Tea Cloth of sheer Ecru Linen Embroidered in White. Blue, or Brown. 45x45 inches, $25. 
Napkins to match, 14x14 inches, $30.00 per dozen. 

Tea Cloths, 36x36 inches, 45x45 inches, and 54x54 inches. $8.50 to 47.50 each. 

Tea Napkins, $17.50 to 42.50 dozen. 

Luncheon Sets, square and oblong; 13 and 25 pieces. $25.00 to 57.50 set. 

Several styles in the above sizes Embroidered in Tan and Blue at same price. 

Sideboard Scarfs, Table Runners. Chiffonier, Dressing-table, Bureau Scarfs, $8.50 

to 35.00 each. 

Library Table Covers, Ecru Embroidery. $20.00 to 25.00 each. 

Refectory Table Covers, 54x90 inches, and 54x108 inches. $35.00, 40.00. 47.50, 

57.50 to 90.00 each. 

Orders by mail gioen special attention. 

James McCutcheon & Co. 

Fifth Ave., 34th & 33d Sts., N. Y. 



The latest feature of this far-reaching 
plan to move toward realization is the 
great thoroughfare that is to connect the 
two lake-front boulevards, Michigan 
avenue and the Lake Shore drive. Work 
on this was started April 13. The in- 
tervening streets on either side of the 
Chicago River are narrow and entirely 
inadequate to carry the heavy north and 
south traffic crossing the Rush street 
bridge. The new boulevard link in- 
volves the demolition of many buildings 
on both sides of the river to make space 
for the double deck thoroughfares, the 



lower of which is for traffic trucks and 
teams and the upper for passenger traf- 
fic. Over 8,000 legal claims were ad- 
judicated before the work began. 

The chairman of the Chicago Plan 
Commission, Charles H. Wacker, de- 
clared at the banquet commemorating 
the occasion that this "marks the begin- 
ning of the most fundamental improve- 
ment in the great Chicago Plan." No 
city of modern times, he said, has been 
given a plan "comprehending so many 
economic, hygienic, sociological, com- 
mercial and humanitarian benefits — and 



134 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4j igi 



! 



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Is HE in the Army? 

Are You the Relative or Friend of 
a Man in the Army? 

IF so, then you undoubtedly find time to read of what your boy and thousands 
of other boys are doing in the army. You are anxious to know how they are 
cared for when they are ill or injured, or when they are just homesick. You 
are interested to know how they spend their spare moments and how they work 
and play. Nearly every day some of our boys "Shove off for France" as they say. 

WE, who are obliged to stay at home, are full of anxiety for their welfare " Over There" 
and for their safe homecoming later. Y. M. C. A. men who " Shove Off " with the boy» 
tell in their own magazine of what it means to say good-by. The Y. M. C. A. is the 
soldier's mother, and his father, too. It is with him all the way from the home fireside to the 
training camp, across the seas into the trenches, in the hospitals, and everywhere that it can be 
helpful. The multitudinous activities of this great organization are pictured in the Y. M. C. A. 
magazine 

ASSOCIATION MEN 

ASSOCIATION MEN is the name of this Y. M. C. A. magazine. ASSOCIATION MEN 
is published in New York City. A very large, far-reaching, powerful and capable 
organization is back of ASSOCIATION MEN. This magazine is being eagerly sought 
for by all who have friends in the army because it contains many exclusive war pictures that no 
other magazine can get hold of. It is full of first hand information telling all about the tre- 
mendous work the Y. M. C. A. is doing in our army camps both in this country and abroad. 

What the Folks Back Home Say About It 

"ASSOCIATION MEN it the nearest thing to a letter from my boy, to that I hare come to 
love it more than any other magazine." 

"I find in ASSOCIATION MEN the whole story ." 

" I am sure every rather and mother whose boy is in the army ought to subscribe to 
ASSOCIATION MEN." 

" To me Y. M. C. A. means 'You Make Christianity Attractive,' and I never realized how 
much the Red Triangle means to young men in the army." 

FOR lO CENTS PER MONTH 

ASSOCIATION MEN will bring you the " whole story." Don't try to get along without it. 
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Decide today to know more of the real situation and subscribe to ASSOCIATION MEN. 
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Address 

ASSOCIATION MEN 

347 Madison Avenue 
New York City 

Gentlemen. — I with to know more about the splendid work the Y.M. C. A. it 
doing for our boys, and accept your Special Limited Offer of .ASSOCIATION 
\ MEN (the Y. M. C. A. Magazine) 10 months for $1.00. 
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per year 



Town_ 
Stale_ 



one so thoroughly calculated to meet 
the needs of a vast and growing popula- 
tion." Referring to war conditions, 
Mr. Wacker said that 

at no time in the history of our nation has 
it been more important than now to in- 
augurate and carry to speedy completion 
great humanitarian and sound economic pro- 
jects. After the war, more than ever, there 
will be needed public improvements that 
will give the people more light, air, recrea- 
tion, health and freedom from congestion — 
improvements that will tend to their general 
health, happiness and well being, in order 
that they may remain a strong, virile and 
capable people. 

CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF 
RETARDATION 

CINCINNATI public schools are 
exceptionally equipped in special 
opportunities for backward children, 
and in the psychological examination of 
such children. Some of the things that 
the city has done in this field were de- 
scribed in the Survey for August 9, 
1913, and for November 4, 1916, by 
Helen T. Woolley, director of the psy- 
chological laboratory in the Vocation 
Bureau of the Cincinnati public schools. 
Nevertheless of every five children who 
leave the schools of that city, three have 
failed at least once according to the re- 
port of a survey just published by the 
Helen S. Trounstine Foundation, of 
that city. Of the children who fail, 
one-third fail at least three times. In 
the upper grades, over half of all the 
children are retarded. 

This startling amount of retardation 
is revealed in a report just published by 
the Helen S. Trounstine Foundation, of 
Cincinnati. [Studies from the Helen 
S. Trounstine Foundation: Retardation 
in Cincinnati Public Elementary 
Schools. Vol. 1, No. 1.] The retarda- 
tion is startling, the report maintains, 
only in itself and not by comparison 
with other cities. The causes of it were 
sought through the intensive study of 
656 children who failed in ten schools 
in 1914-1915. 

The first outstanding fact discovered 
was that children who failed were ab- 
sent an average of twenty-five days, as 
compared with an average absence of 
only five days for children who passed. 
More than half of those who failed were 
absent three weeks or over during the 
year. Absence thus stood out as the 
leading immediate cause of retarda- 
tion. Illness was reported as the cause 
of four-fifths of the absences. 

Next in importance as causes of fail- 
ure were feeblemindedness and dullness. 
About one-eighth of the children who 
failed were definitely feebleminded, an- 
other eighth being inferior mentally. 

As compared with the general run of 
children examined by the school physi- 
cians, those who failed had twice as 
many physical detects. Anemia, pre- 
tuberculous conditions and defective ion- 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, igi 



135 



sils and adenoids, were ten times as fre- 
quent among those who failed as among 
the successful. 

Poverty seems to have been an under- 
lying cause of both sickness and physi- 
cal defects. Two-thirds of the children, 
says the report, came from families with 
incomes insufficient to maintain a normal 
standard of living. Overcrowding was 
frequent, 62 per cent of the families 
living in three rooms or less. Not more 
than one child in four came from a home 
containing a bath tub. 

Failures were four times as frequent 
in history, language, arithmetic and 
geography as in household and industrial 
arts. In some schools one child out of 
five failed, while in others, without any 
apparent reason, only one out of ten or 
one out of fifteen failed. 

The remedies recommended for re- 
tardation, aside from the underlying 
necessity for establishing minimum 
standards of living for all families, are 
founded upon a recommendation for in- 
tensive study of all children who fail. 
Every such child, the report urges, 
should be examined physically, mentally 
and socially, to get at the individual 
causes for failure. Where retardation 
is a health problem, reconstructive and 
preventive steps should be taken. Where 
mental deficiency is the cause, children 
who are not fit subjects for institutional 
segregation should be frankly accepted, 
the report contends, as future members 
of the unskilled labor class, and their 
education should be adapted not to prep- 
aration for professional careers, but to 
fitting them as well as they are capable 
of being fitted for happy and successful 
manual toil. 

The original data in this survey were 
collected by Helen S. Trounstine, in 
whose memory the foundation was 
created. The retardation data were 
analyzed and the report prepared by 
Hornell Hart, who has been engaged 
by the foundation as research fellow. 

THE CARE OF CHILDREN IN 
DELAWARE 

FROM the time when the English, 
Dutch, and Swedes first settled in 
the three counties of Delaware, the 
population of that state has been for the 
most part resident. Only within the 
past decade have outsiders in numbers 
been coming in, to accept positions 
offered in munition work and shipbuild- 
ing. Naturally, the people of Delaware 
have been settled in their ways. Evi- 
dence has been accumulating, how- 
ever, of Delaware's social-mindedness. 
For example, she recently set herself to 
meet the problem of her feebleminded ; 
aided by studies conducted by the fed- 
eral Children's Bureau, she has taken 
steps to establish a state school for these 
unfortunates. Also, the Children's 
Bureau of Delaware has been formed 




The Greatest Mother m ^^vvOrld 



Stretching forth her hands to all in need — to Jew or Gentile, 
black or white, knowing no favorite, yet favoring all. 

Seeing all things with a mother's sixth sense that's blind to 
jealousy and meanness; helping the little home that's crushed 
beneath an iron hand by showing mercy in a healthy, human 
way; rebuilding it, in fact, with stone on stone and bringing 
warmth to hearts and hearths too long neglected. 

Reaching out her hands across the sea to No Man's Land; 
to heal and comfort thousands who must fight and bleed in 
crawling holes and watepsoaked entrenchments where cold and 
wet bite deeper, so they write, than Boche steel or lead. 

She's warming thousands, feeding thousands, healing thou- 
sands from her store; the Greatest Mother in 
the World-the RED CROSS. 



+ 



Every Dollar of a Red Cross War Fund goes to 
War Relief 



v 




This space contributed to the Winning of the War by 

American Telephone & Telegraph Company, New York 

through t':e Division of Advertising, U. S. Gov't Committee on Public Information 



within the year to effect a coordination 
among her organizations for dependent, 
delinquent, and defective children. Find- 
ing that it lacked the data necessary for 
intelligent action, the bureau invited the 
Russell Sage Foundation to make a 
study of these classes and to suggest a 
state-wide program for their future care. 
C. Spencer Richardson, of the depart- 
ment of child-helping, made the survey. 
It was found, among other things, 
that fifteen children's organizations are 



operating with little or no reference to 
each other. There is no state board of 
charities or similar body to check up 
their work. In Wilmington a juvenile 
court deals with delinquents, but 
throughout the rest of the state juvenile 
cases are heard by local magistrates un- 
der the same conditions as adults. Chil- 
dren are allowed to live in the three 
county almshouses. The main placing- 
out agency in the states has a staff of 
one person, who is called upon to make 



136 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 19 18 



The "C. R. B." 

in Belgium 



FIGHTING STARVATION IN BELGIUM 

By Vernon Kellogg of the Commission for Relief in Belgium 

Writing from a first hand knowledge, this "man of a million duties" gives the 
official, authentic account of how the C. R. B. answered stricken Belgium's cry: — 
managing mills; employing an army of bakers; feeding millions every day, at the 
rate of 8 cents per person; delivering 2% million tons of supplies and, incidentally 
winning for America the eternal gratitude of the Belgian people. It is a marvel- 
ously inspiring story and one future historians will consult. Net $1.25. 

TALES FROM A FAMISHED LAND 

By Edward Eyre Hunt of the C. R. B. 

Tales which grew out of the heart-rending experience of an American who 
served on the Commission for Relief in Belgium. Stories exquisitely told of heal- 
ing and second sight in a peasant hut ; of love in a barge and tragedy and farce in 
a Brussels dance hall; of folk-lore and wayside adventure. Net $1.25. 



DOUBLEDAY 
PAGE & CO. 



GARDEN CITY 
NEW YORK 



Course for Public Health Nurses 

IN THE 

School of Applied Social Sciences 

WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY 

Cleveland, Ohio 
September, 1918 —June, 1919 

Lectures, required reading, case discussion, excursions and field work compose 
an important part of the Course. 

Training in field work is obtained in the University Public Health Nursing Dis- 
trict, which has been established in a section of the city where a great variety of 
problems is offered for study and treatment. 

Work in this district includes general visiting nursing; the care of the sick and 
well baby, of tuberculosis and contagious diseases ; field work in the Districts of 
the Associated Charities and with the staff of School Nurses. Opportunities for 
experience in rural nursing may be arranged for. 

A distinguishing feature of the Course is the responsible field work conducted for 
its educational value under the close supervision of a staff of instructors, all of 
whom have held positions of responsibility in Public Health Nursing. 

Loan scholarships from $125.00 to $500.00 are available at special rates. Tuition, 
$125.00. For further information apply to 

MISS CECILIA A. EVANS, 2739 Orange Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 



NOTE: Graduates in Public Health Nursing are in great demand. Requests for nurses 
thus qualified are in excess of supply. Promising candidates are frequently assisted in obtaining 
positions paying not less than $1,200.00 per year. 
Other Divisions of this School are: 

Family Welfare and Social Service. 
Municipal Administration and Public Service. 
For general information, address 

PROFESSOR J. E. CUTLER, Dean 



DO YOU NEED EARLY VOLUMES OF THE 
SURVEY FOR YOUR LIBRARY FILE? 

If so, write us at once. We have available in unbound form volumes 
XIII to XXXII inclusive and in bound form volumes III, VII, VIII, 
IX, XIII, XIX, XX, XXI, XXII. We can also furnish recent volumes 
either bound or unbound. 

THE SURVEY, 112 East 19 St., New York 



preliminary investigations, place out the 
children, supervise them, raise funds, 
keep records and conduct the corres- 
pondence — all this with 205 wards at 
present in the society's care. An orphan- 
age for the colored shows an annual per 
capita expenditure for maintenance of 
exactly $36, while boys in it sleep three 
in a bed under odd bits of carpeting and 
burlap ; it loses by death an average of 
10 per cent of its population every year. 

On the other hand progressive fea- 
tures were found. The Wilmington 
Juvenile Court has firmly established it- 
self within six years. A psychopathic 
clinic in connection with this court has 
been maintained by private subscription 
during the past year. The reforma- 
tories for boys and girls are cottage 
institutions, comparing favorably with 
those in many other states. Last year a 
law was passed providing mothers' pen- 
sions. The legislature also regulated the 
importation of feebleminded into the 
state. Most important of all, perhaps, 
is the deep interest throughout the state 
in the welfare of children. 

Mr. Richardson's study shows that 
the children's organizations in Delaware 
are adequate in number and that the 
present need is to strengthen, extend, 
and unite them. Three groups of col- 
ored children are now uncared for: de- 
linquent colored girls; babies under 
three years of age ; babies of unmarried 
mothers. In each case it is possible to 
provide care by extending the work of 
existing organizations. 

A plan for cooperation is suggested by 
Mr. Richardson under which the chil- 
dren's bureau of the state shall provide 
for the various institutions a preliminary 
case study of children, including investi- 
gation of family homes and medical and 
psychological examinations ; supervision 
of those who have left institutions; 
preparation of uniform records; con- 
ducting of conferences for the institu- 
tions ; and a confidential exchange. 

Further recommendations refer to the 
extension of the juvenile court system 
throughout the state under one judge 
and the conferring upon it of jurisdic- 
tion over adults in non-support and con- 
tributory delinquency cases; the central- 
izing of placing-out, now carried on by 
ten local organizations and the juvenile 
court; the completion of the state school 
for the feebleminded ; legislation against 
the presence of children in the alms- 
houses; the improving of institutional 
administration ; the creation of a state 
board of charities or similar organization 
with adequate powers ; and, finally, the 
securing through the governor of a chil- 
dren's code commission to draw up a 
well-balanced set of child welfare hills 
for presentation at the 1919 session of 
the legislature. 

Already the last recommendation is 

[Continued on page 138] 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 19 18 137 



What Health Education 
Has Accomplished 

T TEALTH education has been one of the chief 
agencies in the reduction of mortality among 
more than 10,000,000 Industrial policyholders of the 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. 

Over 36,000,000 copies of simply written, illus- 
trated health literature, printed in seven languages, 
have been distributed annually in 4,000,000 homes 
during the last eight years. 

This instruction, together with more than 
1,000,000 visits to sick policyholders each year, 
resulted in a reduction of mortality of nearly 7 
per cent, in the 6 years, 1911-1916. 

8,600 Lives Were Saved 

in 1916 (compared with 1911 mortality) largely as 
a result of health education, nursing of the sick and 
other health activities. 

The percentage reduction in mortality from 
preventable diseases is greater among the Company's 
policy holders than in the general population of the 
Registration Area of the United States. 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



138 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 1918 



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HARDWARE, TOOLS and SUPPLIES 
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"Why the Nations Rage" 

ind otlMT Unitarian publications ion! fret. address FIRST 
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For Employers in War- 
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17 XPERT advice on labor prob- 
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relations, employment methods, labor 
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•'CONSULTANT," care Survey. 



[Continued from page 136] 
being carried out. Governor Townsend, 
who has shown full sympathy with pro- 
gressive social movements, has signified 
his willingness to appoint a commission 
of five members with the understanding 
that the expenses be met from private 
sources. Of the three children's code 
commissions created during the past five 
years, Ohio's was established and fi- 
nanced by the legislature and those in 
Missouri and Minnesota were appointed 
by the governors without legislation and 
expenses were met privately. 

It is expected that the legislative pro- 
gram to be advocated by the Delaware 
commission will cover much the same 
ground as in Ohio, Missouri, and Min- 
nesota, and will have reference not only 
to children who must be cared for out- 
side of their own homes but to normal 
children as well. The commission's 
recommendations will doubtless differ 
in regard to administrative machinery. 
Since Delaware has but 215,000 inhabi- 
tants and an area of 1,965 square miles, 
the administrative system may well be 
simple and economical and yet consistent 
with efficiency. 

FURTHER WORK OF NEW 
YORK LEGISLATURE 

NEW YORK is the latest state to 
provide for the medical examina- 
tion of persons suspected of having a 
venereal infection. In addition to di- 
recting health officers to hold such ex- 
aminations whenever they have "rea- 
sonable ground" to believe that a person 
within their jurisdiction is suffering 
from infection, the m -asure (which has 
already been signed by the governor) 
requires that all prostitutes and persons 
convicted of frequenting disorderly 
houses shall be reported to the health 
department for examination. If nec- 
essary, they are to be isolated for treat- 
ment, which shall be supplied free of 
cost to persons unable to pay. Another 
bill passed by the legislature, which it is 
believed will be signed, creates a bureau 
of venereal diseases in the State Depart- 
ment of Health. 

A bill establishing a new state com- 
mission for the care of the feebleminded 
lias also been signed by the governor. 
This commission is to consist of the fis- 
cal supervisor of state charities, the sec- 
retary of the State Board of Charities 
and one other member who must be a 
physician. The medical member is chair- 
man and receives $5,000 a year. The 
commission is directed to take a state 
census of the feebleminded, to provide 
accommodations for such as require care 
and treatment, to establish farm and in- 
dustrial colonies and to administer the 
law relative to the care and treatment of 
the feebleminded. [For other results of 
the New York legislative session see the 
Survey for April 20, page 73.] 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, rgi8 



139 



JOTTINGS 



SALVATION army uniforms, the white 
lawn sleeves of bishops and every conceiv- 
able variety of clerical garb between were 
to be seen intermingled at the first joint serv- 
ice of all divisions of Christianity held on 
Good Friday in Hyde Park, London. On a 
platform built of wagons, fifty representative 
leaders from all the churches, bareheaded in 
spite of rain, conducted this united service, 
another witness of the unity of the people 
in its present stress and sacrifice. 



INCREASES in teachers' salaries, amount- 
ing to more than $4,000,000 a year, have 
been asked for in a report submitted to the 
Board of Education of New York city by the 
Teachers' Council. The report says that 
"the lure of better pay in other occupations 
demanding far less preparation and calling 
for much less exacting service has become so 
apparent that unless provision for better re- 
muneration to teachers is immediately made 
there will be a steady and increasing dimi- 
nution in the number of applicants for teach- 
ing service." 



AFTER having been out more than forty 
hours, the jury in the case against Max 
Eastman, editor of the Masses, and several 
other members of the staff and contributors, 
were unable to agree and were dismissed by 
Judge Augustus N. Hand in the United States 
District Court in New York city. Mr. East- 
man and his colleagues were indicted last 
November under the espionage act for al- 
leged conspiracy to discourage recruiting and 
enlistment. The case will have to be tried 
over, probably during June. 



INTERNATIONAL relations, more par- 
ticularly those between West and East, 
formed the subject of a series of conferences 
held at Berkeley recently in connection with 
the fifty years' jubilee of the University of 
California. Prof. Masabasu Anesaki, of the 
Imperial University of Japan, J. W. Mullen, 
editor of the San Francisco Labor Clarion, 
and Walter McArthur, United States ship- 
ping commissioner at San Francisco, among 
others, discussed the relation between this 
country and Japan and the attitude of that 
country towards the rest of the allies and 
China. A committee was appointed to ar- 
range for another conference in 1919, to be 
held in Hawaii or Japan on lines similar 
to the conference at Long Beach, N. Y., last 
year. 



IN the death of Joseph Schaffner, April 19, 
Chicago and the Middle West lost a citi- 
zen who combined influential business re- 
lations with broad social vision. He was 
a member of the wholesale clothing manu- 
facturing firm of Hart, Schaffner & Marx, 
noted throughout the country for its demo- 
cratic and effective agreement with its em- 
ployes for the settlement of industrial dis- 
putes. Of this agreement Mr. Schaffner 
was known to have remarked that in all 
his long business experience nothing had 
given him greater satisfaction. Prominent 
among the noteworthy people at his funeral 
were Sidney Hillman, president of the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of Am- 
erica, who formerly represented the em- 
ployes of the firm, when he was one of 
them, on the trade board charged with the 
operation of this agreement. In his funeral 



oration at Sinai Temple, Rabbi Emil G. 
Hirsch paid high tribute to Mr. Schaffner 
as a business man whose prosperity had not 
dulled or dwarfed his sense of justice and 
his devotion to the public welfare. He was 
prominent in the affairs of the City Club, 
was a trustee of Northwestern University 
and was personally identified with the 
founding of the prizes for economic essays 
that his firm has offered for several years 
under the direction of Prof. J. Laurence 
Laughlin, of the University of Chicago. 



THOUGH a business man, Rudolph Blan- 
kenburg, former mayor of Philadelphia, who 
died recently in his seventy-sixth year, made 
a name for himself as a social reformer long 



before he occupied an official position. In 
1892 he went to Russia with a shipload of 
flour, which Philadelphians sent to relieve 
famine; and for many years he was chair- 
man of the Permanent Relief Committee. In 
1905 he was elected county commissioner and 
in 19,12 mayor. During his term of office 
he carried to a high point of perfection a 
system of administration in which expert di- 
rection and emancipation from party ma- 
chinery were happily blended with the pur- 
suit of democratic ideals. He was the first 
"reform" mayor of Philadelphia for nearly 
thirty years; and the physical as well as the 
financial and administrative improvement of 
the city under his regime will remain his 
lasting monument. 




THE PUBLIC in its editorials and special articles 
interprets for its reader the developments of the day 
in Washington and in the European centers where his- 
tory is being made — and always with relation to their 

bearing on democracy THE PUBLIC 

Authoritative special articles in recent issues of The 122 e. 37th St., New York, n.y. 

Public have covered — "Newspapers in Wartime," by a radi- Send me The Public for 26 weeks' 

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A striking proof of the quality of the subscribers to "THE 
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"THE NATION" is a weekly journal for clear thinkers. Its con- 
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" THE NATION " has behind it an honorable history of more than 
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140 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 1918 



Home and Institutional Economics 

FOR OUR READERS INTERESTED IN HOME ECONOMICS, 
HOME MAKING AND INSTITUTION MANAGEMENT. 



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two hours a day more for War Relief Work." — 

Mrs. W. L. G. 
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difference to enthusiasm and gives the efficiency 
attitude of mind that masters all difficulties. 

The 12 Parts— 40 to 60 Pages 

1. Labor Saving Kitchen. 7. Family Finance Records. 

2. Plans and Methods. 8. Household Purchasing. 

3. Helpful Household Tools. 9. Servantless Household. 

4. Methods of Cleaning. 10. Management of Servants 

5. Food Planning. 1 1 . House Planning. 

6. The Practical Laundry. 12. Personal Efficiency. 

Housekeepers who want more spare time, who 
wish increased efficiency and new interest in their 
daily work are invited to investigate without charge. 
Write a postcard or note or clip: 

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I wish to investigate your new course 'Household 

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the lessons sent within 10 days and pay nothing. 
Otherwise I will send $8.00 in full (or) 50c and $1.00 
per month until $8.50 in all is paid. 

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By R. R. Reeder 

Superintendent of the Cottage Homes and School of 
the Orphan Asylum Society in the City of New York. 

An illuminating study of life and education in a 
cottage institution. 

Price $1.25. By mail, $1.35 

THE SURVEY 

112 East 19 Street New York 



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Mattress Protectors are necessary for cleanliness of 
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No good housekeeper considers her bed rightly 
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HOUSES SUPPLYING INSTITUTIONAL TRADE 


Dry Goods 

FREDERICK LOESER & CO. 
484 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Hardware, Tools and Supplies 
HAMMACHER, SCHLEMMER & 

Fourth Ave., Thirteenth St., New York 


Groceries 

SEE MAN BROS. 
Hudson and North Moore Sts., New York 


Electric Clock Systems 

LOCKWOOD & ALMQTJIST, Inc. 
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THE SURVEY FOR MAY 4, 19 18 



141 



Classified Advertisements 



WORKERS WANTED 

OSHKOSH, Wisconsin, Associated 
Charities, wants competent secretary. 

WANTED— A Settlement Director by a 
neighborhood center in a large eastern city. 
Address 2763 Survey. 

WANTED — Jewish case worker as resi- 
dent by Philadelphia child-caring agency. 
Address 2764 Survey. 

YOUNG man for Director of Men's and 
Boys' work at Jewish Educational Alliance, 
1216 E. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Md. 
Salary, eighty dollars monthly and room. 
Write, Mr. Jess Perlman, Resident Di- 
rector. 

WANTED — Working Housekeeper — 
good character, good health, for position 
in a country home institution. Address 
2773 Survey. 

WANTED — Matron for boys' home, 
sixty boys from ten to fifteen years. Lo- 
cated in county. Address 2776 Survey. 

FOR ILLINOIS RESIDENTS 
Examinations June 22. Unassembled, fol- 
lowed by oral interview. 
JUNIOR ASSISTANT PSYCHOLOGIST 
$75 to $100 a month with maintenance. 

SOCIAL SERVICE FIELD WORKER 
$75 to $100 a month with maintenance. 
Write Illinois State Civil Service Com- 
mission, Room 533, Statehouse, Springfield, 
Illinois. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

CAMP Director — experienced in branches, 
college graduate and physical training in- 
structor, seeks position for summer. Ad- 
dress 2770 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE — Director of non-secta- 
rian Americanization agency in large city, 
experienced in settlement, social center, 
research and legislative work, desires ex- 
ecutive position in organization or neigh- 
borhood center field. Address 2775 Survey. 

SECRETARY— Expert stenographer. 
Manuscript and secretarial work handled 
with accuracy and initiative. Seven years 
experience. Educated in England. Secre- 
taryship or journalistic post desired. Ad- 
dress 2777 Survey. 

ABLE woman speaker and organizer de- 
sires connection with public movement. Ad- 
dress 2778 Survey. 

LEADER of varied and successful ex- 
perience in community dramatics, pageants 
and other recreation desires position. Ad- 
dress 2779 Survey. 

HOUSE mother (under-graduate nurse) 
desires position child-caring institution. 
Experienced child helping work; house- 
keeping. Address 2780 Survey. 

HOUSE mother desires position child- 
caring institution. Address 2781 Survey. 



HOUSEKEEPER for institutions, man- 
aging ; qualified in all branches ; excellent 
references. Address 2782 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE — Jewish young man, Uni- 
versity and Philanthropy school graduate, 
experienced in relief, research and Ameri- 
canization work, seeks position as head of 
philanthropic organization. Well qualified 
and highly recommended. Ready May 15. 
Address 2783 Survey. 



MISCELLANEOUS 

TEACHER of much experience and abil- 
ity with mental defectives desires a pupil 
after June first. Address 2771 Survey. 

TWO women,, one a social worker, want 
by June first, small unfurnished apartment, 
preferably where meals are served in house. 
Below 110th St., New York City. Address 
2774 Survey. 

VICTORIAN ORDER OF NURSES: 

Post-Graduate course in District Nursing, 
four months, is given at the four training 
centres of the Order at Ottawa, Montreal, 
Toronto and Vancouver. Salary during the 
course and good openings after successful 
terminations. For full information apply to 
the Chief Superintendent, 578 Somerset St., 
Ottawa. 



TO RENT 



BERKSHIRE CAMPING FARM 

Heart of Berkshires ; altitude, 1,800 ft.; 
3 bungalows furnished for camping; 1 
mile from trolley; trolley and auto con- 
nection with two railroad lines. Price, 
$1,800. Rent for four months, $100. 

Apply, Helen Marot. 206 W. 13th St., New York 



Ask for the Index 

THE index for Volume XXXIX of the 
SURVEY (October. 1917-March. 1918), 
is now in press. It will be sent free on 
request. Libraries and others on our index 
mailing list for other volumes will receive 
this one without further request. Volume, 
stoutly bound in red cloth with leather cor- 
ners. $2.50 : subscribers' copies bound at 
$1.50; carriage extra. 

THE SURVEY, 
112 East 19 Street, New York 



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AT DEALERS 
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Branches: Chicago, London 
271 Ninth Street Brooklyn, N. Y. 




CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



Listings fifty cents a lint, four weekly insertions, 
copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Order pamphlets from publishers. 

The British Co-operative Movement. By Harry 
W. Laidler. 16 pp. 5 cents. Published by The 
Co-operative League of America, 2 West 13th St., 
New York. 

Criminal Slang. Complete underworld language 
dictionary. Paper. 30 pp. 25 cents stamps or 
silver. Sent, postpaid, receipt of price. Under- 
world Publishing Co., 180 Washington St., 
Boston, Mass. 

The Disgrace of Democracy. An Open Letter to 
President Wilson by Prof. Kelly Miller. "The 
best argument that any Southerner, white or 
black, has contributed to American Governmental 
theory in a half century." — Editor Smart Set, 
in the Evening Mail. 10 cts. a single copy. On 
orders over ten, 5 cts. a copy. Address Kelly 
Miller, Howard University, Washington, D. C. 

Girls and Khaki. Winthrop D. Lane. 'Reprinted 
from the Survey. 10 cts. Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Helping Hoover. A Business Man's Synopsis of 
Food Values, Food Combinations and Simplified 
Dietetics. Free on request from Richard Mayer, 
200 Summer St., Boston. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Wheatless — Meatless Meals. 84 menus, 124 
recipes, directions, food values, substitutes, timely 
suggestions, etc. 10c, or FREE for two names 
interested in Domestic Science. Am. School of 
Home Economics, 519 W. 69th St., Chicago, 111. 

The Wheels of Organized Charity: or The 
Work op a District Committee. 5 cts. a copy; 
15 for 50 cts. Address Charity Organization 
Society, Buffalo. 

You Should Know About Credit Unions. A 
manual furnished gratis upon request. Massa- 
chusetts Credit Union Association, 78 Devon- 
shire Street, Boston. 



PERIODICALS 

Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

American Physical Education Review; nine issues 
(October to June) ; $3; official organ for the Amer- 
ican Physical Education Association. Original 
articles of scientific and practical value, news 
notes, bibliographies and book reviews. Amer- 
ican Physical Education Association, 93 West- 
ford Avenue, Springfield, Mass. 

The Child Labor Bulletin; quarterly; $2 a year; 
National Child Labor Committee, New York. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; published 
by The National Committee for Mental Hy- 
giene. 50 Union Square, New York. 

The Negro Year Book; published under the aus- 
pices of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.; an 
annual; 35c. postpaid; permanent record of cur- 
rent events. An encyclopedia of 450 pages of 
historical and sociological facts relating to the 
Negro. General and special bibliographies; full 
index. 

Public Health Nurse; quarterly; $1 a year; na 
tional organ for Public Health Nursing, 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. 

Southern Workman, illustrated monthly; $1 for 
700 pages on race relations here and abroad; 
Hampton Institute, Va. Sample copy free. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 



COMING MEETINGS 



Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Community Center Association, National. Pitts- 
burgh, first week July. John Collier, pres. ; sec'y, 
Ed. L. Burchard, 617 C St., Washington, D. C. 

National Tuberculosis Association. Boston, 
June 6-8. Ass't sec'y, Philip P. Jacobs, 381 
Fourth avenue, New York city. 



142 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



s»»» 




Associates 
Inc. 



KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you want to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed ; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply) and 
pamphlets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



"H l 



WARTIME SERVICE 
*OW the Survey can serve" 

was the subject of an infor- 
mal conference held early in the war, 
in our library, to which we asked the 
executives of perhaps twenty national 
social service organizations. The con- 
ference was a unit in feeling that as a 
link between organized efforts, as a 
means for letting people throughout 
the country know promptly of needs 
and national programs — how, when 
and where they can count locally — the 
Survey was at the threshold of an 
opportunity for service such as has 
seldom come to an educational enter- 
prise. 

The development of this directory is 
one of several steps in carrying out 
this commission. The executives of 
these organizations will answer ques- 
tions or offer counsel to individuals 
and local organizations in adjusting 
their work to emergent wartime de- 
mands. 



Listings $3 a month for card of five lines (in- 
cluding one listing in SUBJECT INDEX by full 
name and three by initials), fifty cents a month 
for each additional line. No contracts for less 
than three months. Additional charge of $1 for 
each change of copy during three-month period. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Animals, Amer. Humane Education Soc. 
Athletics, Amer. Phy. Education Assn. 
Birth Registration, AAsriM. 
Blindness, Ncpb. 
("ancer, Ascc. 
Charities, Ncsw. 



CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Sbo. 

CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Child Welf. Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept of Child Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Praa. 

CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

General War-Time Commission of the Churches. 

CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Bureau of Municipal Research 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Commission Government, Sbo. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 
Correction, Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 

COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca. 
County Ywca. 

Credit Unions, Mass. Credit Union Assn. 

Crime, Sa. 

Cripples, Red Cross Inst, for Crippled and 

Disabled Men. 
Disfranchisement, Naacp. 

EDUCATION 

Amer. Humane Education Soc. 
Amer. Physical Education Assn. 
Cooperative League of America. 
Natl. Board of the Ywca. 
Public Ownership League of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 
Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 

Efficiency Work. Bmr. 

Electoral Reform, Ti, Aprl. 

'■ mplovment, Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Eugenics, Er, Rbf. 

Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb. 

Feeblemindedness, N'cuH. 

FOUNDATIONS 

Race Betterment Foundation. 
Kussell Sage Foundation. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Amer. Red Cross. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl. Or*, for Public Health Nursing. 

Ncsw, Ncwa, Rbp. 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
Home Economics, Area. 
Home Work, Nclc. 
Hospitals, Naspt. 
Humane Education, Ahes. 
Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca, Apea. 

IMMIGRATION 

Im. Aid, Council of Jewish Worn. 

International Institute for Foreign-born Women 

of the Ywca. 
Industrial Education, Rcicdm. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 
Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 
Natl. Child Labor Com. 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 
k ivey Associates, Ind. Dept. 
Ncsw, Ncwa, Nlws. 

Insanity, Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Anti-Imperialist League. 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 

Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
labor Laws, Aall., NcLC. 
Legislative Reform. Aprl. 



LIBRARIES 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 

Mental Hygiene, Cpfm, Ncmh. 

Mountain Whites, Rsp. 

Municipal Government, Aprl, Nps. 

Negro Training, Hi, Ti. 

Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 

Nursing, Apha, Nophn. 

Open Air Schools, Naspt. 

Peace, Ail. 

Peonage, Naacp. 

Playgrounds, Praa. 

Physical Training, Apea, Praa. 

Prostitution. Asha. 

Protection Women Workers, Ntas. 

Public Health, Nophn. 

Race Betterment, Er. 

RACE PROBLEMS 
Er, Ail, Rbf. 
Hampton Institute. 
Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peon. 
Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 
Tuskegee Institute. 

Reconstruction, Ncsw. 



RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 
Nbywca, Nwwcymca, Apea. 



REMEDIAL LOANS 
Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans, Mcua 

Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Savings, Mcua. 
Self-Government, Nlww, Ail. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Nat. Fed. of Settlements. 

Sex Education, Asha. 
Schools, Ahea, Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Social Hygiene, Asha. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Servico, Fcooa. 
Nwwcymca, Pola. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 
Bureau of Municipal Research. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. S»r. sad Ex. 
Ncmh, Praa, Ncwa. 

Thrift, Mcua. 

TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers Aid Society. 
Iacjw. 

Tuberculosis Naspt. 

Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsp. 

Unemployment, Aall. 

WAR RELIEF 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of Ywca 
Gwcc, Nwwcymca, Rcicdm. 

WOMEN 

Amer. Home Economics Assn. 

Natl. Board of the Y. W. C. A. 

Natl. League for Woman's Service . 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. « 

Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Work for Soldiers, Natl. War Work Connn 

Y. M. C. Assns. of U. S., Gwcc. 
Working Girls, Iacjw, Ntas, Nlww. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION — John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St., 
New York. For national employment service foe 
mobilizing and demobilizing war workers; maia- 
taining labor standards; workmen's compensation; 
health insurance; efficient law enforcement. 

AMERICAN ASSN. FOR STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertnwjs 
B. Knipp. exec, sec'v; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature. Exhibits. Urges prenatal in- 
struction; adequate obstetrical care; birth registra- 
tion; maternal nursing; infant welfare consultations. 



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THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 

— Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y, Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
tions in home, school, institution and community. 
Publishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN HUMANE EDUCATION SOCIETY 

— Founded by Geo. T. Angell. To promote kindness 
to animals through schools, press, and societies for 
young and old. Organ, Our Dumb Animals. Free 
literature. 180 Longwood Ave., Boston. 

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION— William Burdick, M.D., pres., McCoy 
Hall, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Persis B. McCurdy, 
acting sec'y, 93 Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 
Object to awaken a wider and more intelligent 
interest in physical education. Annual member- 
chip fee $3 includes magazine. 

AMERICAN PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TION LEAGUE— C. G. Hoag, secy; 802 Franklin 
Bank Building, Philadelphia. Advocates a rational 
and fundamental reform in electing representatives. 
Literature free. Membership $1. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION— William F. Snow, M.D., gen. sec'y; 
10S W. 40 St., New York. For the repression 
of prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotion of sound sex education; pam- 
phlets upon request; membership $5; sustaining 
$10. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Miss Marion H. Mapelsden, acting 
exec, sec'y; 25 W. 45 St., New York. To dissemi- 
nate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free on 
request. Annual membership dues, $3. 

ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE— Founded Nov. 

19, 1898. Moorfield Storey, pres. (first pres., 
George S. Boutwell) ; David Greene Haskins, Jr., 
treas., 10 Tremont St., Boston; Erving Winslow, 
sec'y. Object: To protest and agitate against ex- 
tension of sovereignty over peoples, without their 
own consent. 

BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH— 261 

Broadway, New York. Has a department of field 
work to make surveys of governments and institu- 
tions anywhere at cost. Efficiency systems in- 
stalled. Twelve years' experience. Estimates fur- 
nished. 

COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 

H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St., New York. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice concerning all phases of 
consumers' cooperation. Annual membership, $1, 
includes monthly, Cooperative Consumer. 

IMMIGRANT AID, COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL)— Headquarters, 242 East 
Broadway, New York. Helen Winkler, ch'n. 
Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. Has international system of safeguarding. 
Conducts National Americanization program. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic pos- 
sibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
gen'l sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service; 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Miss Grace 
W. Sims, office sec'y. 

Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 

Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 
Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life- Rev 
Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Strengthen America Campaign, Charles Stelzle, mgr. 

S^?tS?;^, ct WAK - TIME COMMISSION OF THE 

H .Y R CHES— Constituted by the Federal Council 
ot the Churches of Christ in America. Robert E 
i P j er c ™, m; Wil,iam Ada